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Methods

Of
Teaching
Office System Subjects
With
e-Learning Aproach

The
Analysis
Phase
What the module is all about?
This module aims to give you the first part of the underlying Methods of
Teaching Office System Subjects with e-Learning Approach. The specifics of the
analysis phase will be presented in this module. The author hopes to give the
students the best ideas that you will need to pass the course.

What do you expect to learn from this module?


After this module, you will be able to:
1. Understand the principles of analysis phase in e-Learning approach in the
methods of office systems
subjects.
2. Appreciate analysis phase in developing your own web-base training.
3. Develop analysis phase with competency based learning in the course
subject.

Module Content
Information Sheet 1 How do you determine a solution to a performance problem?

Information Sheet 2 STEP 1 How do I know if training is even the solution to the problem?

Information Sheet 3 STEP 2 Analysing the Gap

Information Sheet 4 STEP 3 Closing the Gap

Information Sheet 5 STEP 4 Audience Assessment

Information Sheet 6 STEP 5 Determining Resources and Constraints

Information Sheet 7 Five Categories of Learner Characteristics


Pre Test
Direction: Write True if the statement is correct, and write False if the statement is wrong.
Write your answers on the spaces provided before the item.

____________1. The first step in any user centered design process is to understand the user’s
needs.

____________2. Knowing your audience requires an in depth assessment of the learners to


develop a generic profile.

____________3. To perform a proper analysis, you first determine if training is the solution to
the problem you are trying to solve (needs analysis).

____________4. Step 5 analyzes the resources and constraints of the situation.

____________5. Content analysis is a methodology in the social sciences for studying the
content of communication.

____________6. Need analysis is dividing goal into constituent parts to improve instruction by
identifying sub steps and subordinate concepts, knowledge, and skills.

____________7. Self-concept - is multi-dimensional construct that refers to an individual's


perception of "self" in relation to any number of characteristics, such as academics (and non-
academics), gender roles and sexuality, racial identity, and many others.

____________8. Existing knowledge - is the awareness and understanding of facts, truths or


information gained in the form of experience or learning. Knowledge is an appreciation of the
possession of interconnected details which, in isolation, are of lesser value.

____________9. Learners has the threat or use of force to prevent, restrict, or dictate the
action or thought of others. (constraints)

____________10. Analysis has 7 major components in a instructional design.


Information Sheet 1

How do you determine a solution to a performance problem?

Analysis is the first phase of any instructional design project. It contains 6 major stages:

 needs analysis

 audience, resource & constraints analysis

 delivery system selection

 problem and instructional goal(s) statements

 content analysis; and

 instructional analysis.

Needs Analysis is the formal process defined by K Tara Smith that sits alongside Requirements analysis
and focuses on the human elements of the requirements.

 User-centered design, according to Katz-Haas, is really about defining who the users are,
defining their tasks and goals, their experience levels, what functions they want and need from a
system, what information they want and need and understanding how the users think the system
should work.

 The first step in any user centered design process is to understand the user’s needs.

 Put simply; whereas Requirements analysis focuses on the elements needed to be represented
in the system, needs analysis focuses on the requirements related to the goals, aspirations and
needs of the users and/or the user community and feeds them into the system requirement
analysis process.

 it is also defined as identify job performance skills needed, assess prospective trainees skills and
developed objective.

Content analysis

It is a methodology in the social sciences for studying the content of communication. Earl Babbie defines it
as "the study of recorded human communications, such as books, websites, paintings and laws." It is most commonly
used by researchers in the social sciences to analyze recorded transcripts of interviews with participants.
Instructional analysis

It is dividing goal into constituent parts to improve instruction by identifying sub steps and subordinate
concepts, knowledge, and skills.

Take Note:

To perform a proper analysis, you first determine if training is the solution to the problem you are trying to solve
(needs analysis). Once this has been determined, and if training has been proposed, the rest of the analysis phase
establishes the:

 who (audience, resource and constraints analysis)

 how (delivery system selection & instructional analysis)

 why (problem and instructional goal statements); and

 what (content analysis)

of the training program. Although designers agree that the Analysis Phase is the most important phase, it is
often the most neglected.

Information Sheet 2

Step 1 How do I know if training is even the solution to the problem?

The Problem

Actual Situation Gap Desired Situation

What’s Causing
the
gap

How might the


gap be closed?
Determining the gap

 The first step in the needs analysis is to determine the actual and desired situation.

 The gap is an interruption of continuity.

Information Sheet 3

Step 2: Analyzing the gap

What is causing the gap between the actual and desired situation? You need to collect data using
whatever methods are appropriate for your context. Methods might include direct observation, interviews,
questionnaires or document review.

Information Sheet 4

Step 3: Closing the gap

How might the gap (need) be filled? The answer to this question will depend on the conclusions
you reached in Step 2. It is important to keep in mind that many gaps will not be solved by training, as was
demonstrated in the previous lesson. Even if a human performance problem is causing a gap between a
desired and actual situation, the solution may involve some change to the work environment rather than
change to the performance of individuals through training.

Information Sheet 5

Step 4: Audience Assessment

If your needs analysis has resulted in the determination that training is part of the solution to the
gap between your actual and desired situation, the next step in the Analysis phase of the ISD process is to
analyze your audience. This is an essential part of the process because, regardless of your good
intentions, learners will not buy into your training program if it does not suit their needs, interests, or
motivations. Simply stated, you must know your learners before designing instruction for them.

Knowing your audience requires an in depth assessment of the learners to develop a generic
profile. Without this information, it is possible to end up with a program that is too basic or too difficult for
the participants.

Information Sheet 6

Step 5: Determining resources and constraints

Step 5 analyzes the resources and constraints of the situation. What is available to the learner and
what constraints exist in terms of financial resources, human resources, time, facilities, equipment,
materials, organizational characteristics, and existing instructional resources?

Resources and Constraints

 Learners has something that can be used for support or help. (resources)

 Learners has the threat or use of force to prevent, restrict, or dictate the action or thought of others.
(constraints)

Information Sheet 7

Five categories of learner characteristics

Instructional preferences

 Type of presentation

 Need for practice

 Type and amount of feedback


Personal/Physical Characteristics

 Geographic location

 Sensory, motor or mental conditions.

General Characteristic

 Age

 Level of education

 Language ability

Entry skill

 Existing knowledge - is the awareness and understanding of facts, truths or information gained in
the form of experience or learning. Knowledge is an appreciation of the possession of
interconnected details which, in isolation, are of lesser value.

 Skills - Proficiency, facility, or dexterity that is acquired or developed through training or


experience

 Ability - The quality of being able to do something, especially the physical, mental, financial, or
legal power to accomplish something

Affective Characteristics

 Motivation - Something that motivates; an inducement or incentive.

 Self-concept - is multi-dimensional construct that refers to an individual's perception of "self" in


relation to any number of characteristics, such as academics (and non-academics), gender roles
and sexuality, racial identity, and many others
Module Activity
Direction: Develop the analysis phase by filling out the diagram below. Specify the problem content
to be able to produce the needed solutions.

The Problem: __________________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________________________

Actual Situation: ________________________________________________________________________


_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________

Gap: _________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
Desired Situation: ______________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________

What’s causing the gap?: ________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________

How the might the gap be closed?: _________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
Post Test
Direction: Write True if the statement is correct, and write False if the statement is wrong.
Write your answers on the spaces provided before the item.

____________1. The first step in any user centered design process is to understand the user’s
needs.

____________2. Knowing your audience requires an in depth assessment of the learners to


develop a generic profile.

____________3. To perform a proper analysis, you first determine if training is the solution to
the problem you are trying to solve (needs analysis).

____________4. Step 5 analyzes the resources and constraints of the situation.

____________5. Content analysis is a methodology in the social sciences for studying the
content of communication.

____________6. Need analysis is dividing goal into constituent parts to improve instruction by
identifying sub steps and subordinate concepts, knowledge, and skills.

____________7. Self-concept - is multi-dimensional construct that refers to an individual's


perception of "self" in relation to any number of characteristics, such as academics (and non-
academics), gender roles and sexuality, racial identity, and many others.

____________8. Existing knowledge - is the awareness and understanding of facts, truths or


information gained in the form of experience or learning. Knowledge is an appreciation of the
possession of interconnected details which, in isolation, are of lesser value.

____________9. Learners has the threat or use of force to prevent, restrict, or dictate the
action or thought of others. (constraints)

____________10. Analysis has 7 major components in a instructional design.


Asnwer Key

1. True
2. True
3. True
4. True
5. True
6. False
7. True
8. True
9. True
10. False