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Table of Content







1.6 WHY EVENT 13






























“We GENERATE Quality Business Leads

We ENHANCE Your Profile

We CREATE New Business Opportunities

Everyone Knows Us as EVENTS”

Event marketing is growing at a rate of three times that of traditional advertising. Though
relatively small compared to the major components of the marketing communications
mix-advertising, sales promotions and P-O-P communications-expenditures on event
sponsorship are increasing. Corporate sponsorships in India in 2001 were estimated at
$3.9 billion-with 65% of this total going to sports events and most of the remainder spent
on sponsoring entertainment tours or festival and fairs. Thousands of companies invest in
some form of event sponsorship. Defined, event marketing is a form of brand promotion
that ties a brand to a meaningful athletic, entertainment, cultural, social or other type of
high-interest public activity. Event marketing is distinct from advertising, sales
promotion, point-of-purchase merchandising, or public relations, but it generally
incorporates elements from all of these promotional tools. Event promotions have an
opportunity to achieve success because, unlike other forms of marketing
communications, events reach people when they are receptive to marketing messages and
capture people in a relaxed atmosphere.

Event marketing is growing rapidly because it provides companies alternatives to the

cluttered mass media, an ability to segment on a local or regional basis, and opportunities
for reaching narrow lifestyle groups whose consumption behavior can be linked with the
local event. MasterCard invested an estimated $25 million in sponsoring the nine-city
World Cup soccer championship in the United States in 1994 and will likely sponsor
other big events in many countries as well.

Olympics and its renowned five rings are “the world’s most effective property” in terms
of marketing tools. The Olympics sell sponsorship on a local and global basis, and every
couple of year’s corporation’s line up to pay as much as $50 million to be the lord of the
rings. The Atlanta games in 1996 have a reported $3 billion in the bank as a result of
negotiating sponsorship, broadcast, and licensee fees.

The Olympics represents the creme de la creeme of event marketing and corporate
sponsorship. Event marketing is a lucrative game of “what’s in a name”, as consumers
purchase tickets and expose themselves to everything. The world of event marketing is a
fast growing, high profile industry worth over $20 billion annually, and one of the most
successful marketing strategies.

Event marketing integrates the corporate sponsorship of an event with a whole range of
marketing elements such as advertising, sales promotion, and public relations.
Corporations both large and small have grown this industry at a rate of 17 percent per
year, and they have achieved a high level of success.

What is Marketing?
Marketing can be defined as a process by which individuals and groups obtain what they
want through creating, offering and exchanging products of value with others. All sport
and recreation organizations undertake marketing, although they are often unaware that
they are actually doing so. Listing in the yellow pages, telephone directory, placing
information in the local newspaper, offering a discount and special offers etc. are all
forms of marketing.

Marketing Tools
The “marketing mix” or marketing tools an organization can use can be classified into
four categories:

 Product

 Price

 Place

 Promotion

Tools of Promotion
 Advertising

 Public Relations

 Direct marketing

 Word of mouth

 Hospitality

The problems associated with traditional media that has been used for satisfying
marketing needs discussed in the previous section are listed below:

1. Too many advertisements have led to a cluttering on T.V, print and other media.
This has given rise to a need for avenues, which provide exclusivity to the
sponsor while not sacrificing the benefits of reach and impact.

2. The increasing no. of TV channels and the greater no. of programs have led to
fragmentation of the viewer-ship. Hence, the need for narrow-casting of
campaigns to the sharply defined target audience.

3. Proliferation of low intensity television viewers who view a little of each channel
leads to the need for capturing the full attention of the target audience.

4. Media cost inflation – Due to rising inflation which has been eroding the
advertising budget, advertisers are demanding the beat return from every ad-rupee
spent. Media planning has become more complex and therefore the need for
increase the effectiveness in terms of tangible impact which can be instantly
evaluated has risen.

5. Proliferation of various media channels, therefore the requirement for intelligent

media buying.


The five Ps of marketing: product, place, people, price and promotion play an essential
role in Event Marketing. To successfully use Event Marketing the marketer must
understand how Event Marketing fits together with the other parts of the marketing
strategy. Kotler describes the organization’s marketing mix as controllable variables that
are mixed so that the organization gets the response that they are asking for from the
target market. Event Marketing fits under promotion in the marketing mix. Other
marketing tools that goes under this section are advertising, sales promotion, personal
sales, direct sales, public relations, and sponsoring. Event Marketing is not a substitute

for any of the other components- it is a complement. It takes an imaginative mix of all
the communication tools available to extend the impact of the event.

Fig 1.1: Marketing Mix vs. Event Marketing

If an organization uses Event Marketing, they still need to use the other parts of the
promotion mix before, during, and after the event. An example of this could be how a car
producer can have advertisements to inform about a new car launch, and then use events
to get people to test drive the new car, and then follow up with direct marketing with a
discount coupon. One of the main advantages with Event Marketing compared to the
other channels is that the objective can both be direct sales, and image building,
depending on how it is used.


From its origins in event planning, the event marketing industry has seen great growth in
the last five years and has consistently been one of the most effective tools that marketing
professionals have at their disposal in terms of making a tangible connection to current
and potential customers. The increasing competitive pressures brought on by
globalization are forcing business professionals to find new ways to engage customers.
Not surprisingly, savvy event marketing professionals are therefore focusing the majority

of their efforts and budgetary spend on lead generation tactics such as trade shows. While
it is important to garner leads, marketing and specifically event marketing professionals
cannot lose sight of the fact that the sales cycle only begins at lead generation and that
current and prospective customers must also be nurtured even beyond purchase.
Companies can benefit tremendously from the deeper event marketing touch points that
promote nurturing such as proprietary conferences that provide a controlled environment
for delivering messages and closing business. The nurturing process will allow the
customers to more effectively be funneled into the subsequent stages of the sales cycle
thus creating greater opportunities to develop into repeat customers.

An event is a live multimedia package with a preconceived concept, customized or
modified to achieve the clients objective of reaching out and suitably influencing the
sharply defined, specially gathered target audience by providing a complete sensual
experience and an avenue for two-way interaction.



Communication Live Desired
from the Audienc
client e

This is a diagrammatic representation of the above definition. From the model it is
evident that an event is a package so organized has to provide, reach and live interaction
between the target audience and the client to achieve the desired impact.

Event marketing involves canvassing for clients and arranging feedback for the creative
concepts during and after the concept initiation so as to arrive at a customized package
for the client, keeping the brand values and target audience in mind. Marketing plays an
important role in pricing and negotiations as well as identifying opportunities to define
and retain event properties by gathering marketing intelligence with regard to pricing,
timing etc.

In fact, ideally event marketing involves simultaneous canvassing and studying the brand
prints; understanding what the brand stands for, its positioning and values, identifying the
target audience and liaison with the creative conceptualizes to create an event for a
prefect mesh with the brand’s personality.


If one knows how to organize an event he should also know how to market it. If there is
something very peculiar or special about the event then that main point has to be
highlighted. A product launch for example requires a sales promotion campaign either
before or after the launch. In that case the product is advertised through banners and
media and even door to door canvassing. Effort is taken to ensure that people sit up and
take notice of the event. Sometimes it could be an event like an award ceremony, which
is to be shown on television and different companies make a beeline for sponsoring their
respective products in the due course of the programme. This is the way publicity and
promotions work.

The Human Dimension

A key issue for Event Marketing is having the right human resources communicating the
brand values. The importance of having people working that truly understand the brand
was emphasized by almost all the interviewees. The human dimension of Event
Marketing is what creates the uniqueness to the brand in an event, especially for high-
involvement purchases. In the capital goods industry, where high involvement decisions
are taken and more reliable information is needed, interaction serves as a great function.
When buying a car, the consumer is making one of his/her biggest investments, the
consumer is more sensitive and might require more than one-way communication to
convert to another brand. What makes the 3D advertisement more unique is adding a
human dimension, by placing someone who is familiar with and can communicate the
company brand and product.

The Human Context

To add a human dimension might sound an easy solution in order to communicate the
brand identity. However, the human being is rather complex in her way of learning,
interpreting and understanding, since she, is characterized by her context. Everything the
human being experiences will affect the way she interprets situations. Unless she
experiences a situation, which requires new behavior and this behavior is positive, she
will not change her way of acting. However, if she is put in a situation in which she has
to experience a new way of acting and if the experience is interpreted as positive, it is
most likely that she will repeat the behavior in a similar situation.

Mental Models are deeply ingrained assumptions and generalizations that influence how
we understand the world and how we take action. The models keep us in the same pattern
of both thinking and acting. By questioning the Mental Models people see matters from a
different perspective and openness. But in order to be able to question the Mental Models
we first must realize that there has to be something to gain by questioning them.

Most managers today only see the brand as the company’s logo and corporate identity
program, but in the future the company “brand” will have to encapsulate and

communicate what an organization is and what it stands for. Therefore the manager must
change the interpretation of the brand. It is as important to win a distinguished and
distinctive place in the perception of a company’s actual and perspective customers, as it
is the same with the employees. Since it is the human dimension that adds the value to a
customer/prospect in an event, all members and functions in the organization must not
only be market orientated in general but also market orientated in combination with the
brand values. It is a common fact that people are different and cannot adjust to all

Several interviewees supported this when mentioning that there has to be a match
between the individual values and the company values. One crucial factor might be the
individual’s ability to learn, since the individual must not only understand the added
values in the brand identity but also learn to interpret the different situations that might
occur during an event, and combine the behavior to the specific situation. It is the
individual’s perception of the current situation together with how he/she translates the
added values to fit to that specific situation that will help or not help the company.

Integrated Organization

When working with Event Marketing it is important to have a well-integrated

organization, therefore we agree, “that internal marketing builds service quality”. Internal
marketing can be defined as selling the firm to its employees, and Kotler and Armstrong
(1993) view internal marketing as the building of customer orientation among employees
by training and motivating both consumer contact and support staff as a team. These
definitions might be too static, since they are not teaching the employees; rather they are
persuading how great the business idea of the company is.

By learning how different components in a system interact will increase the

understanding of how the entire system works. Understanding just one component by
itself that is isolated from the others will not be enough. A company itself is a complex
system that is connected by a series of contacts and the components in this system are
highly integrated. Since we are a part of this network, we most often only see specific
components and are puzzled by that we cannot find good solutions to our greatest

problems. System thinking is a term that contains knowledge and different tools, which
can help us, understand and influence the entire patterns in an organization.

Match The Event To Your Market

Choose the kind of event that appeals to your target market suits your product’s image
and fits your marketing objectives.

If, for example, you are looking for reach and you are selling a low cost product with
wide general appeal, sports sponsorship may be the avenue for you. If your product is an
up market one, artistic events could suit you better. If your have a technical product,
science-type sponsorships would be possibilities and if your main aim is to be seen as a
good corporate citizen, put your sponsorship money into good causes. The Children’s
Hospital, the Red Cross or the environment, to name three, AIDS research is another one.

The meteoric history of event marketing is based in sports marketing. In fact, music and
arts represents a combined 35 percent of event spending as compared 45 percent for
sports-related events. Event marketing also continues to thrive as traditional advertising
rate skyrocket and, really, fail to provide any guarantee of reaching a targeted audience.
Event marketing provides a cost-effective approach to making a more hard-hitting,
emotional, and tangible pitch to consumers. It also gives companies the opportunity to
cross-promote (promote with other companies that have related products or services),
offer sample products (give-always), and build strong relationship with various channels
of distribution, such as retail outlets.

Charities go out of their way to meet both their own fund-raising needs and the profit
requirements of the firms they team up with. It is a commercial relationship and the
entire better for it. Charities need funds, and the businesses need promotions, which
show their worth in extra profit.

1. Brand Building

Creating awareness about the launch of new products/brand

Enormous nos. of brand/product are launched every month. Similarly innumerable new
music albums, films, etc get released periodically. This tends to create clutter of product
launches. The large no. of launches also leads to need to overcome the “ooh-yet-another-
product” syndrome. The need to therefore catch the attention of the target audience at the
time of launch becomes very important. Meticulously planned events for the launch of a
product/brand seldom fail to catch the attention of the target audience.

Presentation of brand description to highlight the added features of product/services

Sometimes technological changes pave the way for manufactures or service providers to
augment their products. To convey this via traditional modes of communication to the
existing and potential customer base may sometimes be futile. Special service camps of
exhibitions are the perfect events that provide the opportunity for a two way interaction
and error free communication. For Example, IMTEX, the Industrial Machine Tools
Exhibition, is an event used by most machine tool manufactures to explain and highlight
the new and improved features of their product.

Helping in rejuvenating brands during the different stages of product life cycle

The massive amount of money that is spent during the introduction stage of products gets
drastically reduced over time. By the time the product reaches its maturity/decline stage,
the need for cutting down the budgets associated with the media campaigns, while at the
same time maintaining the customer base is felt. And events offer the best medium for
such a focused approach. It helps in generating feelings of brand loyalty in the products’
end user by treating them as royally as possible.

Helping in communicating the repositioning of brands/products

Events help in repositioning exercises to be carried out successfully. In other words,

events can be designed to assist in changing beliefs about firms/products/services.

Associating the brand personality of clients with the personality of target market

Citibank is an elite bank where people do banking with pride. Hence, other premium
brands would like to associate themselves with the same audience so as to benefit from
the rub-off effect. An exhibition-cum-sale event organized exclusively for Citibank credit
card holders, small merchandisers get to do business with the Citibank customers, as well
as build and maintain a premium image for themselves. Here Citibank acts as the event
organizer and small merchandisers acts as participants so that they can associate the
personality of their products with the personality of Citibank customers.

Creating and maintaining brand identity

Australia-based Foster’s Brewing Group’s Asian subsidiary in its plan to launch its bear
brand Foster’s Lager in India choose the game of cricket – in which the Aussies are
known as the best team in the world. By becoming the official sponsors of Australian
cricket team on its India tour, Foster’s hoped to achieve its goal of brand identity
building and positioning itself at the premium end of the market.

Rennie Solomito, Marketing Manager for Coors Light (Beer Company) explains that in
order to increase awareness and personality of the brand, Coors Light tries to find the
distinguishing “look of the leader” in each market. Coors Light select events that are fast
paced and young minded, for example, Coors Light Silver Bullet Concert Series
featuring artists like Bryan Adams and Celin Dion

2. Image Building

Over and above the brand identity that a company encourages, events such as The Great
Escape conceived by Mahindra and Mahindra, exclusively for the owners of their four
wheelers, the Armada, are an attempt to build a specific image of not only the corporate,
but also the product, to let owners experience the thrill of four wheel driving, M&M
charts out an off beat route that emphasizes the difference between normal and four
wheel driving, and lets the participant experience the high, one feels when steering and
navigating an Armada.

Coke is associated with Olympics since 1928, the rationale behind this is similar values
and ideologies: International peace, brotherhood, standard of excellence and fun.

Fig 1.3: Constructing the Brand Value Chain

3. Focusing the Target Market

Helping in avoidance of clutter

Even though some events do get congested with too many advertisements, events still
provide and effective means of being spotted. For example, Title sponsorship of a major
event provides the sponsor immense benefit since the sponsors name is mentioned along
with the event like Hero Cup, Femina Miss India, Lux Zee Cine Awards.

Enabling interactive mode of communication

Events generally provide an opportunity for buyers and sellers to interact. They also
provide a foundation for exchange and sharing of knowledge between professionals.
Example: Bang!Linux2000, Auto Expo.

Unparalleled footwear company NIKE ensures that it sponsors those events which will
give it a chance to create an emotional tie with the participants through onsite brand
usage and product presentation.

4. Implementation of Marketing Plan

Enabling authentic test marketing

Events bring the target audience together, thereby creating opportunity for test marketing
of products for authentic feedback. The seller can identify exactly the traits and other
characteristics that are desired. For example, marketing events that the Frito-Lay
Company used before it launched its WOW! brand of potato chips.

Enabling focused sales and communication to a captive audience

In an event the audience is more or less bound to witnessing one particular event. In such
a situation it is very favorable for sellers to put forth their presentations without any
diversions. Such a situation is very valuable given the ineffectiveness of traditional
modes of communication in holding on to the attention of the audience.

For example, Burger King wanted to reach a young demographic in the New York area,
EMG (Event Marketing Company) helped them to create a 30-concert series at the New
York Palladium. Burger King received onsite signage and distribution of bounce back

Increasing customer traffic in stores

Events can be conceptualized to increase customer traffic. They can be customized to

make available, concepts ranging from retail store specific events to mega events like one
day international cricket tournament. For example, Nescafe 3-in-1 treasure hunt, co-

sponsored by McDonald’s is a combined effect in increasing the customer traffic as well
as increasing the awareness among the upper class of the existence of new McD’s outlets.

Enabling sales promotion

Weekly events conducted by Crossword Bookstore helps in generating more revenue

during the weekends as compared to the revenue generated in the weekdays.

Help in relation building and PR activities

Practitioners of this marketing function believe that event marketing campaigns have the
ability to create long lasting relationships with closely targeted market segments.
Relationship building is not restricted to end user customers but also targeted at
enhancing new distributors and sales representative relations.

For example: Techfest organized by IIT Bombay, is an annual technological festival held
by IIT Bombay has helped the sponsors in establishing their relationship with the
Institute and ensuring that an image of being interested is created and nurtured.

Coke is sponsoring the Olympic since 1928. As coke does business in over 200 countries,
the Olympics give the company the opportunity to identify its product with the foremost
special event in the world.

Motivating the sales team

The need for interaction is not restricted to external customers only and end consumers
are not always the focus of live media exercises. This is especially popular amongst
pharmaceutical and other FMCG companies. For Example, during the cricket world cup
held in England HSBC introduced a unique pattern of motivating the sales force by
awarding them runs instead of the traditional points system. This resulted in conversion
of almost all of its employees into sales person.

Generate immediate sales

Most events let firms install and exclusive boot and give the permission to exploit the
opportunity to merchandise. Events such as the annual limited period discount sales from
Wrangler and Van Heusen are authentic stock clearance and seconds sales aimed at
generating immediate sales.

Generating instant publicity

An event can be designed to generate instant publicity upon the implementation of

marketing strategy. The e-commerce start up, which wanted to sell products
such as CDs, Books, Movies and Games over the internet was up against major and
strong competition. The result of this publicity stunt started the ball rolling towards
getting this company purchased by eBay for more than $300 million.

Enabling market database assimilation, maintenance and updating

By keeping track of the reach and its effectiveness as well as interacting with the
audience that actually turns up for the event, event sponsors can assimilate and authentic
database. The database can be used to track various marketing trends. Events can then
help in maintaining and updating the database.


However, there are many other marketing tools that can build brand-awareness and create
image and not confuse them with event marketing the most common confusion will be
explained here. Authors seem to mix up the concept of Event Marketing and sponsorship,
although there is a difference between the two. When using Event Marketing, the
organization works with the event as part of the marketing strategy. When sponsoring an
event, the organization buys exposure during the event at different levels of the event
itself. International Events Group (IEG) defines sponsorship this way: “The relationship
between a sponsor and a property in which the sponsor pays a cash or in-kind fee in
return for access to the exploitable commercial potential associated with the property.”

By using the commercial right, the sponsor could associate the brand and have an
effective selection of the target group to market themselves to. The association makes the
brand synonymous with the sponsored happening, and thereby the sponsoring has been
called association by event. Today sponsorship is one of the world’s fastest growing
forms of marketing and together with Event Marketing they begin to play a more
dominant role in many companies´ marketing budgets.


In terms of size events maybe categorized as follows:

1. Mega Events

The largest events are called mega events, which are generally targeted at international
markets. All such events have a specific yield in terms of increased tourism, media
coverage and economic impact.

Example: The Olympic Games, World Cup Soccer, Super Bowl, Maha Kumbh Mela.

2. Regional Events

Regional events are designed to increase the appeal of a specific tourism destination or

Example: Delhi Half Marathon.

3. Major Events

These events attract significant local interest and large no of participants as well as
generating significant tourism revenue.

Example: Chinese New Year Celebrations.

4. Minor Events

Most events fall into this category and it is here that most event managers gain their
experience. Annual events fall under this category. In addition to annual events, there are
many one time events including historical, cultural, musical and dance performances.

Meetings, parties, celebrations, conventions, award ceremonies, exhibitions, sporting
events and many other community and social event fit into this category.

Example: Annual Trade Fair organized in Delhi, Chandipur Beach Festival


1. Sporting Events

Sporting events are held in all towns, cities, states and throughout the nation. They attract
international sports men & women at the highest levels.

2. Entertainment Arts and Culture

Entertainment events are well known for their ability to attract large audience. This
includes musical concerts, celebrity performances, movie releases and mahurats etc

3. Commercial Marketing and Promotional Event

Promotional events tend to have high budgets and high profiles. Most frequently they
include product launches, often for computer hardware and software, perfume, alcohol or
motor cars. The aim of promotional events is generally to differentiate the product from
its competitors and to ensure that it is memorable. The audience for a promotional
activity might be sales staff such as travel agents, who would promote the tour of the
clients or potential purchasers. The media is usually invited to these events so that both
the impact and the risk are high, Success is vital.

4. Meetings & Exhibitions

The meetings & convention industry is highly competitive. Many conventions attract
thousands of people, whereas some meetings include only a handful of high profile

5. Festivals

Various forms of festivals are increasingly popular providing a particular region the
opportunity to showcase its product. Wine and food festivals are the most common
events falling under this category. Religious festivals fall into this category as well.

6. Family

Weddings, anniversaries, divorces and funerals all provide opportunities for families
together. Funerals are increasingly are becoming big events with non traditional coffins,
speeches and even entertainment. It is important for the event manager to keep track of
these changing social trends.

7. Fund Raising

Fairs, which are common in most communities, are frequently run by enthusiastic local
committees. The effort in the organization required for these events are often
underestimated. As their general aim is raising funds, it is important that rides and other
such contracted activities contribute to, rather than reduce, revenue.

8. Miscellaneous

Some events defy categorization. Potatoes, walnuts, wild flowers, roses, dogs, horses,
teddy bears all provide the focus for an event organized in United States.


Organizer Infrastructure

Venue Audience

Media Client

Fig 1.6: Key Elements of Event Marketing

Event Organizers

Femina with

Fountainhead: Event Support

Banyan Tree: Arrangements for classical music performance

Hemant Trevedi with assistance from Noyonika Chatterjee: Choreography and


Omung Kumar Bhandula for Opus Planet Construction: Sets

Event Infrastructure

 Core Concept: Search for new top class modeling talent through a contest and
pageant interspersed with entertainment.

 Core People: Participants i.e., models taking part in the competition and other
performers during entertainment slots such as well known classical musicians, Pt.
Shiv Kumar Sharma accompanied by Ustad. Shafat Ali Khan and popular music
by Sweta Shetty and Stereo Nation.

 Core Talent: Physical looks and proportions.

 Core Structure: Annual event of beauty pageant.

Event Venue

The two types of venue are as follows:

 In-house Venue: Any event that is executed within the premises of the company
or institution or in the private homes or proprieties belonging to the client is
called an in-house venue. The use of such venue is reserved for the employees of
the company or the residents of the campus. Most in-house venues do not need to
be paid or even if a payment is involved, it may be open for favorable negotiation.
The main advantage of in-house venue is the huge saving in the costs incurred in
hiring the venue.

 External Venue: Any venue over which neither the client nor the professional
organizer have any ownership rights is called an external venue. These are venues
open for the general public. Example: Hotels, Stadium etc, etc…

Importance of Event Venue

Events are venue driven. They help in increasing the customer traffic. Festivals
such as Valentines Day or Holi sea venue playing the clients’ role for the event
organizer. Venue has a say in the very feasibility of a event concept.

Example of Key Elements of Event:

 Event

L’Oreal Femina Elite Model Look’98

 Venue

 Shoot location: The Retreat, Marve

 Official Host: Taj Mahal Hotel

 Target Audience

Youth and Family though with a younger mindset or young at heart.

 Media

 Pre-Event: Magazines and news papers to inform about event and call for
entries with entry forms in them.

 Electronic Medium: TV and FM Radio to inform target audience about

event coverage, date & time.

 During Event: Live coverage on DD2 for widest coverage.

 Post Event: Re-telecast on Star Plus.

 Interviews and appearance of winner on shows sponsored by L’Oreal on

the electronic media.

 Report on the event in the print media.

 Clients

 Main Sponsor: L’Oreal

 Gifts Sponsors: Onida, Siemens, Bosh and Lomb, Global Tele-systems,

Akbarallys Department Store, Trussardi, Catwalk Shoes, Estelle, The
Orchids, Lakme, Sony Music.

 Ground Transportation: Adarsh Rent-a-Car – an H.B Kedia/Anil Kedia


 Communication Convenience: Global Tele-systems

 Beverages: Coca-Cola



To study Event Marketing as a Generic Promotional Tool:

1. The objective of this study is to understand the concept of event marketing, its
benefits and implementation process.

2. To evaluate the effectiveness of Event Marketing as a promotional tool.

3. To identify the problems associated with event marketing in the Indian scenario.

4. To offer suggestions for improvement to make it a more productive investment.

Also to study Event Management for organizing and managing the event in best way:

1. The objective of this study is to understand the event management as a

communication tool.

2. Launching a product or a service.

3. Communicate to a particular target audience.

4. To make proper strategy , plan and execution of an event


The need of the project is to study and analyses certain issues in event marketing and
event management, which need further attention. And some suggestions have been given
to make the Event Marketing and event management industry more effective in order to
utilize its full potential and serve the objective of an event and be mutually beneficial for
the Event agency, the Corporate and the customer.

1. To understanding the short coming of event marketing and event management.

2. How these are perceived today.

3. Problems faced by Indian event agencies.

4. Understand and manage the event in the best and effective way.

The few reasons for choosing event marketing as a promotion tool are as follows:

1. To accelerate your product into new markets.

2. To judge your products against the competition.

3. To launch new products/services.

4. To appeal to special customer interests.

5. To make more sales calls in a shorter time cycle.

6. To meet potential customers for new applications.

7. To change or improve the perception of your product.

8. To network with customers not normally called upon.

9. To present your products to buyers face-to-face.

10. To promote positive product trends.

11. To reposition your company in a market.

12. To select a new approach to marketing your product.

13. To target markets by types of visitors.

14. To understand customer attitudes.

15. To invite special customers to increase business


The methodology followed for the research:

Primary research detailed discussions with event management firms and the corporate
clients. Subsequent additions were made to the interview schedule to suit the specific
events under study.

The secondary information was gathered from various marketing journals and books on
event marketing, sales promotions and publicity. Daily newspaper reading in order to
keep track of various kinds of events also proved helpful.

The information gathered was studied and analyzed. It reveled certain issues in event
marketing which need further attention and some suggestions have been given to make
the Event Marketing industry more effective in order to utilize its full potential and be
mutually beneficial for the Event Marketing agency, the Corporate and the customer.



1. Conceptualization of the creative idea/ambience

2. Costing involves calculation of the cost of production and safety margins

3. Canvassing for sponsors, customers and networking components

4. Customization of the event according to brand personality, budgets, etc

5. Carrying-out involves execution of the event according to the final concept




Final Concept



Fig 1.7: Event Designing Concept


 Event : Holi

 Event Category : Fairs & Festivals

 Event Organizers : A2Z Events

 Core Concept of Holi

It is a celebration to mark the onset of spring and the harvest season. It’s a
symbolic gesture, celebrating good harvest and fertility. It draws its origin from
the Hindu Mythological event in which Prahalad emerges unscathed from a fire
arranged by his father King Hiranyakashyap and aunt Holika to kill him.

 Background

 Title of the Event : RANG BARSE

 Place : Mumbai

 Venue : Parking lot of an amusement park

 Year : 1997

 Duration : 2 Days

 Target Audience : City dwelling families

 No. of Audience : 1500

 Ambience : Rural Mela

 Costing : Rs. 7 lakhs

 Event Type : Partially sponsor and partially ticketed

 Initial Concept For Holi 2000

A2Z wanted to repeat the previous year’s event ad verbatim

 Costing

Costing for Holi 2000 worked out to Rs. 10 lakhs


Many corporates were approached with the initial concept to sponsor the event. The leads
generated through canvassing for sponsors and negotiation with venue owners gave a

strong impetus and indication of success for a particular variation. A leading soft drinks
company could be persuaded to fully sponsor the event.


The target audience of the soft drink company was pre-dominantly was fun-seeking
youth. The initial concept needed to be changed from a family oriented event to a
youthful event. The budget was needed to be drastically reduced to Rs. 2lakhs per center
and the event was to be simultaneously conducted in 5 locations spread across the

Final Concept and Carrying Out

Constraint of budget and specific requirement of the client changed the initial concept of
a two day program to a 3 hour forenoon program titled “HOLI GYRATIONS 2000”. The
program essentially revolved around a color rain dance and color blast for young people
with coverage on a popular youth oriented music channel on the television. It was also
decided to use the event coverage as software for future use by the channel. Now the
event was fully sponsored show for a single sponsor with invitations to a limited no. of
participants. The show was fully customized to give pre-dominant importance to the
sponsors’ colors viz. red and blue. The carry out stage involved being exceptionally
careful and prepared for eventualities such as hazards of drunken misbehavior of the
youth even though liquor was not allowed inside the venue. The interaction revolved
around a popular VJ anchoring the show and except for dancing, there would be hardly
anything else actually happening. The carry out stage gets completely taken over by the
music channel.


Communication is the process of moving a message that includes different elements.
Those elements include source, message, channel, receiver and the process of encoding
and decoding. The source is the organization, the message could be a new car launch, the

channel could be the event, and attendees are the receivers. A problem many marketers
have is to make sure that the noise that can disturb the message going from the sender to
the receiver does not interfere with the message, and thereby influence the effect it has on
the customer. The direct communication with the customer is one of the main advantages
with Event Marketing compared to other marketing channels. In the definition of Event
Marketing, it is said that “an event is an activity that gathers the target group in time and
room.” This means that the event is eliminated from the noise.

Fig 1.8: Communication Process in Event Marketing

Event Marketing is marketing communication in four different dimensions. The first one
is the emotional communication method. The Event Marketing is a form of “pull”
marketing, where the organizations try to get closer to the feelings and emotions of the
customers. They do this not by “pushing” their products at the customers, but by
touching the customers’ emotional feelings.

The second dimension touches the customers by involving them in activities. When the
customer gets a feeling from a product, he/she is informed of the value of the product. An
example of this in the car industry is the test-driving of new cars. The third dimension is
the intellectual dimension and it regards the relevance of the event for the customers. The

fourth dimension is the spatial dimension, how to get the three prior dimensions into
action and to inform the customers through all marketing channels. Some researchers say
that in the future, customers will not buy just the product, but the meaning, the event and
the character, which in turn give the customers the possibility to create their own value
for the product.


1. Measuring Reach

Reach is of two types – external and actual, since events require massive external
publicity, press, radio, television and other media are needed to ensure that the event
is noticed and the benefit of reach is provided to the client. External reach can be
measured by using the circulation figures of newspapers and promotion on television
and radio. The DART & TRP ratings that rate the popularity of programs on air and
around which the promotion is slotted. Measurement of external reach should be
tempered with the timings of the promotions as effectiveness of recall and action
initiated among the target audience is highly dependent on this important variable.

A ratio of the external reach to the actual event reach is a very tangible and useful
measurement criteria.


External Reach
Actual Reach

The ideal situation in real life is very rare since the external reach gets drastically
reduced in terms of reaching out to the target audience and is therefore impractical in
most cases. This is because the target audience is derived from the target population
which is invariably very large. It is impractical to assume that all the constituents of
the target population can make it to the event. The above ratio is usually found to be
greater than 1 in practice.

External Reach
Actual Reach

2. Measuring Interaction

In most event categories, compared to reach, it is much more difficult to access the
interaction between the audience and the event and the benefit that accrues to the
client. A certain amount of quantifiable data can be of help in measuring interaction
for an event from the clients’ point of view.

These are as follows:

 No. of interaction points

 No. of interactions

 Quality of interactions

 Time duration of interaction

Important Points To Consider When Evaluating Event Marketing

1. Quantified Objectives

The reason why some people think that it is not possible to evaluate events is that
they have used Event Marketing without a specific purpose or objective. The one
reason why Event Marketing is not measured also depends on the objectives, but that
they are short-time objectives. The cornerstone in the evaluation of events lies in the
objective of the event. Event Marketing can have different objectives and it is usually
not directly to increase direct sales. Whatever the goal is, the easiest one to evaluate
is the one that is expressed and quantified.

The most common criteria for a goal to be valid is that it has a time limit, is
challenging, measurable, realistic, result oriented, clear and that it could be followed.
If the goal is challenging, it is more interesting to try to reach it. If it is too, simple it
is not inspiring to work for, but at the same time it has to be realistic. Time limit and
measurable goals give a possibility to do a qualitative study. It is important that they
are clear so that everyone understands them and that they can easily be followed by
developing a strategy for how to reach

2. Identity, Image, Positioning vs. Evaluation

Event Marketing is often used to create brand awareness, image and identity for the
products. This section shows that depending on the brand-awareness and how the
product is positioned, they can sell more products. Event Marketing can have both a
communicative as well as a teaching approach for the customer.


Identity is what the organization wants to stand for. The differences between identity
and image are that identity is as mentioned earlier what the franchiser intends to
represent, while the image is how the consumers experience the brand. The Image is
on the receiver’s side, while the identity is on the sender’s side. Image focuses on
how certain groups perceive a product or brand and refers to the way these groups
decode the signals transmitted by the product service and communication of the
brand. The purpose of identity, on the other hand, is to specify the brand’s meaning,
aim and self-image. In regards to Event Marketing it could be said that the
organization sends away an Identity at the event and the customers receive it as an
image of the product or organization.

Using Event Marketing can also differentiate the product for the customer by making
the value of the brand stronger for the customer’s identity. Identity comes from Latin
and means “same”. The identity for a customer means, “who am I in regards to the
surroundings, and to myself?” The brand of a product can symbolize a part of the
individual customer’s identity. The brand can create a promise for the customer, and
the product gives the brand the physical proof of that promise. The event in Event
Marketing can be seen as a value community. In regards to Maslow’s thoughts,
humans have needs that need to be satisfied. The Value community creates groups,
where three concepts for group development need to be filled in order to create group
belonging. Event Marketing can offer the individual a short-track to belonging by
letting the individual attend an event. Through the event, the happening and the
message will give the individual a picture of him/herself, and a sense of belonging
with other individuals.

This shows that part of the brand advantages lies in the possibility to influence the
individual’s identity, and to make possible his/her relation to other individuals and in
this way strengthen their value community. By doing this, there is a possibility to
differentiate the brand from other brands. The brand is seen as an independent
method of competition.


Image is how the customer understands and looks upon the product, and a definition
is “how the consumers experience the brand.” An event can give the customer a clear
picture of the corporate identity that the company is striving for. Usually the image
consists of different key factors that the customer receives during different times and
in different places. These key factors could be the communication that the
organization has the physical environment, products, service, ethics, social
responsibility, engagement in social and local happenings, and the behavior of
representatives from the organization

Fig 2.0: Image Building

The experience at the event may of course result in direct sales, but normally they
help to build image and create positive associations around the brand that will lead to
more sales later on. Image can create lots of competitive advantages compared to
other brands. This is especially true when the differences between the brands are

small. A positive image can lead to not only increased sales, but it can also strengthen
the relationships with all interesting parties within and outside the organization,
facilitate new employment, increase the tolerance of customers, and facilitate crises.
However, even though the main objective with the event is not to change or build
image, there is always a possibility for the customer to change his/her opinion and
image of the organization.

Exposure Rate: A way to measure the Image that the event has created could be done
by looking at their exposure rate. However before using and trying to get media
attention to an event it requires a careful analysis of the purpose, benefits and to see if
the media is available to deliver the appropriate message. There are many different
organizations that are working with observing the media and can deliver the exact
amount of times a name of a brand or product figured in the media.

Positioning & Branding

When a company has decided to use Event Marketing they need to understand how
Event Marketing can change the perception of the product in the customers mind, and
the positioning of the product. According to Kotler, it is extremely important to have
a specific positioning in the customer’s mind, due to the fact that if a similar product
has the same positioning there is no need for the customer to buy your product. It is
important to create an image and a correct positioning for customers that create
differentiation between products. The positioning distinguishes brands from each
other and creates a place on the market and in the consumer’s minds for a particular
project. The idea behind positioning is to create brand awareness, which ideally leads
to long-term brand loyalty. The positioning is a two-stage process, indicating which
category the brand should be placed in and the differences between the brands in this

Products are becoming more and more alike. A company needs to diversify its
product from competitors´ products. An organization has three main perspectives for
differentiation. They are: total perspective, more value for money, produces

trustworthy products at a reasonable price, product perspective, offer a better product
that is newer, faster, cheaper, with unique selling attributes, and customer
perspective, to know the customer better, and thereby reply to their needs faster. The
last perspective, the customer perspective, involves the relationship between the
customer and the organization. An event is the physical meeting between customer
and organization, and thereby Event Marketing can be used as a tool to build
relationships and create differentiation. The idea behind positioning is to create brand
awareness. Direct advantage of using Event Marketing is that it creates high brand
awareness around the product. The value of the brand lies in the mind of the potential
buyers, and not with the business itself. Branding is part of the marketing strategy
and product differentiation. The brand can communicate more directly with the
consumer than the product itself can; if the brand is seen as having a personality and
symbolizing certain values. This is due to the fact that the brand has an emotional
appeal to the consumers. A trend within Event Marketing is to involve more cultural
aspects at events.

The cultural aspects of events are not used extensively today. He further argues that
culture and brand strategy go hand in hand. Over time, a relationship between the
customer and the product can be developed into brand loyalty. This loyalty is
characterized by a positive attitude towards the brand, and over time continued
purchase of the same brand. A company seeks high brand loyalty because it creates
stability and provides an opportunity to gain high market share and profit. The
development of brand loyalty can be seen as a three-step model. The first step is to
create an interest for the product in the consumer. When time has past, the consumers
will simplify their buying detour through the product and the connection between the
brand and the target audience is strengthened. The third step is where brand
recognition is created, which is important for creating the long-term brand loyalty.

Events Less Complex To Evaluate

According to the interviewees, depending on the purpose and objective of the event,
some of them are easier to evaluate than others. The interviewed people said that the

depending on the relationship between event and the customer, the contact and
knowledge of whom exactly attended the event decides weather it is easy or not to
evaluate the event.

Most brand-awareness events focus on the long-term success of the organization. Events
that are easier to evaluate are, according to Orreving, events where you know exactly
who was there, and where you can control the environment.

If it is a VIP event at a dealership where it is possible to see who was actually there, it is
easier to follow up with questionnaires and to see if they actually bought a product.

The Complexity Of Evaluating Event Marketing

An event is concerned with a message, an interaction and integration. A message creates

something valuable for the customer, and gives the customer some kind of experience.
The interaction between the organization and the customer will create a relationship. The
integration part is concerned with how the Event Marketing is part of the other marketing
strategies. Event Marketing are not being evaluated to full extent due to lack-of time,
ignorance and due to the fact that it is hard to evaluate it. Some of the interviewed
persons agreed with this theory, and believed that ignorance made evaluation
complicated. Furthermore, evaluations not conducted due to lack of time. The interviews
also discussed that Event Marketing is only one of the possible marketing channels that
can be used when marketing a product, and therefore it is hard to evaluate it separately
from the other marketing tools. The more complex the marketing strategy, the harder it is
to see what influenced the customer to buy the product. Other reasons why it could be
hard to evaluate the event is because someone’s experience cannot be valued on a scale,
and the interaction as a relation is not measurable. Furthermore, depending on all other
marketing aspects it is hard to see why the customer has a specific feeling for a product.
Kotler claims that the easiest marketing channel to evaluate is direct marketing. By using
direct marketing it is easy to follow up exactly where the customers have seen the
coupons, brochures etc. However, none of the interviewed persons mentioned that it
would be easier to evaluate direct marketing than Event Marketing.

It is as easy to argue against direct marketing as being the perfect measurable evaluation
technique as it is to argue that Event Marketing should be trickier to evaluate. This is due
to the fact that there is a possibility that the customers could be affected by other parts of
the marketing as they are when it looks like it is the direct marketing that has made them
buy a product. As long as more than one tool of the marketing mix is used, there is
always a possibility that the customers can be affected by them, and thereby there is no
100% accurate evaluation tool.

The reason why it might be considered hard to evaluate an event depends on the fact that
it is hard to evaluate the intangible aspects of the event. When asking the interviewed
people to elaborate on intangible factors, such as the weather affecting the event, most of
them were sure that that just the weather was not of importance for the success of the
event, and therefore there was no need to try to evaluate it. There are factors that can not
be evaluated, and that instead the focus should be on the factors that can be evaluated.

This could be interpreted in the following way: since there is no possibility to evaluate
the event comparing to the external social happenings, the only way to elaborate on the
example weather is to work with the weather and use it. If possible, the external factors
should be eliminated, but if that is not possible the event should try to use them and
thereby work for the event.


Event : Olympic Games 2000

Venue : Sydney, Australia

Category : Competitive – Sports

Event Organizer : IOC

Client : General Electric, NBC

Theme : Amateur sports competition to promote world peace.

Measurement Criteria: Reach increase for cable mediums MSNBC & CNBC, %

revenues for client.


External : Global (over 197 countries)

Actual : Prime time audience (approx. 18.25 million)

Event Evaluation

Advertisements sales increase from $ 680 million at the 1996 Atlanta Olympic Games to
$ 900 million for the Sydney Olympic Games 2000. MSNBC’s reach in terms of the
subscriber base expected to increase from 59 million to 70 million. CNBC’s reach in
terms of the subscriber base expected to increase from 74 million to 80 million.


Solely coming up with the sponsorship fee (cash expenditure paid out to be associated
with the event) for a specific event is not nearly enough of a guarantee for tangible
business results. The need to leverage the maximum benefits of the sponsorship is of the
highest priority. As a rule, this can be accomplished by spending at least two or three
rupees per rupee invested in the sponsorship. In other words, the sponsorship fee is just a
mere ante, and you must budget to properly exploit the product that you have just
purchased. Too many companies spend the big bucks to get into the event marketing
business and then never do anything with it. Leveraging your sponsorship includes an
integrated marketing program involving product sampling, on-site signage, event logo
usage, and myriad multilevel cross-promotions.


1. Quantitative

In the world of trade shows and corporate events, surveys are a frequent choice for
evaluating results. Even if you use lead generation forecasts or gross margin from show
sales to measure ROI on an event, a survey can help you understand the reasons why the
business event performed the way it did.

 Pre-Post Show Surveys

Often used to measure less tangible variables like brand awareness or perceived
competitive positioning, pre-post surveys sample a group of attendees on their
way into the exhibit hall at the beginning of the trade show, and then sample
another batch as they are leaving the exhibit hall toward the end of the event. Pre-
post surveys are effective in measuring changes in variables such as:

 Brand awareness

 Memorability or recall of key messages

 Attitude or image change

 Message impact

 New product consideration

 Audience profile

 Booth Exit Interviews

To measure the immediate effectiveness of the booth and attendee experience

there, an exit interview can be helpful, especially for exhibitors using a sizable
booth footprint. An interviewer intercepts visitors on their way out of the booth,
and requests that they answer some quick questions. Exit interviews can explore
such areas as:

 What prompted you to visit the booth?

 Were you treated well by the staff?

 Did someone approach you right away?

 How useful was the product demo?

 As a result of your visit to the booth, how likely are you to add the
company to your short list of considered vendors?

One of the big advantages of the exit interview, when done early in the business
event, is that it allows mid-course correction of any problems uncovered.

 Post-Event Surveys

Contacting a sample of show attendees to ask questions about their experience is

another method of evaluating trade show and corporate event results. Depending
on your information needs, you may want to survey the entire attendee
population, the people who visited your booth, or the group that participated in a
certain activity at the business event. Surveys typically support the following
event objectives:

 Perform detailed reporting and benchmarking of the attendee


 Obtain feedback on your exhibit’s ability to attract and

communicate with high-potential prospects

 Benchmark your performance against the competition

 Provide clues as to the value of your investment in events

compared to other elements in the marketing mix

Post-show surveys can be used to explore such issues as:

 Audience quality

 Audience motivation for attending the trade show

 Attendee activity at the trade show

 Strengths and weaknesses of your exhibit, staff, design, signage

 Competitive comparisons

 Which products are most effective to exhibit or demonstrate

 Effectiveness of promotions and premiums

 Audience attendance/experience at other trade shows

2. Qualitative Tools:

Qualitative metrics, while not projectable to the entire population, can be helpful in
assessing your performance. Following are a few of the more beneficial qualitative

 Mystery Shopping

If you’re looking for an objective means of analyzing your booth’s effectiveness,

consider hiring a professional evaluator to “mystery shop” your booth and assess
the experience from the point of view of a customer or prospect. Many trade show
consultants offer this service.

 Staff Feedback

The booth staff is your first line of customer contact, and a rich source of data on
most elements of interest. Staff feedback forms can be used for continuous
improvement in training, exhibit effectiveness, placement, and other marketing
tactics during the trade show.

 One Word of Caution

Don’t rely too heavily on informal feedback from booth staff and senior
management when assessing the value of the trade show. Such comments as
“Booth was crowded,” “Mostly junior people,” and “Felt light to me” can do
more harm than good.


Keeping track of key account attendance can be an important success metric, especially
at trade shows where you expect a relatively high level of current customer attendance.

Make a list of key accounts, noting which were invited in advance by the sales team to
visit the booth or attend a business event. Distribute the list to booth staff and other
company representatives at the trade show. Ask them to check off any who were engaged
in conversation, and make other comments. Subsequent analysis of customer spending
correlated to contact points can often then help identify the relative importance of the
trade show visit in helping to secure orders from specific customers.

Competitive Analysis

Assessing the presence of the competition is best approached qualitatively. Check the
trade show guide to see who among your competitors is exhibiting, speaking, or
sponsoring events. Assign competitive sleuthing duty to several of your booth staff and
other company attendees, if possible. Provide them with a form to fill out that covers
such items as booth size and location, products featured, staff size, visitor experience,

Fig 2.2: Business Event Objectives and Associated Metrics

A good marketing plan summarizes the who, what, where, when, and how much
questions of the company:

 Who are the target buyers?

 What sources of uniqueness or positioning in the market does your product have?

 Where will you implement your marketing spending plans?

 When will marketing spending plans occur?

 How much sales, spending, and profits will you achieve?

The financial projections contained in your business plan are based on the assumptions
contained in your marketing plan. It is the marketing plan that details when expenditures
will be made, what level of sales will be achieved, and how and when advertising and
promotional expenditures will be made.

The major elements of a marketing plan:

 The situation analysis describes the total marketing environment in which the
company competes and the status of company products and distribution

 The opportunity and issue analysis analyses the major external opportunities and
threats to the company and the internal strengths and weaknesses of the company,
along with a discussion of key issues facing the company.

 The goals and objectives section outlines major company goals and the marketing
and financial objectives.

 The marketing strategy section provides the company's marketing strategy

statement, summarizing the key target buyer description, competitive market
segments the company will compete in, the unique positioning of the company
and its products compared to the competition, the reasons why it is unique or
compelling to buyers, price strategy versus the competition, marketing spending

strategy with advertising and promotion, and possible R&D and market research
expenditure strategies.

The sales and marketing plan outlines each specific marketing event or action plan to
increase sales. For example, it may contain a summary of quarterly promotion and
advertising plans, with spending, timing, and share or shipment goals for each program.

The sales and marketing plan outlines each specific marketing event or action plan to
increase sales. For example, it may contain a summary of quarterly promotion and
advertising plans, with spending, timing, and share or shipment goals for each program.

Some of the ways to market your product or service are

 Write letters (on issues and news items that have SOME relation to your business)
to the editors of local papers.

 Have give-aways (e.g. bookmarks or pens) that are useful and give details of your

 Send news releases about your products and your business to local papers, radio
and TV shows.

 Take out an ad in a publication of a local group.

 Offer to make presentations, on a topic related to your product or service at

appropriate fora.

 Keep your eyes open for "specialized" newsletters, newspapers, or other

publications which might welcome an article written by you.

 Get on the Internet and connect to the world with your own home page.

Remember marketing is the face you show to public, highlighting uniqueness and quality
of the product. Check the content and layout before releasing an advertisement or
distributing pamphlet. Marketing is becoming an ever important tool in the present
competitive scenario, tell what your product or services can do, but don't promise what
you can not deliver.


Pre-Planned Ad-hoe

Low Risk

Type of Finance for Funds & Revenue
Assured Returns

Zero Risk
(can charge extra
Assured Returns
since chances of
failure are high)

Medium Risk High Risk

& Ticketed

Assured Returns Assured Returns

to cover costs + to cover costs but
chances of loss lower chances of
are low profit

Very High Risk

High Risk

Very less time to


Chances of high
ensure reach
profits with equal
Chances of failure
chances of losses
& loss are high

Fig 2.7: Risk vs. Return Matrix

The above matrix considers two of the most important risk factors as well as the degree
to which it can affect the events company – Planning Lead Time and Type of Finance.

Events based on time can be divided into pre-planned i.e., events carried out after
thorough planning with enough time for taking conscious decisions and ad-hoc events
i.e., those that are taken up on the spur of the moment. On the basis of finance, events can
be fully sponsored, fully ticketed or partially ticketed and sponsored. Each decision
carries with it an element of risk, the gradations of which can vary from zero risk to very
high risk as shown in the Fig 2.7.


Differentiation and Focus in Event Marketing

Event Marketing has several advantages with multiple purposes, which normal marketing
media do not have. For example, when advertising in a magazine, a company needs to
decide which message they want to communicate as well as with whom they want to
communicate. For companies using differentiation as a competitive advantage, spreading
several messages in many different magazines, the result might not cover investment. On
the other hand, for companies using focus as a basic strategy, the cost for gathering
information about the specific target group must match the possibility to actually reach
the right segment. Depending on how Event Marketing is used both differentiation and
focus can be achieved.

There are two major differences when using events. The events are pre-communicated;
the companies have a possibility to control who will attend, or the event just happens;
whoever is there has an opportunity to be a part of the event. Of course, depending on
which place the company selects for the event, different types of consumers will be
reached. When using general events; meaning that no single target group is invited, the
company can still gain on the situation since they have a chance to adjust the added value
to specific customers during the event. The employees working during the event “read”
the situation and adjust his/her behavior. Further the event itself might also communicate
an added value to other people, although they might not be interested in the specific

On the other hand mean that Event Marketing can also be used when focusing on specific
target groups.


As is clear from the preceding section, use of events as a marketing communication tool
not only take care of the problems associated with traditional media but also offer certain
advantages because of which events are gaining importance over them. Some of the
advantages are detailed below:

1. Events have the ability to bring together sharply defined participants since the
capacity for a particular event is usually limited. A specific no. of the target
audience could be invited of enticed to buy tickets for a show especially created
for a particular profile of the target audience.

2. Since the audience is actively targeted, the option of control reach can be
exercised and ideal audience for narrow-casting of information can be gathered.
This leads to lowering of the media networking budgets and focused
communication with the specially gathered audience. The audience that has been
specially invited invariably is an ideal audience.

3. An event carried out professionally and cleanly is invariably a memorable

experience. The word-of-mouth publicity that this generates is an advantage that
lingers on a long time after the event is actually been carried out. This provides an
advantage of higher brand recall to the client.

4. The involvement of all the senses in experiencing the event is one of the greatest
advantages that events can offer. Events can be designed such that the audience is
actively involved in every part of the event and made to feel good. Thus, events
as a live media offer a certain amount of immediacy to the experience – of being
there while it‘s happening. For the audience, it is undoubtedly a thrilling

5. Live media also enables interactive communication. Live media scores over
conventional advertising in terms of reach, impact and tangible immediacy of
measurement. Live media communication is a complete sensual experience as
compared to a press advertisement or TV/Radio commercial. This is so because
of press ad is basically a flat piece of paper and a commercial is just an
audiovisual experience. The high recall value of live media communication is
also a major factor.

6. No other media can boast of the ability to provide such massive collection of feed
back instantly as events. Being a live media, it is possible to feel and deduce the
reactions of the audience to the aim or objective that the event was conceived for.

7. Easily customizable nature of events, mean that specific traits of the local
inhabitants can be incorporated in the big picture to ensure that the event is
socially and culturally in tune with the local culture. Thus, the localization of
events is very easy.

8. The advantage in terms of post-event publicity that events can offer over and
above the paid or bartered media is the benefit associated with reports of the
event in the newspaper and news on the electronic media. For such reports there
is no extra cost to be borne – neither by the sponsor nor by the event organizer.
This is a double edged sword because, in case the event is not up to the mark or is
dogged y controversies, then the same is also reported impartially.

9. The conversion of good events into television software for future use either by the
sponsors for their commercials or by media house for programming is also a
unique benefit that events offer. Such software become products by themselves
and can be used profitability in the future.



The present study has been undertaken to get the first hand exposure on the mindset of
people towards Event Marketing concept and their involvement in events as and when
they come across, if any.

A questionnaire was designed keeping in mind the requirements for study & analysis of
my thesis for comparing the hypothesis with the outcome of this survey.

A general survey conducted with a sample size of 100 respondents revealed the following
facts regarding the mindset of people towards the Event Marketing concept.

This survey also gave scope to take necessary steps for organizing an event at right place,
right time and in front of the right target audience.

Event Marketing companies were also targeted and their response was also taken which
added value to my thesis.

Let’s have a look at what people feel about Event Marketing.

When people were asked what they feel about a particular company which promotes its
product/service through Event Marketing 82% of the respondents replied that it gives a
positive impression about the company and establishes the quality of their

When people were asked about the reasons for which they have participated 53% replied
that the event appeared amusing which was followed by reasons like a powerful brand or
eye catching signs & banners.

Graph A: Buying Behavior after a positive experience of an EVENT

90 88

80 78

70 69




30 29

20 16
10 6
10 3 3

More less neither More less neither More less neither
likely likely likely likely likely likely

a b c

a = Product/service you have heard but not checked out yet
b = Product/service you have never heard of
c = Product/service you already use


If people had a positive experience, about the event 88% are more likely to buy a product
just when they were aware of it. Surprisingly, 78% are more likely to enter into the
buying process even if it’s a new product.

Graph B: Gender influence on purchase




120 76



27 90
40 67
20 6 18
3 3
8 11
2 2 7
More likely less likely neither More likelyless likely neither More likelyless likely neither
a b c
Female 70 3 27 87 3 11 76 6 18
Male 67 2 32 90 2 8 82 7 11

a = Product/service you already use
b = Product/service you have heard but not checked out yet
c = Product/service you have never heard of


After a positive experience of the events, women are more likely to purchase a product
they already use while men are a bit more adventures and may even be inclined to
purchase a product that they are not using or haven’t yet heard about that product.

Graph C: Men are explorers whereas women love samples

70 68



40 36


20 18

12 12
10 8

I get to touch and I get to learn I get to ask I get a free I get to have fun
feel a more about a questions about a sample of a by participating in
product/services product/services product/services product/services activities

Male Female


The female folk are drawn towards the event because they love samples which was
confirmed when 68% out of the female respondents gave the same reply where as the
male counter part are more interested in exploring the product inside out.

Graph D: Create events for right ages




40 38

21 21
14 13
10 10
10 12 9
7 5 6 6

I get to touch and I get to learn more I get to ask I get a free I get to have fun
feel a about a questions about a sample of a by participating in
product/services product/services product/services product/services activities

22-29 yrs 30-44 yrs 45-54 yrs 55+ yrs


Fun and free best describes the motivation of younger event attendees while education
and interaction are what the older crowd is looking for.

Graph E: Events spur immediate sales




immediately within a week within a month

within 3 months within 6 months more than 6 months
Do not purchase


26% of the attendees are ready to purchase a product immediately after the event, 25%
within a month and 15% wont purchase the product at all.

Graph F: Reasons for participation in any event






20 18
13 14 13
9 10
10 7 7
3 2 3 3 3 3
The The product or My friend/relative The event offered Other
product/services company was had a positive an activity I could
matched my sponsoring an experience participate
interest activity I enjoy

22-29 yrs 30-44 yrs 45-54 yrs 55+ yrs


Over all the age groups it was observed that if the product/service is of interest to the
attendees they are more likely to participate in an event. The next best reason for
participation across all age groups is the activity which the attendees enjoy.

Graph G: People spend time at mobile events




1-15 mins 15-30 mins over 30 mins


68% of the total respondents spend approximately 15 mins on a mobile event and every
less people spend over 30 mins.

Graph H: Mobile events create better product understanding




better same less


Mobile events which demonstrate product features are more likely to generate better
understanding about a company or its product.

4.2 INTERVIEWS AND DETAILED DISCUSSIONS with various event managers

and corporate helped me identify the problems in the event marketing industry.

1. The event marketing industry in India is highly unorganized.

2. Corporate are not fully aware of the concept, implementation process and
effectiveness of event marketing.

3. No post-event analysis is carried out to evaluate the effectiveness of an event. As

a result of which a lot of money is wasted and nothing productive happens.

4. Lately, event marketing has become a fad and even small entrepreneurs are
blindly following the multinationals such as Coke and Pepsi that have presence
all over in the event marketing industry (cricket, music, movies & road shows)

5. Even when large sums of money are involved, sponsorships have too often been
handed out on nothing stronger than the managing director’s whim. In such
cases, virtually no thought is given to their likely benefit to the company, or even
how such a benefit could be measured.

In the late 1980s, the Hill & Knowlton sports marketing division conducted a
survey of Western Australian companies involved in sponsorship. Many were
giving more than $100,000 a year. Yet a staggering 68% of them had no
procedures in place to check the value of their sponsorships. How many of those
companies would spend $100,000 on advertising without monitoring every year
stage of the campaign? How many would pay an executive $100,000 a year
without demanding accountability for performance.

6. Sponsorship today should be made as accountable as any other part of the

marketing mix. Some forms of sponsorship have long-term networking goals that

don’t lend themselves to immediate measurement. But if sponsorship is linked
directly to a product, measurement should be possible through the only criteria
that ultimately matter, Sales.

7. T.V. and press coverage of the event cannot be equated with success-even if a
company’s logo appears often and prominently. Instead, we need to take a close
look at the sales results and see if they go up during the sponsorship period.

8. Not all sponsorships are readily measurable. There are many, especially in the
non-sporting field, where it’s almost impossible to establish a direct cause-and-
effect relationship between sponsorship and sales. Carefully planned
sponsorships can be a cost-efficient way to enhance corporate profile. They can
link a company and brand with their customers’ lifestyles and aspirations. They
can create a difference for the product, boost the effectiveness of the total
promotional program, and put one in touch with people who can do a great deal
for the business.

9. Sponsorship itself never is a major communications thrust. It is always and only

a complement to it. For every Rs. 100,000 you spend on sponsorship, you need
to spend at least another Rs. 100,000 on more conventional promotional
activities. And your sponsorship venture must not happen in isolation from them.
It must be an integral part of your total promotional program. It must tie in
closely in theme and message with everything else you are doing. Only then, will
you get real benefit from your sponsorship investment.

10. Commit large amounts of time and marketing expertise to it as well in order to
bring about a long-term product association with the event. It means monitoring
the event constantly, to ensure that your name, logo, product and so on are being
featured, exactly as agreed. It means developing reliable ways of measuring its
results, if that’s possible. It means thinking about extensions-spin-off consumer
and trade promotions, staff motivation programs, hospitality functions and so on.

11. It also means being willing to keep it going for several years at least. The longer
you stay with your sponsorship, the better the results you can expect-and the
better, for the event too. If its name chops and changes from one year to the next,

its image will become confused and tarnished. Then its value as a sponsorship
property will drop.

12. There is no consistency of operations and quality of events on the part of event
management firms. Event marketing firms in India are very unprofessional and
lack integrated marketing expertise.

13. Situation analysis and TOMA effect which are done by advertising agencies is
not done by event marketing agencies.

14. Event marketing firms do not have retained accounts as advertising agencies.

15. They also provide poor services as compared to advertising agencies. Hence
corporate prefer to give their accounts for event marketing also to their own
advertising agencies. These advertising agencies may further forward the contract
to the event management firms in case they do not have the infrastructure and
facilities for event management themselves. This results in lesser profits for the
event management firms as a cut off percentage of at least 13.5% is retained by
the advertising agency itself. Hence there is a need to build a more qualified and
professional image of the event-marketing firms to gain corporate trust, and
remove this intermediary to achieve higher profits.

5.1 Annexure.1

Name :
Age :
Gender :
Occupation :

1. What are your feelings about a company that creates or sponsors events?
□ They are willing to let people try them out
□ Support activities that I enjoy
□ They understand my interests and needs
□ They like to have fun with me
□ They want to know more about me

2. Assuming you had a positive experience, would you be more or less inclined to purchase a
product or service after having participated in an event?
a) Product/service you have heard but not checked out yet
 More likely
 Less likely
 Neither more nor less
b) Product/service you have never heard of
 More likely
 Less likely
 Neither more nor less
c) Product/service you already use
 More likely
 Less likely
 Neither more nor less

3. What was it that got you to notice or participate in the event?

□ It looked like fun
□ I recognize the company/brand running the event
□ Signs and Banners
□ Somebody invited me to participate
□ The crowd that was already taking part in the event
□ Others

4. Which of the following is your favorite part of marketing events?

□ I get to touch and feel a product/services
□ I get to learn more about a product/services
□ I get to ask questions about a product/services
□ I get a free sample of a product/services
□ I get to have fun by participating in activities

5. Which would most likely cause you to participate in a product demonstration or event?
□ The product/services matched my interest
□ The product or company was sponsoring an activity I enjoy
□ My friend/relative had a positive experience
□ The event offered an activity I could participate
□ Other

6. How long did you stay at the mobile event?

□ 1-15 minutes
□ 15-30 minutes
□ over 30 minutes

7. Which of the following is true? After leaving the mobile event I understood the
□ better
□ same
□ less

8. How soon after attending a company-sponsored event at/near a store did you purchase the
product or service being offered?
□ Immediately
□ Within a month
□ Within a week
□ Did not purchase
□ Within 3 months
□ Within 6 month
□ More than 6 months

5.2 Annexure.2


While marketing an event, there are a few key tactics and methods that can be employed
to ensure that the event gains the maximum response and also that event is managed in
the minimum cost possible. Event marketing has been a concept that has only recently
been pioneered in India. But, though new, the concept has taken off very well with the
Indian consumers who are evolving rapidly.

Some of the tactics and methods are listed below. Following them can ensure a cost
effective implementation of the event marketing.

Event Marketing Hint 1: If the event is meant to market a certain product, then it is
necessary to ensure that the purchase decision-maker attends the event. It is important to
get the message across to the target audience and therefore enough research about the
profile of the attendees is important to be able to communicate effectively to them about
the product. It is important that least 50-60% of the people attending the event are targets
of the product to be promoted.

Event Marketing Hint 2: It is also important to evaluate the value-added benefits that the
venue or the trade show organizer makes available to your business. Make sure you find
out if they allow access to the attendee mailing list so you can implement a pre-mailing
process in order to promote your one-day trade show special, as well as the location of
your booth.

Make sure you get participant contact information before the event as well as after. Other
value-added benefits that can be expected from the show organizer include: being
included in participant email distributions promoting the event, as well as an
advertisement in the event show guide.

Event Marketing Hint 3: Before the event is undertaken, the cost effectiveness of
promoting the product through the event should be questioned by asking yourself event
qualifying questions around the “who" instead of the “how many”.

Event Marketing Hint 4: The giveaways at the event should be relevant to the business
being promoted through the event. And make sure you don't give something away for
free just for the heck of it.

Event Marketing Hint 5: The location chosen for the event is perhaps the most important
aspect. Make sure you don't purchase a cheap booth at a popular exhibition because there
are strong chances that no one will be visiting you, since your booth will be tucked away
hidden from all eyes. The most ideal locations in any exhibition areas are found at the

entryway to the event and near the pathway to the food stations and restrooms.

5.3 Case Study
Citi Financial Road Shows

Objective : To increase awareness and generate leads

Methodology :

 Identify a particular location on basis of SEC,

footfalls, residential area/ marketplace, ATM, cinema halls

 Setting up the infrastructure – canopy, table,

chairs etc. and conducting the road show Cold Calling –
distribution of leaflets in adjoining areas, providing any
required explanations and procuring leads.

 Generating leads (Cold calls and from Canopy

enquiries) – noting down name and phone numbers of
people visiting the canopy.

 Follow up – calling up people to know of their


Implementation: Locations for the road shows were chosen taking

into account the SEC of the concerned locality and

The road shows were help for a duration of half a

day; either 11 a.m. – 5 p.m. or 5 p.m. – 8 p.m.

The road shows were conducted at:

 Rajender Place (at the main road)

 Rajender Place (inside the MTNL compound)

 Bagga Link Petrol Pump

 DDU Hospital

 Moti Nagar

 Kali Bari (opposite Birla Mandir)


 A common request by customers – Personal loan limit of Rs.

50,000/- not adequate, want limit to be raised to Rs. 1,00,000. The number
of people visiting the stalls was not very high.

 Only a very small fraction of people who visited the stalls were
ultimately converted.

 It was observed that a lot of people deliberately gave wrong phone

numbers, names, contact info etc.

Nevertheless, the road shows were found to be an effective medium for generating
awareness and visibility.


 To encourage people to give correct names and contact

information some incentive/ scheme should be formulated e.g. conducting
a lucky draw of

 Respondents and contacting the winners through the contact

information given by them.

 Canopy should be at least bilingual – SEC segments B and C are

more responsive to local lingua franca.

 Need to leverage existing awareness of the Citigroup Brand –

Creates confidence in the customer. Hence compulsory mention on all
Publicity material – canopy, Banners, POP material etc.

 Canopy should be supported by –

o Mascots

o Banners
o POP material

o Mike system/Music if possible

All these also make the job of the team easier, the need for explanations
being reduced.

 At all times at least two persons are needed at the canopy, if cold
calling needs to be done then strength should be three to four.

 Telecommunication facility should be provided to solve specific

queries the spot, solution of which may lead to conversion.

 The team at the road show should be informed of aspects such as

the rates of interest and time period of loans quoted by the office.

 Road shows should be for a minimum of two days and in summers

Should be conducted in the evenings.

 Tables, chairs etc. are a must for display and impact.


To improve the condition of the event marketing industry and make it more professional
and profitable, the following recommendations have been listed:

1. Understand the corporate objectives, target audience, brand image and positioning

2. Do not go overboard with your concept or preference for a certain event.

3. Conduct a situational analysis for appropriate event selection which synergies

with the company objective and brand personality.

4. Create extensive databases of the target consumers in order to conduct pre- and
post-event analysis and evaluation to check the success of the event and consumer
perception, also to assess the top of mind awareness and brand recall.

5. Conduct extensive market research to establish which parts of the program are
working and which ones are not. Those in the first category should be maintained
and strengthened. Those in the second should be relinquished.

6. In all sponsorship activities, it is important to protect the integrity of the activity

being supported. If it is cheapened or its identity threatened, the sponsorship
could rebound on the sponsor’s head.

• Event marketing allows a company to break through the advertising
clutter and target an audience by enhancing or creating an image through
an association to a particular event.

• Brand awareness reinforces the product or service, and drives sales.

• Property or event, also profits, a financial partner, a supplemented

advertising budget, and added leverage.

• Event marketing also offers companies the flexibility to reach specific

geographic and demographic audiences. It is a benefit that allows depth of
exposure, as opposed to the breadth of exposure.

• As CMOs continue to face increasing financial pressures, they must

continuously provide higher levels of value, both in pure financial terms
and overall measurement of ROI.

• When considering the entire sales cycle, marketing professionals must

think beyond traditional methods and bring transparency and
measurement to their activities in order to demonstrate the fundamental
value of their field. To answer this challenge, the event marketing industry
must redefine itself to recognize the power of the “brand” to forge deep
connections, as well as also adapt events to contribute to branding in more
sophisticated ways.

• The perception of events as a form of media is quickly moving away from

standalone activities to integrated forms of communication. These forms
of communication synchronize with overall marketing goals through new
applications of techniques rooted in traditional event marketing that
project the brand more powerfully. Defining what an organization stands
for, mapping out a clear brand strategy, and then formulating event
activities that align with overall marketing goals is the next great step in
the evolution of the industry.


 Event Management Lynn Van Der Wagen & Brenda R. Carlos

 Principles of Marketing  Kotler & Amstrong

 Marketing Management  Philip Kotler

 Marketing is Business  Walter E. Vieira

 The Fundamentals & Practice of Marketing  John Wilmshurst



 Business & Economy

 4Ps Business & Marketing

 Business World

 Times of India

 Economic Times

 Mint

 Thank you for your cooperation 