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Soursop 1

Soursop
Soursop

Scientific classification

Kingdom: Plantae

Unranked: Angiosperms

Unranked: Magnoliids

Order: Magnoliales

Family: Annonaceae

Genus: Annona

Species: A. muricata

Binomial name

Annona muricata
[1]
L.

Synonyms

• Annona crassiflora Mart.


• Annona sericea Lam.
• A. macrocarpa Wercklé
• A. bonplandiana H.B. & K.
• A. cearensis Barb.Rodr.
• A. coriacea
• Guanabanus muricatus (L.) M.Gómez in Rain-tree

The soursop (Annona muricata) is a broadleaf flowering evergreen tree native to Mexico, Venezuela, Central
America, the Caribbean and northern South America, Colombia and Brazil. Soursop is also native to sub-Saharan
African countries that lie within the tropics. Today, it is also grown in some areas of Southeast Asia. It is in the same
genus as the chirimoya and the same family as the pawpaw.
Soursop 2

The soursop is adapted to areas of high humidity and relatively


warm winters; temperatures below 5°C/41°F will cause damage to
leaves and small branches, and temperatures below 3°C/37.4°F
can be fatal. The fruit becomes dry and is no longer good for
concentrate.

Soursop fruit.

Other common names include: guanábana (Spanish), graviola


(Portuguese), Brazilian pawpaw, corossolier, guanavana,
toge-banreisi, durian benggala, nangka blanda, and nangka
londa.[2] . In Malayalam, it is called "Mullaatha" , literally thorny
custard apple.
Its flavor is described as a combination of strawberry and
pineapple with sour citrus flavor notes contrasting with an
underlying creamy flavor reminiscent of coconut or banana.

Cultivation and uses


The plant is grown as a commercial crop for its 20–30 cm
/7.87-11.8 inch long prickly green fruit, which can have a mass of
up to 2.5 kg/5.5 lbs.
Away from its native area, there is some limited production as far
north as southern Florida within USDA Zone 10; however, these
are mostly garden plantings for local consumption. It is also grown
in parts of southeastern Asia. The soursop will reportedly fruit as a
container specimen, even in temperate climates, if protected from Annona muricata var.subonica

cool temperatures.
Soursop 3

The flesh of the fruit consists of an edible white pulp and a core of
indigestible black seeds. The species is the only member of its
genus that is suitable for processing and preservation. The sweet
pulp is used to make juice as well as candies, sorbets, and ice
cream flavorings.
In Mexico and Colombia, it is a common fruit, often used for
dessert as the only ingredient, or as an agua fresca beverage, in
Colombia it is a fruit for juices melting it with milk, latest
researches at the National University of Colombia, confirm this
fruit as a strong potential anti-cancer treatment. Ice cream and fruit
bars made of soursop are also very popular. The seeds are
normally left in the preparation, and removed while consuming.

In Indonesia, dodol sirsak, a sweetmeat, is made by boiling


soursop pulp in water and adding sugar until the mixture hardens.
Soursop is also a common ingredient for making fresh fruit juices
that are sold by street food vendors. In Vietnam, this fruit is called
mãng cầu Xiêm in the south, or mãng cầu in the north, and is used
to make smoothies, or eaten as is. In Cambodia, this fruit is called
A.muricata flower
tearb barung, literally "western custard-apple fruit." In Malaysia,
it is known in Malay as durian belanda and in East Malaysia,
specifically among the Dusun people of Sabah, it is locally known as lampun. Popularly, it is eaten raw when it
ripens. Usually the fruits are taken from the tree when they mature and left to ripen in a dark corner, whereby they
will be eaten when they are fully ripe. It has a white flower with a very pleasing scent, especially in the morning.

Nutritionally, the fruit is high in carbohydrates, particularly fructose. The fruit also contains significant amounts of
vitamin C, vitamin B1, and vitamin B2. The fruit, seeds, and leaves have a number of herbal medicinal uses among
indigenous peoples of regions where the plant is common.

Health risks
Research carried out in the Caribbean has suggested a connection between consumption of soursop and atypical
forms of Parkinson's disease due to the very high concentration of annonacin.[3] [4] [5] [6]
According to Cancer Research UK, annona muricata is an active principle in an unlicensed herbal remedy marketed
under the brand name Triamazon.[7] It is not licensed for medicinal use and the sale of the product resulted in a
conviction on four counts of selling unlicensed medical products, and other charges, for the vendor.[8]

See also
• Cherimoya
• Custard-apple
• Sugar-apple
• Atemoya
• Annona crassiflora
Soursop 4

References
[1] "Annona muricata information from NPGS/GRIN" (http:/ / www. ars-grin. gov/ cgi-bin/ npgs/ html/ taxon. pl?3492). www.ars-grin.gov. .
Retrieved 2008-03-03.
[2] http:/ / www. blackherbals. com/ graviola. htm
[3] Lannuzel, A; et al. (2003-10-06). "The mitochondrial complex i inhibitor annonacin is toxic to mesencephalic dopaminergic neurons by
impairment of energy metabolism". Neuroscience (International Brain Research Organization) 121 (2): 287–296.
doi:10.1016/S0306-4522(03)00441-X. PMID 14521988.
[4] Champy, Pierre; et al. (2005-08-02). "Quantification of acetogenins in Annona muricata linked to atypical parkinsonism in guadeloupe".
Movement Disorders 20 (12): 1629–1633. doi:10.1002/mds.20632. PMID 16078200.
[5] Lannuzel A, Höglinger GU, Champy P, Michel PP, Hirsch EC, Ruberg M. (2006). "Is atypical parkinsonism in the Caribbean caused by the
consumption of Annonacae?". J Neural Transm Suppl. 70 (70): 153–7. doi:10.1007/978-3-211-45295-0_24. PMID 17017523.
[6] Caparros-Lefebvre D, Elbaz A. (1999-07-24). "Possible relation of atypical parkinsonism in the French West Indies with consumption of
tropical plants: a case-control study". Lancet 354 (9175): 281–6. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(98)10166-6. PMID 10440304.
[7] BriefingWire (http:/ / www. briefingwire. com/ pr/ cancer-research-uk-confirm-an-element-of-graviola-in-triamazon-kills-cancer-cells), Can
Graviola cure cancer? (http:/ / www. cancerhelp. org. uk/ about-cancer/ cancer-questions/ can-graviola-cure-cancer), Cancer Research UK
[8] Messenger Newspapers (http:/ / www. messengernewspapers. co. uk/ news/ 8421043.
Suspended_sentence_for__miracle_cure__cancer_drug_man/ ?ref=rss), 29th September 2010

External links
• (Portuguese) Correia, M. P., (1984) Dicionário das plantas úteis do Brasil
• Description of soursop (http://www.hort.purdue.edu/newcrop/morton/soursop.html) from Fruits of Warm
Climates (1987, ISBN 0-9610184-1-0)
• Sorting Annona names (http://www.plantnames.unimelb.edu.au/Sorting/Annona.html)
• Soursop / Guyabano Fruit Nutrition (http://www.philippineherbalmedicine.org/guyabano.htm)
• Rain-tree: Annona muricata (http://www.rain-tree.com/Graviola-Monograph.pdf)
• Soursop List of Chemicals (Dr. Duke's) (http://sun.ars-grin.gov:8080/npgspub/xsql/duke/plantdisp.
xsql?taxon=91)

Gallery

Fruit and Spice Park, Homestead, Unbelievable Acres Botanic


Florida Gardens, West Palm Beach,
Florida

bjn:Nangka balanda
Article Sources and Contributors 5

Article Sources and Contributors


Soursop  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=395868702  Contributors: A dullard, A. Parrot, Aaarez, Aaronbrick, Ahoerstemeier, Arkij815, Babbage, Badagnani, BanyanTree,
Beeswaxcandle, Bjchua, Bobblewik, Bogey97, CanisRufus, Careless hx, CarolSpears, Caspian blue, Curtis Clark, DanielCD, David Gerard, Davodd, Deadcorpse, Dirkvwt, Dryman,
Dysmorodrepanis, Easilva, Edgar181, Eldhose407, Elpincha, EncycloPetey, Eugene van der Pijll, Evenios, Fearfulsymmetry, Fibonacci, FriscoKnight, Gobonobo, Hamamelis, HeartofaDog,
Hesperian, IainP, Icamepica, Isaacsurh, Jalwikip, Jerem43, Jlin, JoJan, John254, Jonathan.kade, Jpatokal, JzG, KDesk, Kakoui, Katieh5584, Kimchifan, Kingdon, Langra, Lavateraguy, MPF,
Mahjongg, Maxis ftw, Mccready, Minesweeper, Mmm, Muriel Gottrop, N5iln, Niassuh ivqan, Nihonjoe, Off2Explore, Omí Wale, Optakeover, Paodiesel, Pieter1, Pomeapplepome, Postdlf,
PrinceRegentLuitpold, RainbowOfLight, Reinyday, Ricardo Carneiro Pires, Rjwilmsi, Sevprime, Solipsist, Sorcha, TShilo12, Tauʻolunga, Template namespace initialisation script, The Luizer,
TheTechieGeek63, Tibberous, Tskam1, Tusbra, Unanihakim, Vishnu2011, Vmenkov, Vsmith, Wiki Wikardo, WriterHound, Zarano, ‫ينام‬, 183 anonymous edits

Image Sources, Licenses and Contributors


file:Annona muricata 1.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Annona_muricata_1.jpg  License: Creative Commons Attribution 2.0  Contributors: Caesius, CarolSpears,
Damouns, FlickreviewR
File:Owoce Guanabana.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Owoce_Guanabana.jpg  License: Creative Commons Attribution 3.0  Contributors: User:Hans_B.,
User:Nova
File:Annona muricata Blanco1.196.png  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Annona_muricata_Blanco1.196.png  License: Public Domain  Contributors: Francisco Manuel
Blanco (O.S.A.)
File:Annona muricata fleur2.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Annona_muricata_fleur2.jpg  License: Creative Commons Attribution-Sharealike 3.0  Contributors:
User:Pancrat
Image:Soursop fruit.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Soursop_fruit.jpg  License: Public Domain  Contributors: USGov
Image:Annona_muricata2.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Annona_muricata2.jpg  License: Public Domain  Contributors: User:Hans_B.
Image:Corossol.JPG  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Corossol.JPG  License: Public Domain  Contributors: User:BMR
Image:Annona muricata.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Annona_muricata.jpg  License: Public Domain  Contributors: User:Hans_B.
Image:Annona muricata (Soursop) - tree with fruits.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Annona_muricata_(Soursop)_-_tree_with_fruits.jpg  License: Creative
Commons Attribution 2.0  Contributors: David Lytle from San Francisco, CA, USA
Image:Annona muricata 1 (1).jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Annona_muricata_1_(1).jpg  License: Creative Commons Attribution 2.0  Contributors: Tatiana Gerus
from Brisbane, Australia
Image:Guanabana01_fs_Asit.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Guanabana01_fs_Asit.jpg  License: Creative Commons Attribution-Sharealike 3.0  Contributors:
User:Thaumaturgist
Image:Guanabana02_Joyner_Asit.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Guanabana02_Joyner_Asit.jpg  License: Creative Commons Attribution-Sharealike 3.0
 Contributors: User:Thaumaturgist

License
Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 3.0 Unported
http:/ / creativecommons. org/ licenses/ by-sa/ 3. 0/