Anda di halaman 1dari 38

c c

c
 c    c

c INTRODUCTION

J ccc !"cccc c!"!c cc  cc# c  cc


 c $c#c c#c  cc$c cccc cc % c &c
 c c cc  'ccc cc  c cc cc  (c# c
cc  cc c c # c   cc  c  'c cc c  c
 c $c c  (c # c J$c  c
c
 (c c )c c c '*c
 c  c  cc c  c  c  c 'c+c #ccc  c
c c  c  cc #c $& &c c&cc ,c c  c c&cc #c c
 c c  )c c c c  c Jc c  c c $c $ (c
   c 'c +c #c  c c  c  c  c #c  c $ c
  ccc cc  cc#cc$cc cc$ccc
c
 c c c cc c#cccc $c$c'c

c c $ c $ c  c  $  c c$ c  c
c c # c c --c c  'c .c c c # c c    c
 c  c c  c  c # c #c c c / c c  'c 0c
  c    c $ c  c   c  c c  c $ c  c $c
 c   c cc$ c cc ccccc cc
$ c# c c c c  c c #c  cc c c
c  c c  $$c  c #c  c c c c c c 1 c  c
c ccc$ c$cc ccc$c$ cc#ccc
cc c cc cc '

'c

c cccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccc c

c
 c c c c   c
c c c
 c    c

ΠAIRCRAFT WING BASICS

Œ  FORCES ON AIRCRAFT

Fig Œ  Basic forces on an aircraft

'Lift

2 ccccc#ccc ccc c c c (c# c


c c c c  c c # (c #c  c  c c # c c c - -c
#'c.ccc cc c# c3 4cc cccc # c
$c c #c $c c $c c c  c c  c  c c #c c c
c   c c # c #'c 2 c c c c #c c c c  c $c 3c
# 4'cc

Fig ΠΠGeneration of lift forcec

,c
 c c c c   c
c c c
 c    c

Thrust

.ccc cccc#cc#c $c c c #c 'c*c


 c c --c c --c  c  c #'c .c c c c #c $c
 'c  $  c c%c  cc#cccc c'c

Drag

 ccc c#c cc#cc #c $ c c c c c


cc# cc #c ccccc c c c cc 'c
*c c c  c  c c c c c c  c c $c  c c  c  c  c c
  'c .c c  c c 1c c  c c c c c  'c  c
 (c ccccc cccc'c

Aspect ratio

.ccccc c$ccc cc$ c'c5"6c*cccc c


#c c c cc# cc# c c c$cc#'c

ác cLow aspect ratioc &c c  c c # 'c 7c   c c c
 $c c#cc cc c'c.c ccccc  c
 cccc2)c &!8c c cc$c &c c
3' 'cc c9&:4'c

ác  oderate aspect ratioc &c  &c # c 3' 'c c 2)c ;&<!c
 c4'c

ác *igh aspect ratioc &c  c  c  c # 'c 7c   c  c
$ cc cc#c'c.c ccccc &c c
 c3' 'cc2)c=&,4c c c3' 'cc+cc<4c
 cc &  c c3' 'c&)c&:!!4'c

ΠΠFUNCTIONS OF A WING

.cc   c c c c# c ccccc #>&cc

oc cc?c c

oc c  c
oc * cc  c c c
oc c c$ cccccc'c@ cccccccccc,'cA# ccccccccccc"'c; c c

"c
 c c c c   c
c c c
 c    c

oc
c# c c#c$ccc c c#cc$cc cc'c
ccccc

Fig Π Basic aircraft motions

Π SIGNIFICANCE OF WING S*APE

.c c c c c# cc c cc c ccc c


#cc c#ccc ccc 'c.cc c c cc# cc
cc$cc c cc c cc '

 c # c c c  c c c )c c  c  c c  c c
c  'c * c c c )c c  c  c c c c # c c c c  c
c #c c c  c c c # c  c c  'c   c c c  c c
 c #c $ c c c c c  'c B#$c # c c c c
# c c   c  c + Cc  c # (c  c c  c   c c
cc c c 'c

.cc cc# ccc cccc cc  'c c1c &


c Dc $c #c #&)c # 'c .c #c # c c c c c
 c$c cc ccc c c c# cccc 'c.c
)c # c  c #c c Dc  c c $c  c c c #c  c
 'c &  c c$cc c# 'c+c# ccc
c   c  c  c c  c #c c # c 'c * c c c c  c  c
 c c c cccc#cc#c 'c.cc#ccc c )c
 cc c c c c c$ cc c cc c# c c
 c  ccccJ@c c2@'c

8c
 c c c c   c
c c c
 c    c

Œ  SWEPT WINGS: A BREAK T*ROUG* IN  ODERN AVIATIONc

.c c c     c c $c #c c  c c c  c $c
 c c c c c  c  c c >c c #c # 'c $ c c
 cc $  c  cc#c # c  c  cc  c #c c c  c #c
1 c  c cc cc c c  c @c * c
3 c0 Ec04c cF  ccc c(c c
c  c3cG c Hc2 &c c@ Ec2@4'c

* cc "!cc c c cccc c $c>cc c'cc


 cc cc  #c cc cc c   c  cc
 'c .c c c   c c # c   c c $c  c c #c
 c #c  c ) c 'c  c / c c c c  / 'c
+c  c c  c c $c c  c  c c  c <!!c c !!c
)ccc cc#c'c

oc Significance only recognised in Germany


* c  ":c  c + c #c c  c c F  c  c c
 c2# c; c ccc cc#c# ccc c c*'c
B#$cc  c cc"8&&c ) # c cc  c c
#c 'c
 c + c * c c )c(c;  H  #) c  c  c c 8:(c
3.c$ c cc#c
 c c c c 8:4c7cc#c
c    c  c c #c  $  c c c c c  &c  c #c  c
 c  c  'c -J c  c c c #c  c c c c
c # c c c c   c #-c 7c 'c .c #c # c
c  c  c  c c c $  c  c  c c c
  'cc
oc Faster with swept wingsc
Bc 2# c * c c  " c Bc 2# c c c c c #&# c
 cc 0'c + c c  cc  c c c  cc #c
 c * c  c $ c @c 3c   c Hc 2  Ec
 24c  c + # 'c 2# (c  c  c c  c  c
+ (cc cc c'c c #c # c #c c  cc c c
cc cc'c

:c
 c c c c   c
c c c
 c    c

* c  c c #c # c #c c /c c  &c  c  c  c
c Dc   c $c c c #'c * c  " c c c Dc  c  c c
#c )c c c )c  c c c  c c B )c <'c #c # c  c Dc
 c #c  c  c  c  c c c c c  c  88c  c c J )c
,<c c  c c c  ) c c F  'c *  c c c c
# cc#c#c #cKcc ccc c c c$$cc
cc c  c'
oc Knowledge-transfer to the USA
* c ccDc cc#c# c#c cc cc c
c

'c7c ccc   c c  c Dc cc7c
,I,c c c $c #c # 'c .c #c c c #c # c c c
c c'c2 c ccc#c c c #c# 'c
cc  c  cc
cc c cc ) # c /c  c  c c
$>c.c cc#c ccc$ cc) #c
c'c c+ cc $ c cc#c# c# ccc=c#c
c  ccc ccc c ccc ccc= $c c
c c+'
oc Basis of modern aviation
 c c c cD>c+ c!c.c$cc c c
c c c  c  c $ 'c .c  c  c c c  c c
+8cDc'c.c c c#ccc cc+ c!c#c c
c c  c$ cDc$'cc cCc  c$ c ccc cc
+!'ccc c cc# c c+ Cc#c# cc$ccJ )c
,<cc  c cccc c"<!'.cc c#c  c
c#) c c cc c c#&# c'c* c c   cDc
cc  c  c /cccc   c  cc
=c  c  c  c 3c J@c  c 2@4c $c  c c c
 $c 1 c c c c # c  c c  c c c
 'c
c
'c
c
c

Ic
 c c c c   c
c c c
 c    c

 c SO E BASIC AIRCRAFT WING CONFIGURATIONS


 c c  c  c  c  c c   c  c  c #c  c c c c
  c # c c c c c 1c c # c  c  c  c c
 c c c c c c c  c c #c 3 #c c
)#4c#c c ccccc#c# c#c c-2 c
 c@c1  -c3c2@94'c

c c    c c $c # c 3 c  c $c  4c  c &%c
 c 1c c 'c c $ c c c c  c c  c  c
 cccc1c 'c.cccc c$c c c
 c34c# c'c


 c c c#c #c c )c c c $c  c 'c c c  c  c
#cccccDcc c c c# cc# c ccc c
cc c cc 'cJcccc#'c

oc Straightc &c 1 c c  c  c c c  c  c  'c .c c   c
c c c c#&c cccc;&<!c c'c

oc Swept backc &'c c c c c # c  c )#c #c c 'c c
  c c #c # c $c #c  c c  c  c c  c c c c
c c/c  c  cc$cc c c  c'c  c  c
 & c c c c' 'cc cc2   'c

oc Forward sweptc &c c # c  c #c c c 'c +  c c c c
)#c #c c c    c  c  c #c c $c c c c
 c c c c c # c c c # c c /c $ c c
 c  c c c  c c c   c 'c c $c 1c c cB +&",!c
B cJ'c

cc cvariable geometryc$cc# c#c c  >c

oc Swing-wingc&ccc-$c#c# -'c.c c c c c# c


$c c #c  c c )#'c  c  c c #c c  c c
 cc c cc c c &'c

oc Oblique wingc &cc c & c # c $cc c c  ccc  c
c#c)c cccc#c #'c # c ccc&c
c 'c

c
 c c c c   c
c c c
 c    c

Fig   Straight wing Fig  Œ Swept wing Fig   Forward swept wing

cccccccccccccccccFig   Variable sweep wing Fig   Oblique wing

oc Combinedccclosed wingc&c#c# ccD cccc ccc c


c#'c.c  ccc c cc cccc'c
0 c >cc

c
ccccccccccc+1c# ccccccccccccc c1c# ccccccccc c c# ccccccc  c# 'c

Fig   Combined or closed wing shapes

oc Deltac &c  c  c c #c #c  c  c  c  c  c  'c
J cc$  c cc#c# c#c cc  'c0 c>cc

c
.ccccccccccc.ccccccccc ccccc  cccccJ $c c

Fig   Delta wing shapes

<c
 c c c c   c
c c c
 c    c

c  c $c c c D c # c # c  c  c c 'c .c c c
c ccc ccc cccc c cc>c

oc Flying wingc &cc  c c c  c  c cc   c 3 c
 c cccc'ccc 4'c

oc Blended bodyc c blended wing-bodyc &c c   c # c # c  c
 c #c c c $ c  'c @c #c c  c  c  c  c
c  c  'c .c 7 c9;&Ic +c #c c  c c
  cc c ccc c c 'c

c
Fig   Flying wing Fig   Blended wing

c
 c c c c   c
c c c
 c    c

 c WING CONFIGURATIONS FOR T*E FUTURE

J ccc !"cccc c!"!c cc  cc# c  cc


 c $c#c c#c  cc$c cccc cc % c &c
 c c cc  'ccc cc  c cc cc  (c# c
cc  cc c c # c   cc  c  'c cc c  c
 c $c c  (c # c J$c  c
c
 (c c )c c c '*c
 c  c  cc c  c  c  c 'c +c #ccc  c
c c  c  cc #c $& &c c&cc ,c c  c c&cc #c c
 c c  )c c c c  c Jc c  c c $c $ (c
   c 'c +c #c  c c  c  c  c #c  c $ c
  ccc cc  cc#cc$cc cc$ccc
c
 c c c cc c#cccc $c$c'
 c
#c  )c c #c c c  c c  c  c #c  c )c c  c
'c .c )c c c    'c c c  c  #c  c c
 c ccc8!cLc

c c $ c $ c  c  $  c c$ c  c
c c # c c --c c  'c .c c c # c c    c
 c cc c c# c #ccc/ cc '

Bcccccc c c# c   c c#cc


ccc c cc c   c$ 'c

oc OBLIQUE FLYING WING


oc BLENDED WING BODY
oc ëOINED WING
oc  ORP*ING WING

$ c ccccc# c   cccc c


c c$ c'*c$c cc c c# c   c ccc
cc  cc c c c c $c  cDccc c
 c c $c   c )c c  c $c c $ c 1c c
c# c   c'c

!c
 c c c c   c
c c c
 c    c

c OBLIQUE FLYING WING

J c  c c c  c  c  c $c c  c J/c  c

 c3J
4cccc c cc c# c c cccDc  'c
.c  c  c c c c c c c $c  c  c  c # c $c  c c
c c  c c c c  c c c $ c c c 'c B#$c  c
 c  c cc ccJ/c  c
 cc cc#c)c#c
ccc c #'c* cc#cc# c c #c#ccc c
c cc c c  'c

c c

Fig   Oblique wing on a NASA-AD

1 c #c /c # c  c c )c c c  8!c  c  c c c "!c
ccccc c c1 c c c$ c%c c c
ccc  c  cc  'c & c  c  c #c @;c
#c c c1 cJ
c9& c cccc ccc cc
cDc#c c c,!!<'cB#$cc  cc c c #)c  cc
c ccc$$'c

.c J
c c c c  c c c $c c # c  c c c
 c c c c   c  c c #c c &$c # c )c c  c
$c c c  c c c  c #c  c c c )c # c c c c
'cc ccc#c c#cc&# c ccc
 c  c  c )c c c  c c  c #c c &# c )cc  c
 cc cc 'c

.c   c c J


c  c c c c #c c c c  c  c
c c  c  c  c c c #c c c # c #c #c c )'c
.cccc c ccccc#ccccc#c
'c c c J
c c c c  c c c $c  c  c c  c

c
 c c c c   c
c c c
 c    c

# c  c c c #c Ec c c & c $ c #c


c ccc ccccc cc+&,cccc
c  c# 'c

*c  c J
c #c c c $c   c $c c #c c c  c
c # c c c c c  c  c  c   c c c  c  c
 c  c c c   c  'c *c #c c c c c c $c
$c c  c c c D'c *c #c $c  c c  c c  c c
 c c c c  c c  c  c c c $c c c c  c  c
'c.c#c)ccc ccc c=0c3=  cc04c
c c c c B#)c c c c c  c c  c   c $ c c
1c c c )c c 'c .c c c c c c  c   c
$c ccccc c c c cc c
c
c c  ' .c c #) c /c # c c #c c &c 3 I4c
cc$c#c c c# c c c!cc8:c c

  FUNDA ENTAL ADVANTAGES

oc  inimal Lift Induced Drag at all Regimes

2 c * c  c c  $c  c c c @c * c c c  c
J/c c @c c  c 3c #c c c c  $  c #c )c
# 4'c

Fig  ΠComparison of wing span & wing length between conventional and oblique
wing

,c
 c c c c   c
c c c
 c    c

oc Structural Stabilityc

.c  c & c c  c c /c # c c $c


/cccccc  cc c)c ccc
c c   'c * c $c #c c  c  c c  c c
/c # (c  c $c  c   c $c c $  c # c
c#c#c$cccc c  cc cc $  c
$&#c

Fig   Comparison of forces devloped at joining of wing sections between


conventional and oblique wing

 c    c $  c  c c/c # c   c c  c


 c c c c c c  c $c c #c c # c  c c c
 $  c #c # c  c c c  c  c #c #c $c c
 c c &  c#$c ccc c c8'cc#c cc
3 c#ccc c#c4cc$c #$c c cc# c
c  c MIc c  c c &#c # c  c c c  c #c
 c$'cc

Jc c  /c c /c # c  c c )c c #&c c
c  'cc 1c  c c  c   c  c  Mc )c
 cccc cc$c 'c

.c /c  c # c    c   c c  & c  c c c
#c c c &# c  c c c c c  c c  c
 c c#ccc$c#ccc3c 4c c
 c c c c 'c

"c
 c c c c   c
c c c
 c    c

 ΠC*ALENGES OF T*E OBLIQUE WINGc

.c/c# (cc$cccc cc c cc


c c  /c  c # c c c  (c  c  c c
c 'c - c c c c c  c    c c #c c c
c #c c c c  c c $c )c c c  c  -c c
 c 7c #c c c c  c c  c = $c c  c #c c
c/c  &# cc c'c-*(cc c c  c '-cc

J=;2*c .*J&)c  c 

;*0J.*c*c*2.ccJGG2&c$ cc c

c;*0J.c*c J.@*.& ccccc# cc cc

A7* c@J2.* c;BJ7c& c c  cc$c

  I PLE ENATIONc

c c  c  c  c  c c c &c c  c c c 1c c
 'c*c #ccc c  cc c c  'c

Fig   NASA AD- (An oblique wing configuration aircraft)

 c cc cccc c#c

.c#c cc c  c c $c  c $c c c
 c c c = c 'c .c = c c   c $ c @c
;Dc   c 3@;4c c #c c  c c =N!'"c  c
 c c)c c c c  c c c9& c/c  c# c
 '56c

8c
 c c c c   c
c c c
 c    c

Fig   Northrop Grumman Switchblade

.c  c c c  c c   c  c  c c 1c c
$c  c #c c c  c  'c .c c  c #c c c
c  c# c3 c c#c cc1c cccc cc
c  4c #c c # c c #c #c  c c  c c  c #c  c  c
)#c c cc  '5,6c.c c   cc$cc $cc
c  c c cc c c c c  '5"6c.c c c#c
'c;c*c#c1ccc cc cc c c#c;c**c
#cc cc c   c c  cc c c 'c.cc  cc
 c#cc cccc c ccc# c  c c c
 c 'c

 c  cc#c cc c,!,!c c #c c #c c I&c  c


/c# c ccc  c)ccc 'ccc c c
cc # c   cc $ccc # c c)cc  c cc # c c
#$c I!c  c #c  c # c   c #c cc c)#'c.c
 c  c  c  c c  c c )c c  c $c  c c
 c c c  c  'c .c  c c c  c c  c  c c
#c  c c c c c c c    c c c  c
 cc c

cc c c  c  c c c  c $c #c #c c c/c  c
#  c 'c

:c
 c c c c   c
c c c
 c    c

Fig   A dual hull passenger aircraft concept

 c c Dc c J/c


 c c c $c c  c Obliquec  c Wingc
; c c#cccccc c$ c cc c2 c
c c'c

Fig   Oblique Flying Wing Passenger aircraft concept

Ic
 c c c c   c
c c c
 c    c

c BLENDED WING BODYc

.c+ &
 &+c3+
+4ccc$ c c cc &,'c
*c/cc  ccc c cc  $  c  c  cc
 c  c  c c  c  c   c # c  c   c  c cc
$c c  c $ c  c   'c .c +
+c c c c c  c
# c c c c #c c c  c c c c c c c
 cc c #& c cc   cc $ c $c  c  c'c
.c c  ccc  cccc# c c c cc
c# c cc c+ &
 &+'cc

Fig   Stealth bomber BŒ Fig  Œ Blended wing body model in NASA

 c# c cc  cc$ c#ccc c cc c


# c  c c c c c  c c c # 'c + c # Mc
 c$cc  c c ccc#ccc cc cc)c
 c  c  c  c  c c # c c  c c # c c c
 c c#cc'c

.c +
+c #c c c c c c  c $ c  c 7 c
 c 374c c c c #c c c + c  c c & !'c . c
+ c1cc c c   cc c7(cDcc$c# c
c  c c c  c #&$c $ c  c c $ c +
+'c  c c
 c1 c+
+c c c#ccc+# 'c.c c
c
+ c c c c  c  c  c  c c c #c c $c
 'c.c7c7'"!c -9c7 -c  cc c  8!c #c c 1 c c
cc c# c  c c c c $ c c 'c

c
 c c c c   c
c c c
 c    c

  FUNDA ENTAL ADVANTAGES c

J c ccc  c cc+


+c ccc 'cc*ccc
c  c c  c # c   c c  c  c  c c  c c  c
= $c # c  c c IOc c c c c c1c  c  $c
'cc

.c +
+c  c c c c  c c c # c  c  c #c c
 c cc$c c c/ ccc#c c c
  'cc.cc c c#cc c)c c cc cc
c c c c#c1 cc cc c 'ccc
c c c  c c c )c $ c  c c  c c # c  c
c$c#)c cc 'ccc

Fig   Structural overview of proposed Boeing X-

+ c # cc   cc c cc cccc1 $cc


 c c  c c c  c $c$ c #c'c  c cc  c+ c
c 1 c +
+c  c  c c   c 9&8<'5,6c c  c c +
+c
 c   c c  c  c c c c 8:!c c <!!c  c  c
$c c $ c  c $c ,!c  'c c c  c $ c  c ,!!!c c
c cc#cc,c c3I'8c4c#  ''c
<c
 c c c c   c
c c c
 c    c

c
Fig   An overview of seating capability of BWB design

* c $c c  c  c  $ c c #c c c  c c c
 c  c c  'cc  c cc   $c #& c  c c
 ccc#cc<!!c c$cc!!c c c c c
ccc c$c ccc,!!'ccPc c c  ccc
c  c #c c ,Oc #c c c  $  c c "99c$c #c c)c  c
# c:Oc#'ccc# c#cc,Oc'cc*c#c c/cc c c
c  c c#ccc1cc $  c  cc$ c,Oc
c'cc.c c c#c,!Occ M cc ccc
  c$ c c cc  'c

c
c c &)c  c  c c  c c  c  c  c c
 c # c c 1  c $c c   c c  c 1 c c   c
 c  c $c c c  c # c 'cc .c  c # c c c
$ccc$c c  ccc cc $c c c
c c# c c c# c cc cc  'c.cc
c )c   c  c  c c c  c c  c c  $  c    'cc *c
c c c c #c c c c  c  c c  c #c c  c
 c#cc'cc* cc  $cccc c c cc $  c'cc
= )c c    cc  c # (c c  c  cccc
 c  c  c $c/c c ccc c   c c  cc  c
# cc cc# (c cc #'c

 c
 c c c c   c
c c c
 c    c

c* cc cc  cc c cc# ccc  c cc  cc#c


c c#cc cc#cccc c 'c+c   cc c c
cc c)c#ccc cc c  c $c cc
 c)cc c$ccc#c c cc#c cc7c'<:c#c
 c%c # c c c""Oc#c cc c $  c c%c &
 c  c #c c  c  c 'cc  c c # c   c c
c cc%c# c# cc c cc ccc c# cc
 c cc c 'c

* c (ccc#c $c# c c cc+


+c cc1c
 c ccc c 'ccc c ccc c ccc# c
cc c c$ccc c c#cc$cc$ 'cc2#c
# c  c c  c #c  'cc .c c # c $c c
 cc c c cc ccccc  c cc+&
,cccc c#&c  &c  'cc

* c  cc   c  c c cc +


+c  c c c   c
#cc 'cc1c c#c cc c cc# (c  'cc
.ccc c c ccc1c cccc
'cc.c c c c c c cc  c ccc c
c  c c c c c # c   c c %c  c c c
 )c c  c cc cc  c  cc 'cc cc
 $  c cc  cc ccc$c cc+
+cc
c cc$ c c c$$c cc'cc

 ΠC*ALLENGES OF T*E BWB

@c  c c $  c c   cc+


+c c
c  c  'c
c c  c  c  $  c  c  c c $c
# c   c  c c  c  c #)c    c  c c +
+'c

c    c  c c c  c  c  c  c c c # c  c c


 $  c cc#c cc cc#)c c c   cc#&
 c # c c /c  c c c  c c +
+'c * c c )c c  c
c  c c  c  c c c #c c c  c c  c
 c   c  c c  c 'c  c   c  c
# c cc c cc cc c c 'c

,!c
 c c c c   c
c c c
 c    c

c$  c  c  c  c  c c +


+c c c  c c   c
 cc ccc cccc c  c% c
3(ccc%ccc cc#c$c& c)cc+
+(4cc)c
 c  c c # #c  c c c c $c  c  c  c  c c
 (c   c #c 1 cc $c  c c # cc  ccc
 'c

c   c c  c c +


+c c  /c  c c c /c
 c c c c ccc c $  c 'c.c c
c c # c c # c c +
+c c $c )c  c  c $c c 'c
  c #c  c   c #c c  c c  c  c  'c * c
c  cc # c c cc c $c cc  c   c c
 c c c c c c $c  c  c c c c  c
  'c  c c % cc c c cc# c cccc
 c c cc c# c 'c.cc cc c
c &c c c c   c  c c c  c  >c c c
 c c  c  c $c   c  c #c  c  c c  c c
 c  c ccc c$c cc c c cc 'c c
 c cc cc & c  c cc c#c c c
 c    'c + c  ) c c c  c  c c +
+c c  c c
ccccc#c #c c'c

  I PLE ENATION


c c  c  c $c c Qcc .(c c  c c   c #c
$c c )'cc +c  c c  c  c  c c )c c c  c c 8c c c
ccccc+
+c c ccc cc c $ 'cc
*(c  c c c c c   c /c c c #c  c c
 c c c  c  'cc .c )c  (c $ c c c c
$ c cccc-* cc)c cc#c c -c cc+
+c c
 c  c c c $c  c c  c   c  c c  c
 c  c# c c c# 'c

.c +
+c #c c c c c c  c $ c  c 7 c
 c 374c c c c #c c c + c  c c & !'c . c
+ c1cc c c   cc c7(cDcc$c# c

,c
 c c c c   c
c c c
 c    c

c  c c c  c #&$c $ c  c c $ c +
+'c B#$c
+ c c c c $c  c   c c c  c #c c  c &c
$ c c  'c
c c  c  c c  c c  c
c   c  c$c cccc#c 1 cc
 c  c c  c  c $ c c  c c c c c  c
 c  c  c   'c* c  c  c cc #cc  c c c
 # c c c  c  c c c c   c ) c c #c c c c 'c
;cc cc  ccc)c c cc+
+c c cc
c ccc c cc  c )cc ccc 'c
c c  c  c c c c c $ c  c c +
+c c c 9&8<c c
$cc c cc'

c
Fig   Experimental model of the Boeing X-c

,,c
 c c c c   c
c c c
 c    c

c ëOINED WING

.BcD &# c ccc  cc c c c c# c


 cc c c cc c c  c$#'c J c# c c c
 $  c# c cc  ccc#ccc1 c   '

Fig   Sample Total ëoined Wing Configuration Conceptc

.c D c # c c  c c c $c   c  $c 'c c D &
# c cccc# c#c #cccD c#cc#c#c c
# cccc# c cc c# c$#c cccc& 'cc

Fig  Œ Various ëoined-Wing Viewing Angles

@ c $ c c c J c */c c  c c  c  c    c $c
# c c c c ccc c  cc$c3=04cc
c $ &c  'c =0c c c c c    c c
$ M  c 3*@4c  c #c /c  c c  c   c

,"c
 c c c c   c
c c c
 c    c

$ cc c'cJ c*@c c) # cc   c c  c
cc  c) c c  c  c3 )c c4'c$c cc
 c /c  c   c  c c  c "I!c  c $ 'c c  c c
/ c c c c   c  c c c  c c =0'c $c
   c c  c  c  c c c    c  'c c
 $  c$cccc cc cccD &# 'ccc c
 c cc  c"I!& c$ c#cc$ c# c$ c
 c$c c  c$cc $  c$'cc

  FUNDA ENTAL ADVANTAGES

.cc c c cJ c


 c cc$c  c)cc c
cc;$c$  c cc   ccc

oc LIG*T WEIG*T
.c D c # c  c  c c # c $ c c  c c c  c 'c
Jc ccD c# c#cc c# ccccc c/c
 c  c  c c c c D c # c c c ,8Oc  c  c c
 c# c 'c
J c# cc$cc# c#cc cc c# c cc$c
cc ccc c# c 'c.ccc cc c#cc c
# c 'c
c
oc *IG* STIFFNESSc
 cc#c# c cc1&)ccc cc$ ccc
c  cc# 'c.c $ccD c# cc$c c cc
 c c 1'c.cc  c cc c# c cccc,'<c
c c  c c D c # c # c c c 1 c /c $c
 cccc cc c'c.c ccccc c1&)c
c ccD c# c'c
oc LOWER INDUCED DRAG
.c  c  c  c c D c # c c #c  c c  c # c # c
 c c  c /c  c  c  c  c 'c .#c c
)c c 'c c c  c #c # c  c c  c
D c # c #c # c  c c $c c  c  c  '.c  c
cc c cc# ccccc c '
,8c
 c c c c   c
c   cc c   c

oc ÔT BL T T Lc
c c c c c c c D c c c c c c c
cccccccc

c
‘i 7.3 lli i i i

c c c c c c c c c   c c  c
c c c c c  c c  c c c c c
 
c c D c c c c c c c c c
c  c c c c c c c c D c c c c c
 cc+cccccccccc
ccc cccccccc cc cc ccc
ccccccc cc cccc
c c

+c cc c c cc cc c c cc  c
c c c c c c c c c  c c  c c c c c
ccccc cc ccccc c

c c  c c c D c c c c c c c c
  c c c c c c c c c c D c c
c c c  Mc  c

@ c c c c
!"#$cccc  cD cc%!&'ccccccccc
 c c D c c c c c c c c c c
ccccc"(c cccc)cc  cccc
 ccc cccccccc c c cc
cc c
 c

  c cccc
c c c
 c    c

oc S*ORT-TAKE-OFF AND LANDINGS


.c  c c /c  c c  c c c  c c c
1c  c  c  'c .c c c  c  c &)& c  c
 c  c  

 ΠC*ALLENGES

$  ccc$c  c$  c)cc# c   c c c


c c cccccc$  c c ccc cc
$ c cc 'c.cD c# c c cM Mc ccAc c
(c c c#c c   cc cc )'c c#c
c #c c#ccc#cc1c %c   c cc)c
 % c ccc cc% ccccc cc

**c  c
ccc cc c*7JcccDcR#c c# Rcc1c
c cc c) c cc cccc &  $cc
 $  'c+cccc c# c c cccc c $ c c cc#c
c''c

c  c c c c c  c c D c # c  c c #c # c #c )c $c
c c  c  c c c c  c )c  c   c #c c
$$cc c cc c!!c  c cc 'c

  I PLE ENTATION

@ c$ cccJ c*/c c cc c c   c


$c # c  c  c  c  c c c  c   c c $c 3=04c
cc$ &c 'cc

Fig   An AFRL joined wing UAV ³sensocraft´c

,Ic
 c c c c   c
c c c
 c    c

=0cccc c   M$ M  c3*@4c


 c#c/c cc c  c$ cc c'cJ c*@c
 c ) # c c    c  c  c c c   c ) c  c
 c  c3 )c c4'c$c cc c/c c  c
 c c  c "I!c  c $ 'c c  c c / c c c c
  c  c c c  c c =0'c $c    c c  c  c
 c c c    c  'c c  $  c $c c c c
B#)c c c 'c c c  c #$c c D &# c    c c
'c c )cc  cc  c/ c cc $c cc& c
c c  c c # 'c .c c c c  c #c c  c c c
c cD &# c c'c

 cc <!CcJ c


)$c#cc c1c c$c cc
D c # c 'c .c  c  c  c   % c c    c c #)c c
)c c D c # c    c c  c 'c 2)c 7 c c ) c c
 ccD c# c c cc 1c   c )'c.ccccc
D c # c  )c  c c #c  c  c #c c c c c c
c c$cc#&ccc# ccc cc cc c
#c #c )'cc&ccc # c$ c c  c$ c
2)c7 Ccc ccD c# c   'cc

Fig   Lockheed martins¶s joined wing tanker concept

 c  c$ c ccD &# cc+ CcS c# Tc#c cc


#c# c#cc #&#c# cccc ccc 'c

,c
 c c c c   c
c c c
 c    c

Fig   A Fluid wing experimental aircraft by boeing

c c  c c c  c c D c # c    c c c c c c
 c cc c c c$c$c cccD c# c   cc
 cc1 c c cc c 'c

,<c
 c c c c   c
c c c
 c    c

 c  ORP*ING WING TEC*NOLOGY c

2)c c c c #(c $c c  c c 1c # 'c .c  # c
#cc c#c ccc
c
 c cJ$c
 c c c # c
 c 'c c  !"c #c c  c %c c c  c c c #c c
# 'c c $ c  c c c c & c  c  c #c
c $c  $ c c  c c
 c c c $c $& &c
 c#cc ccc cc 'c cc
 cc
 c  c #)c c $ c /)c c $ 'c  c # c c c
 c c c c # c c c c #c  c  c
c  c $c # 'c .c  c c c  c  c c $c
 ccc c cc # 'c.c c cc #c ccc
& c c c c c c )c  c  c )c  c  c c  c
'c #c c c   c  c #c  c  c c   c  /c c
  c cc cc7J@;B*c ccc c% c# cc
$c c c c c  c  c c c  c  c '.c c  c
 c cc cc  c$c cc cc c
c c  Cc /c ) c c # c  Mc  c  c  c c c c
 c ccc 1&# c cc 'c

c
FIG   A morphing wing design by NASA in various flying conditions

.c c c & c c  c c  c $c c $c c c
cc c c  cc#c cc# cc c c  'c
 c c  c  c c 1& c c  c c  c c
# c   c  c   c   c / c c c  &c
c#&cc c#c cc $'c* ccc cc c

, c
 c c c c   c
c c c
 c    c

c c$c  c cc# c cc1%c$c  c c


c  c  'c . c  c c  c  c c  c  c c
cc%c  c cc  cc  cccccc
 cc c cc#c c cc# 'cc

 c c c  c # c  c  c #c  c c $c c  c c
c   c )c c  c $ c c  c  $'c .c # c  c c
c c   c  c   c c c c  c  c  &c
 $ c c # c # c  c   c c  c c  c  c 'c
7 c # c   c c  c c c c )c   c  c 1&   c
  c c$c3=04c cc cc 'cc

  BIOLOGICAL INSPIRATION

c#c cc$c #c c c c ccc c 'c


. cc c#c cc c
    c   c c2 c c
2 c$c# c#c-# c -c)c# cc$c 'c.cc
$c c # c  c $c  c   c c c c & c c c
)c# c cc 1c c c c c   'c

# ccc ccc  cc# cccc$c  c3  cc


# c  c  c Dc  4'c .c  c c c  c $c  c c c  c
 c  c $ c  c  c  'c .c  c # c $c 8':c  c )c
3,'<c  c 4c  c c c c c c c 1c ccc c 7 c c
!!cc cc'c@c$c$c#ccc$c c
c c  c c # c c $c   c $ c c c c #c  c
  c c$cc 'c.c)cc:cc cc# c# c) c
c c c c  c c  c c  c c # c  c  c $ c c
  cccc c c# cc c c c  c  'c

"!c
 c c c c   c
c c c
 c    c

c Fig  ΠA morphing wing comparison with abird

 c cc  c#c#c1 c# c $c# c 1c  c
  'c +c #c # c $c c c  c   c c  c c
 c  'c #c # c c c c c c  c  c  Ec c c c #c
# cccccc c)cccc1 c# 'c

.c  cc# ccDccc cc# cc cc  c c


c ccc)c c 'cc

1 c# c$ccc#c c#cc#c)c#c cc


c   ccc c'c1c c c/c#&)c# c
c 1 c # c c c   c c )c  c c 1c 'c #c
#&)c # c c c Ec c c   c c c  c c
  c c c 'c

  c c $c c c c &  c  c c # c  c  c c c
$c#c c cc c I!c  c c cc c c  c $c c
  c  ccc'c

  ADVANTAGES

* c  c # c c  c c  c c  c  c c c   c
  c   c  c  'c Jc  c  c  c c c #c c c  c c
 cc c c c c #cc/'c

 c  c  c #U c  c c c   c  U


/cc#c#  c c ccc c# ccc  cc#  c
c:!c cc:c ccc 'cS.c cc ccc

"c
 c c c c   c
c c c
 c    c

 cccccc c cccc c ccc


'c.ccc cc cc'c

+c cc  c#c c ccc c c cc c


 c c c c c c cc   c c  c  c  c
c  'c

 c  c # c c c 1c  c  c   c $c c  c
$ c  c  c c  c  c $c c  c c  c
 c ccc c  c c  'c .c cc  c c
cc c&ccccc c c cc c c$ c
 c c c c c  c  c  c  c c c   c $c
 c c  'cc

2) c c c # c c c  c c c c  c c
   && c   c # c c  c c c c &&c c  c c
#c  c 1 c $c  c  c c c  c c c
 c* cc cccDc c$ c$ccc &
c cc cc c cc cc)ccc)c,!cc"!c
c c #'c

* cc#c c  cc c  cc c cc ccc


 c$cc c#cccc c  cc#cccc cc
 c cc c cc  c#ccc cc$cc  c
c ccc ccc ccccc c c$cc cc
 c c#cccc cc  cccc,!cc"!c'c

  C*ALLENGES

 c #c c c $  c  c c c #c 7 c
 c
.  cc $c cc #c $cc  c # c  c  c c
c c  c  c 'c .c c c  c c c  c c  c c
 c  c c # c #c #c c c c   c c  c  c c  c
  'c

cc c  c  cc # cc # cc  c  c #c  c  c
  c c  c  c c  c c  c c

",c
 c c c c   c
c c c
 c    c

c  c 'c c  c #c  c  c  c c  Cc
c #c c cc  cc cc c c# 'c

Fig   Sliding rib concept

c S c Tc  c c c   c c  c c  c # 'c .c
 cc #c cc c# c'c7 c# c c/c
c   c c ccc) c c'c .cc# c
 c  c /c c  c  c c # c $c c c c
'c'c.cccc%cc&c c#c c c# c
 cc cccc'ccc cc ccc cccc
c  c c c )c  c c  c c  c  c # c c c 'c c
%cccc cc# c c$c c#ccc 'c

+c &  c #c c  c >c  c c c c c c
 cccD c cc# c#cc 'c c c c cc$ cc c
cccc ccccc# c'cc@;cc) ccc
#c   c  c -c -c c c  c c  c $c #c c
# c cD ccc c cc

.c c Dc  c  c 7 c


 c   c  c c
   c c c# ccc c ccc ccc c
 '
 c c c cc# c cc cc c cc cc c
 c $c  c  c  c  c ) # c c c  c 'c c  c
 c  c  $  c 1&# c  c c )c c  c  c c c
#c   'c

0c   c c c  c  c  c c $c  c c c c $c
 c  c c 7 c
 c  c $c c  c )c c  c
$cc  c   c$ c'c

""c
 c c c c   c
c c c
 c    c

  I PLE ENTATION

.c7 c
 c cc cc$cc c c$ c'c
0c   c c c c c c +J*c  c $c c  c c
  c$cccc c ccc ccc c

 c  c c c  c  c c c c c $c #c
  c  cc  c c c c  c  c $cc  c 'c* cc
c  c  c c c c  c c  c c #c $&  c
 $ c  c c
 c 'c c   c   c # c c c
# c c # c c c
 c c c c  c  c  c c c c
 c c c c c  c c  c c c c  c c  c $c
  cc  c  c  cc $c)& c c c c)c'c
cc c1ccc  c cccc cc ccc
 c c  'c cccc $c  c cc cc
$c#c# cc1 ccc &c+&c c &8c 'c

Fig   F- with variable sweep wing configurations

.c   c $ c @c ;Dc   @;c c c $c c
 c  c  c  c c ,!!,c #c c &c  'c .c c #c
c cc7c ccc  c c c >c $$c$c
# ccc cEc   c c cc c$ c c
) c  c c c   c  c  c c #c Ec

"8c
 c c c c   c
c c c
 c    c

$ c c c c c  Ec  c $ c &  c
c  cc ccc 'c

c.#c  &c  c # c  c #c $c  c ;c **c  c


  c $ c @c ;Dc   @;Cc 7 c  c c
374c  ',c .c c c S  c # Tc  c #c $c c 2)c
7 c  c  c $ c  c  c  c c c  c  $c #c  'c
.c cc$c#cMc$ccc c#c$cc1 c
 c  c  c c $ c  c c c  c  c #c  Ec
 c$ cc c cc cc'c+c cccc cc
# c  'c

Fig   Lockheed  artin¶s Folding Wing Conceptc

Fig   NextGen Aeronautic¶s Variable Sweep / Variable Root Chord Concept

;c**c cc7c c  c c$ c c c cc# c


 c c c  c c c  c  c /$ c  $  c 3# c
 c 1 c c c ..c c c 2 4c ;c ***c #c c c
$ c  c c  c c  c   c $'c c  c
 c  c# c  c#c/cc  c$ c  c c c
% c ccc'c

;c***c ccc c#c#cccccc c c


# c c'#cc$  c c c'c

":c
 c c c c   c
c c c
 c    c

7ccc ccDc   ccc cc c  (c


# c 'c c c  c  c $c  c c 1 c Dc # c
   'cc

 c c
 c c  c  c c c  c  c c
   ccc c c c ccc #c'c
c c c
 c #c  c  c  c c c c ) #&#c  c   c  c  c c
c ccc)cc #cc c$ ccc) c 'c

"Ic
 c c c c   c
c c c
 c    c

c CONCLUSION

.c c  cc c  c )cc c c c  c  c 1'c.c
ccc cc  c c cc$c c cc c cc $c
 ccc c c c c c 'c7c cc c cc c
 c c cc$c  c$c# c   cc c c
ccc c$  cc  cc$c# c   c
#cc cc c cccc cc)c c c c#c c
'c

oc * cc c c$c$ cc  c c+ c


 c+c#ccc
Cc  $  c  'c * c c c c + c c  c  c c  c
 c#ccc c c c c cc# ccc'c
oc * cc c  c =0Cc c )cc J c
 c    c c c )cc)c
$c ccc cc$ccc$c'cc
oc c c J/c
 c    c  c c  c  c c c c c
 c #c c c #c  c c c c  c c c c c # c
   c c cc=0C'c
oc $ c cc7 c
 c cccc)c# c cc c#c
c c c c  c  c c c c $  c  c $ 'c * c c
$cc c cc#cc7 c # c.  c#cc
c c c$ cc$c$ c#ccccc cc
cc5c cc  c cc

"c
 c c c c   c
c c c
 c    c

REFERENCE

'c c  c   $  c  c    U;c  c c c


ë c c c
cc c c
,'c  c  c c  c = $c ='''0*c c c  c * $$c
   c c$ c  c c c $c cccc
"'c cc  c  c  c  c 'c S+ &
 &+c  c c
. Tc*c;c <&!8"<cc
8'c cë c  !cS.cJ &# >c cJ$$#TcJ c c c0'c,"c'c"c
c'cI&c<cc
:'c  ! c " c # c c  $c  c  %% &c 7 c  c J% c c
7 c
 c  c   c ü  c  %'&c %'c (&''c c
)#c! %c
I'c >MM###' & &  ' c
'c >MM '# #)'c
<'c >MM###'  '' c
'c >MM###'$ 'MM & c
c

"<c
 c c c c   c