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MEMORY AID

I. Health Education Perspectives -


II. Perspective on Teaching and Learning
1. Overview of education on health care
“Health education is the process by which individuals and group of people learn to “:Promote, Maintain
and Restore health.
- the act of providing information and learning experiences for the purposes of behavior change for
health betterment.
- “it is the totality of experiences which favorably influence habits, attitudes and knowledge relating to
individual, community and racial health”. H.E., 2006
Health Promotion - Is any combination of educational, organizational, economic and environmental
support for behaviors and conditions of living conducive to health.”

A. Purposes of Health Education

1. A means of propagating Health Promotion and Disease Prevention


2. May be used to modify or continue health behaviors if necessary
3. Provides health information and Services
4. Emphasizes on good health and practices which is an integral aspect of culture, media
and technology
5. A means of communicating vital information to the public
6. A form of Advocacy

B. Dimensions of the Health Education Process

1. Substantive – refers to subject matter specific to nursing education


Embodied by the phrase “ WHAT IS TAUGHT and WHAT IS LEARNED”
All aspects listed in the curriculum
refers to providing opportunities for nursing students to acquire essential knowledge, skills and
attitudes that will prepare them for professional duties and responsibilities in actual nursing
practice
2. Procedural – consists of strategies or methods of teaching which motivates students to
learn
3. Environmental – refers to physical and social factors in the teaching – learning situation.
Refers to extrinsic factors that capture the interest of the learner’
4. Human relations – relationship of the nurse with individuals involved in nursing care
practice which influence the effectiveness of the teaching and learning process.

C. ASPECTS OF HEALTH EDUCATION

a. Behavioral Science
- concerned with how people behave and why they behave in a particular way ( Feldman, 06)
- primary determinants of behavior:
1. Psychological predispositions – beliefs, experience, knowledge, attitude
2. Environmental reinforcement – family, friends
3. Socio – cultural – sustained social norms

b. Public Health - health stats, environment, med’l care


c. Education - study and practice of teaching and learning which plays a vital role in the
development of health education

D. Communication in health education: Components

CHANNELS AUDIENCE MESSAGE COMMUNICATOR


2. Concept of the Education Process vs the Nursing Process
a. The Educational Process
The educational process is a systematic, sequential, logical, scientifically based, planned course of action
consisting of teaching and learning (Bastable: 2007). It is a cycle that involves a teacher and a learner. A
teaching learning process occurs before eh lesson begins and continues after the last lessons ends. This
includes the following:
1. Assessment - A process which provides the nurse educator with information regarding the
students’ transfer knowledge and skills to the learners.
- Refer to the gathering of data about the learner’s group of learners demographic
profile, skills and abilities needed in identifying the most appropriate teaching strategies.
2. Planning - Is a carefully organized written presentation of what the learner need to learn and
how the nurse educator is going to initiate the teaching process.
- Includes culturally-relevant skills for the learner, the goals of learning, type of teaching-
learning setting such as: classroom, laboratory, clinical or ward setting.
- It indicates teaching timeline and specific sets of learner activities.
3. Implementing and appreciation of teaching plan - Is the point where the theoretical and the
practical aspect of the teaching –learning process meet as the teacher implies the plan
- This includes the procedure or techniques and strategies that the teacher will use to
best implement the plan.
4. Evaluating is the measurement of the teaching-learning performance of both the teacher and
the learner
- The evaluation must be constructive and objective with the purpose of creating
effective change in the behavior of both the teacher and the learner in terms of input, process
and output.

b. The Nursing Process


-Is a scientific, and systematic, problem-solving approach used to identify, prevent and treat actual or
framework in which nurses use their knowledge and skill to express human caring.
- Is an orderly, systematic manner of determining the client’s problems, making plans to solve the
problems, initiating the plan or assigning others to implement the plan, and evaluating the extent of
which the plan has effectively resolved the problems identified (Kozier: 2004).

1. Assessment – includes gathering of data about the system , the individual, family, or community
and recording of all needed information. Data are gathered through interview, physically examination, research
and review of records.
Purposes of assessment
• Predict, detect, prevent, manage or eliminate health problem.
• Clarify expected outcomes
• Develop specific plan
• Review of records thru data gathering
• Initiates the intellectual process in sorting and classifying gathered data, recognizing patterns and
discrepancies, comparing these data with norms and identifying client response to health problems that are amenable
to nursing interventions (Kozier: 2004).

2. Planning – is the formulation of nursing care plan on which the nurse works with the client to set goals and
objectives and predict outcomes. Planning identifies nursing actions for preventing, correcting and relieving health
problems and developing specific interventions as stated in the nursing care plan.

Planning is done in order to:


- Detect, prevent, and manage health problems
- Promote well-being and anticipate potential problems
- Allocate and utilize possible resources to achieve desired outcome.

3. Implementing – is the actual outcome of the plan. This helps determine client’s progress towards meeting
expected outcomes and goals. Nurses document this plan in appropriate forms such as “nursing progress notes”. They
put the plan into action in order to:
- Assess appropriateness of intervention
- Perform intervention
- Make immediate changes
- Chart and monitor progress of clients

4. Evaluating – involves the collection of pertinent and reliable data about the process and outcome of care. The
quality of nursing care that is provided is analyzed and results are compared with expected outcome criteria.

5. Documentation – establishes a written record of assessment. The care provided and patient’s response which is
an integral part of each step of the nursing process

Education and the Nursing Process Differentiated

Nursing process focuses on the planning and implementing of care based on the assessment and diagnosis of physical
and psychological needs of client, while the education process focuses on the planning and the implementation of
teaching based on the assessment and prioritization of students’ needs, readiness to learn and learning styles.

3. Role of the Nurse as Health Educator


i. Instructional Role
TASKS:
a. Planning and organizing courses
b. Creating and maintaining desirable group climate
c. Adapting teaching and preparation of instructional materials to varying interests, needs and abilities
of students.
d. Motivating and challenging students to pursue and to sustain learning activities
Teaching involving a series of complex activities.
ii. Faculty Roles
a. Chairman, secretary or member of 1 or more committees.
b. Counselor in academic and non academic matters of students
c. Researcher/ principal investigator of a research team
d. Resource person inside and outside the institution
e. Representative to professional nursing organization/ agencies
f. As public relations officer, she interprets the objectives and the policies of her institution and helps in the recruitment
or support group.
iii. Individual Roles – member of a family, church, community and a country as a citizen.

4. Hallmarks of Effective Teaching in Nursing


i. Characteristics of Effective Clinical Instructors
a. Professional competence
b. Interpersonal relationship with students
c. Personal Characteristics
d. Teaching practices
e. Evaluation Practices
ii. Qualities of an Effective Nurse Educator
Personal Qualities
a. Respects her students’ maturity and sense of responsibility
b. Psychologically secure in her own abilities
c. Has a sense of humor
d. Has a well balanced personality
e. tolerant and fair to all her students
f. shows no partiality and is available to listen to students’ problems
g. approachable, kind and patient
h. sincere in her efforts of educating, has passion for nsg.
i. has leadership abilities
j. the image of an ideal nurse with interest in each student

Professional Qualities –
1. Teaches lessons that stimulates students to think and learn
2. Gives clear and concise assignments
3. Encourages students feedback on assigned lessons and activities done
4. Presents a well organized subject matter for easy understanding
5. Provides her students with relevant clinical learning experience
6. Possesses mastery of the subject matter.
7. Speaks audibly, clearly and fluently
8. Professionally well groomed, properly dressed and poised
9. She must have broad interests
10. Evaluates objectively students’ performance.
5. Principles of Good Teaching practice in the Undergraduate Education
a. Encourages contact between students and faculty.
b. Develops reciprocity and cooperation among students.
c. Encourages active learning.
d. Gives prompt feedback
e. Emphasizes time on task
f. Communicates high expectations
g. Respects diverse talents and ways of learning
6. Barriers of Education and Obstacle to Learning
a. Student Factors
Physical Disability
Negative Attitudes and Stereotypes
Poverty
Students’ capabilities, Personal Beliefs and Values
Students are more likely to drop out of school if schooling is irrelevant to realities
b. Institutional Factors
Inadequate physical facilities and funding
Philisophy, mission and vision of schools
The Legal framework around Education
Issues of safety and security Inside and Outside the School
Accountability Movement
Perceived lack of Support
c. Teacher Factors
Teachers’ qualification and Values
Knowledge, Skills and Values of the Teacher
Inadequate professional preparation
Lack of Certification
Encroachment of other Disciplines

7. Planning and Conducting Classes


a. Planning Sequence
i. Develop course outline – considered a contract between teacher and learners. Helps learners determine what
is to be learned and what is expected of them.
Course outline includes:
title of the course
name of the instructor
course description
course goals and objectives
outline of topics
methods to be used
textbooks and reference materials
methods of evaluation – rubrics
ii. Formulate objectives – identify what knowledge, skills and values are expected of students. Should be
designed according to the SMARTER principle.
S simple
M measurable
A achievable
R realistic
T time bound
E excellent value
R rewarding
iii. Selecting content – course content is usually prescribed in the curriculum,
iv. Organizing content

b. Guidelines in Conducting a Class


1. The teacher is a specialist working with the students
2. Select Teaching Methods
3. Fit the topic to the audience
4. Focus on your topic
5. Prepare an outline
6. Organize your points of clarity
7. Select appropriate examples
8. Present more than one side of an issue
9. Repeat points
10. Be aware of your audience
11. Be enthusiastic
12. Use visual aids
13. Provide “hands on” experience
14. Record important information in writing
15. Use movies and videos with captions
16. Repeat a question
17. Arrange for the students
18. Provide new vocabulary
19. Stay in one place
20. Do not expect a student to look in more than one place at a time.

III. Characteristics of the Learner: Determinants of Learning


1. Culture a learned set of shared norms and practices of a particular group that direct thinking, decisions,
and actions. Culture affects health behaviors and the teaching – learning process in many ways; will
affect the way people experience and describe illness and will therefore affect the educational approach
to be used.
2. Age determines the level of comprehension and the amount of knowledge that can be acquired in a
certain period of time thus, teaching methods vary depending on the age.
3. Emotional Status or mental status impacts effectiveness of teaching. Depression, stress, denial, fear, and
anxiety hampers ability of a learner to learn.
4. Socioeconomic Level has more to do with being able to use information being taught rather than the
process of learning. Although information is learned, the behavior cannot be changed because of factors
beyond the clients’ control such as income, transportation and local availability.
5. Intelligence and Multiple Intelligence and Emotional Intelligence
Intelligence is measured based on the results of intelligence/aptitude tests, teacher adapts instructional
approaches considering the differences in students’ ability.
Multiple Intelligence
Verbal – linguistic intelligence
Logical – mathematical/ number smart
Spatial – picture smart
Bodily – kinesthetic intelligence/ body smart
Musical intelligence
Interpersonal – people smart
Intrapersonal – self smart
Naturalist intelligence – nature smart
Emotional Intelligence – capability to manage and monitor his or her own emotions, to correctly gauge
the emotional state of others and to influence opinions.
5 attributes:
Self awareness – ability to recognize one’s own feelings, the keystone of EQ
Self management/ self regulation – ability to keep disruptive emotions and impulses in check, to
maintain self control, trustworthiness, conscientiousness, adaptability and innovation
Motivation is the emotional tendency of facilitating the attainment of goals
Empathy is understanding of others by being aware of their needs, feelings and concerns
Social Skills includes leadership, collaboration, influence, and communication abilities

6. At risk Students are students with learning problems adjustment difficulties, in danger of failing to
complete their education even if they have the learning potential and excel in it.
7. Gender Differences refer to differences in treatment of boys and girls by cultural practice or by society

A. Motivation in Learning-
Motivation – inner drive to accomplish goals and objectives
1. Psychosocial needs – represent the educative forces which any social setting exercises on one’s
ability to learn.
2. Material rewards, Incentives and Punishment
Incentive refers to the use of praise, reproof, competition to encourage individuals to pursue higher
tasks
Punishment is a form of extrinsic motivation to block undesirable response to learning and to teach
learner respect for authority and set an example for potential offenders.
3. Knowledge of progress strengthens the learners’ determination to reach a goal
4. Game or Play – desire to play, when properly stimulated and directed, will facilitate learning and
maintain interest

Choose an activity to be presented per group with the following requirements:

a. Apply any of the theories of learning


b. Identify type of intelligence/s used
c. Activity should reflect motivation you want to employ/use
d. Make a course outline
e. Make rubrics for the said activity

Get a sample of a course outline, make a rubrics for grading it, evaluate using developed rubrics

Definition of terms

1. Education - an attractive process of imparting knowledge through sharing, explaining, clarifying and synthesizing the
substantive content of learning process in order to arrive at a positive judgement and well-developed wisdom and
behavior (Kozier: 2004)
2. Health – is sense of being physically fit, mentally stable and socially comfortable. It encompasses more than the
state of free of disease (Kozier: 2004).
- A condition that permits optimal functioning of individual to live most and to serve best in her personal and social
relationship (Sharman: 1948)
- is the process y which an individual strives for a stable equilibrium and a forward movement of one’s personality.
It is the ability of an Individual to adapt to constant change which will make life easier and faster. (Hildegarde
Peplau)
- A state when an individual has met needs and no anticipated or actual impairment of the body that is manifested.
3. Learning – is the acquisition of knowledge of all kinds such as abilities, habits, attitudes, values and skills (Calderon:
1998) primarily to create change in an individual. It is a gradual, continuous process throughout life.
4. Patient teaching – is basic function of nursing, the concept of patient teaching is perceived as a legal and moral
requirement and function of licensed nursing personnel and defined as a system of activities intended to produce
learning and change in client behavior (Nursing Fundamental: 1995)
- A dynamic interaction between the nurse as a teacher who provides all the needed information for the learners to
acquire knowledge. The patient as a learner internalizes this information as basis for his daily routines and
activities in promoting and maintaining health.
5. Teaching – is a process of providing learning materials, activities, situations, and experiences that enable the clients
or learners to acquire knowledge, attitudes, values and skills in order to facilitate self- reliant behavior (Calderon:
1998). Teaching is a consequential process, where the teacher demonstrates and the learner appreciates what is
shown and to internalized what is seen and heard.

The Educational Process


The educational process is a systematic, sequential, logical, scientifically based, planned course of action
consisting of teaching and learning (Bastable: 2007). It is a cycle that involves a teacher and a learner. A teaching
learning process occurs before eh lesson begins and continues after the last lessons ends. This includes the
following:
1. Assessment
 A process which provides the nurse educator with information regarding the students’ transfer
knowledge and skills to the learners.
 Refer to the gathering of data about the learner’s group of learners demographic profile, skills and
abilities needed in identifying the most appropriate teaching strategies.
2. Planning
 Is a carefully organized written presentation of what the learner need to learn and how the nurse
educator is going to initiate the teaching process.
 Includes culturally-relevant skills for the learner, the goals of learning, type of teaching-learning
setting such as: classroom, laboratory, clinical or ward setting.
 It indicates teaching timeline and specific sets of learner activities.
3. . Implementing and appreciation of teaching plan
 Is the point where the theoretical and the practical aspect of the teaching –learning process meet as the teacher
implies the plan
 This includes the procedure or techniques and strategies that the teacher will use to best implement the plan.
4. Evaluating
 Evaluation is the measurement of the teaching-learning performance of both the teacher and the learner
 The evaluation must be constructive and objective with the purpose of creating effective change in the
behavior of both the teacher and the learner in terms of input, process and output.
The Nursing Process
- Provides the necessary tool to enable the nurses to render quality nursing care to patients. It helps determine the
clients’ health needs. It emphasizes the need to manage and maximize health by managing risk factors and
encouraging healthy behaviors.
- Is a scientific, and systematic, problem-solving approach used to identify, prevent and treat actual or framework in
which nurses use their knowledge and skill to express human caring.
- Is an orderly, systematic manner of determining the client’s problems, making plans to solve the problems,
initiating the plan or assigning others to implement the plan, and evaluating the extent o which the plan has
effectively resolved the problems identified (Kozier: 2004).
Purposes of the Nursing Process
1. Provides a tool to enable the nurse to render quality – nursing care to client.
2. Helps identify the client’s health care needs, and determine priorities of care and expected outcomes
3. Establishes nursing intervention to meet client-centered goals
4. Provides nursing intervention to meet the needs of the clients.
5. Achieve scientifically-based, holistic and individualized care.
6. Takes the opportunity of working collaboratively with clients and other members of the health care team.
7. Achieves continuity of care to the clients.

Nature of the Nursing Process


1. The nursing process is dynamic and cyclic. Each step may be reviewed and revised according to changing client
responses to nursing interventions, which may require revisions in the plan of care.
2. The nursing process is organized and goal-directed, he plan of care and nursing intervention is organized
carefully to meet the client’s goal of care.
3. The nursing process is an intellectual process. Nurses knowledge in problem-solving, decision-making and critical
thinking to assess their client’s problems, plan their care, implement plans, and evaluate the effectiveness of the
care given.

Characteristics of Nursing Process


1. Systematic
- nursing process has an ordered sequence of precise and accurate activities. Preceding activities influence activities
following them.
2. Dynamic
- NP provides active interaction and interaction among activities. Current activity is necessary to influence future
activities.
3. Interpersonal
- NP ensures that nurses are client-centered rather than task-centered. The nursing process encourages nurses t
work and help clients use their strength to meet their own needs.
4. Goal-directed
- NP is a means for nurses and clients to work together in order to identify specific goals related to wellness
promotion, disease and illness promotion, disease and illness prevention, health restoration and coping with
altered functioning
5. Universally Applicable
- NP allows nurses to practice nursing with well or sick people young and old, regardless of race, creed and religion
in any practice setting.
Setting in the Nursing Process

Fig.2 adapted from Bastable’s education process parallel’s nursing process.

Implication of the concepts of the teaching and learning in nursing practice

Planning of care is a complex process involving several individual. It is designed to achieve specific goals like
health promotion or improvement. Nursing is synonymous to “care” where nurse responsibility is is beyond care for
the patient by doing his or her clinical duties such as giving comfort measurement and administering treatment
modalities. These include cleaning of wounds, changing patient’s clothes, ensuring that prescribed medicines are
taken on time with accurate dosage (Cresia and Parker: 2007).

Nursing also means teaching the patient proper self-care, health promotion, illness or disease
prevention, factor affect health and illness, and treatment options. Relatively, it is important to have a clear
understanding of the importance of teaching in the practice of nursing. Teaching plays an essential role in the
efficient and effective dissemination of information and in developing practical clinical skills of students by means of
demonstration, laboratory activities and similar hands on exercises.

Memory aid

I. Remember the following concepts


1. Definition of terms
a. Education – an intensive process of imparting knowledge, through sharing, explaining clarifying and
synthesizing the substantive content of the learning process, for the learner to arrive at positive
judgement and well- developed wisdom and behavior.
b. Health – a condition that permits optimal functioning of the individual, enabling her to live most and to
serve best her personal and social relationship (Sharman, 1948).
c. Learning – acquisition of knowledge of all kinds, abilities, habits, attitude, values and skills (Calderon:
1998) to create change in an individual.
d. Patient teaching – dynamic interaction between the nurse as a teacher and the patient as a learner.
e. Teaching – the process of providing learning materials, activities, situation and experiences to enable
clients or learners to acquire knowledge, attitudes, values and skills to facilitate self-reliant behavior
(Calderon: 1998).
f. Education process – a systematic, sequential, logical, scientifically based, planned course of action
consisting of teaching and learning (Bastable: 2007). It is a cycle that involves the teacher and the
learners.
g. Nursing process – this emphasize the need to manage and maximize health by preventing risk factor and
by encouraging healthy behaviors.
2. Evaluation – the measurement of both teacher and learners.
3. Steps in the nsg. Process
a. Assessment- data collection and recording of all information
b. Planning – setting priorities, goals and objectives and treatment options.
c. Implementation – putting the plan into action
d. Evaluation – assessing the patient, if the desired outcomes have been met.
4. Difference between the education process and nursing process
a. The nursing process focuses on planning and implementation of car based on assessment and diagnosis
of the physical and psychosocial needs of a patient.
b. The education process focuses on planning and implementation of teaching based on assessment and
prioritization of learners’ needs, readiness to learn, and learning styles.
Chapter 3: roles and responsibilities of the nurse as health educator and in patient teaching
“Teaching is not a matter of chance, it’s a matter of choice. It is not something you are destined or obliged
to do but sometimes you have chosen to do. Blessed are the teachers for they are God’s gift to everyone”.
- William Jennings Bryan
Learning Objectives:
At the end of this chapter, the student will be able to:
 Define a nurse educator in terms of his or her roles;
 Expound on the function s of the health educator;
 Explain the importance of patient teaching;
 Discuss the purposes of patient teaching;
 Explain principles of patient teaching; and
 Discuss different ways of documenting patient teaching.

Definition of a nurse educator and her roles

The nurse educator is:

1. The primary source of knowledge of learners in nursing;


2. The primary catalyst for the learning process;
3. A role model for nursing students;
4. An active facilitator , who demonstrates and teaches patient care to nursing students in the classroom and
clinical settings;
5. A source of health care information and patient care to clients of care; and
6. Is diligent; keeps abreast of developments in his or her field through continuing education, reading of nursing
journals, ad active participation in workshop and seminars.

Function of a health educator


A health educator is a practitioner professionally prepared in the field of health education, who demonstrate
competence in both theory and practice and accepts responsibility in advancing the aims of the health-
education process (De Young: 2003)
A health educator performs the following:
1. Collaborates with health specialists and civic groups in assessing community health needs and availability of
resources and services and in developing goals for meeting health needs of clients.
2. Designs and conducts evaluation and diagnostic studies to assess the quality and performance of health
educations programs.
3. Develops and implements health education and promotion programs such as training workshops,
conferences and school or community projects.
4. Develops operational plans and policies necessary to achieve health education objectives and services.
5. Develops, conducts, or coordinates health needs assessment and other public health survey.

6. Prepares and distributes health education materials, such as reports, bulletins and visual aids like films,
videotapes, photographs and posters.

7. Provides guidance to agencies and organizations in the assessment of health education needs in the
development and delivery of health education programs.

8. Provides program information to the public by preparing and issuing press releases, conducting media
campaigns and or maintaining program-related websites.

9. Promotes and maintains cooperative working relationship with agencies and organization interested in
public health nursing.

10. Develops and maintains health education libraries to provide resources for staff and community agencies.
11. Develops, prepares and coordinates grant applications and grant –related activities to obtain funding for
health education programs and related work.

12. Documents activities, record information such as number of programs completed, nursing action
implemented, and individual assisted.

13. Maintains databased, mailing lists, telephone networks, and other information to facilitate the functioning
of health education programs appropriate health records. Using these principles ensures that the nurse
meets the requires standard of care in any nursing situation.