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Association

Korelasi
• Korelasi di samping dapat untuk mengetahui
derajat/keeratan hubungan juga untuk mengetahui arah
hubungan dua variabel numerik. Misalnya, apakah
hubungan berat badan dan tekanan darah mempunyai
derajat yang kuat atau lemah, dan juga apakah kedua
variabel tersebut berpola positif atau negatif.

• Secara sederhana/visual hubungan dua variabel dapat


dilihat dari diagram tebar/pencar (scatter plot). Diagram
tebar adalah grafik yang menunjukkan titik-titik
perpotongan nilai data dari dua variabel (X dan Y). Pada
umumnya dalam grafik, variabel independen (X)
diletakkan pada garis horizontal sedangkan variabel
dependen (Y) pada garis vertical.
Linear positif Linear Negatif

Nilai korelasi (r) berkisar 0 sampai dengan 1 atau dengan disertai arah nilainya antara -1
s/d +1
r = 0  tidak ada hubungan linier
r = -1  hubungan linier negatif sempurna
r = +1  hubungan linier positif sempurna
• Hubungan positif terjadi bila kenaikan satu diikuti kenaikan
variabel yang lain, misalnya semakin bertambah berat
badannya (semakin gemuk) semakin tinggi tekanan
darahnya.
• Hubungan negatif dapat terjadi bila kenaikan satu variabel
diikuti penurunan variabel yang lain, misalnya semakin
bertambah umur (semakin tua) semakin rendah kadar Hb-
nya.
• Kekuatan hubungan dua variabel secara kualitatif dapat
dibagi dalam 4, yaitu :
r = 0,00 – 0,25  tidak ada hubungan/hubungan lemah
r = 0,26 – 0,50  hubungan sedang
r = 0,51 – 0,75  hubungan kuat
r = 0,76 – 1,00  hubungan sangat kuat/sempurna
Things to consider in order to
decide type of test use in the
analysis
 Research question difference or association
 Type/level of measurement of dependent
variable (Y) and independent variable (X)
continuous (interval/ratio) or categorical
(nominal/ordinal)
 Distribution of the data normal or not
(continuous)
Dependent/Independe Continuous Continuous Categoric
Association
nt Normal Not Normal al

Continuous Pearson Corr Spearman


Normal Corr

Not normal Spearman Spearman


Corr Corr
Categorical Chi-square
Difference
Dependent/Independent
Categorical
2 groups
Categorical
>2 groups

Continuous T-Test ANOVA


Normal

Not normal Mann-Whitney Kruskal-Wallis


Regressi on
Dependent/Independe Continuou Continuous Dichoto Categorica
nt s Normal mous l
Normal >1 var
1 var

Continuous Linear Reg Multiple


Normal Linear Reg

Dichotomous Logistic Logistic Logistic Logistic


Reg Reg Reg Reg
Output
 P-value (α=5%)
 Sig: significance
 Asymp. Sig: Asymptotic significance
 <0.05significant
 >=0.05not significant

 1-sided vs 2-sided
Normality: Kolmogorov-Smirnov
(K-S) Test

 Analyze  Analyze
 Descriptive statistics  Nonparametric tests
 Explore  1-Sample K-S
 Entry variable  Test variable list
 Plots  OK
 Dependent list
 Normality plots with
tests
 OK
Normality: Kolmogorov-
Smirnov (K-S) Test
 Normal : p-value ≥ 0.05
 Not normal : p-value < 0.05
Task 3
 Check normality:
 household size,
 BMI
 nutritional knowledge
 energy and protein adequacy level
Association
Y continuous, X continuous correlation
 Pearson : Y and X normal
 Spearman : Y or X or both not normal
Y categorical, X categorical chi-square
Association: Correlation
 Analyze
 Correlate
 Bivariate
 Variables
 Pearson/Spearman
 OK
Association: Correlation
 Strength of correlation
• 0.1-0.3 : low correlation
• >0.3-0.5 : moderate correlation
• >0.5-1 : high correlation
Association: Correlation
Strength of
Correlations corr
Umur
ENERGI_sum tahun
ENERGI_sum Pearson Correlation 1 -.014**
Sig. (2-tailed) .000
N 454303 454303
Umur tahun Pearson Correlation -.014** 1
Sig. (2-tailed) .000
N 454303 454305
**. Correlation is significant at the 0.01 level (2-tailed).

Significance
Association: Chi-square
 Analyze
 Descriptive statistics
 Crosstabs
 Row & column
 Statistics Chi-square
 Cells Percentages (row, column, total)
 OK
Association: Chi-square katimtbaru * quintilbr Crosstabulation
Case Processing Summary quintilbr
Cases
0 1 Total
Valid Missing Total
katim 0 Count 216031 128385 344416
N Percent N Percent N Percent tbaru %
katimtbaru * quintilbr 453469 99.8% 836 .2% 454305 100.0% within 62.7% 37.3% 100.0%
katimt
Chi-Square Tests baru
Asymp. Exact Exact
Sig. (2- Sig. (2- Sig. (1- % of 47.6% 28.3% 76.0%
Total
Value df sided) sided) sided)
1 Count 52334 56719 109053
Pearson Chi- 7.444 1 .000 %
Square E3a
Continuity 7.443 within 48.0% 52.0% 100.0%
1 .000 katimt
Correctionb E3 baru
Likelihood 7.353
Ratio E3 1 .000 % of 11.5% 12.5% 24.0%
Total
Fisher's
Exact Test .000 .000 Total Count 268365 185104 453469
%
Linear-by- 7.444 within
Linear E3 1 .000 katimt 59.2% 40.8% 100.0%
Association baru
N of Valid 45346
9 % of 59.2% 40.8% 100.0%
Casesb Total
a. 0 cells (.0%) have expected count less than 5. The
minimum expected count is 44514.94.
b. Computed only for Significance
a 2x2 table