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• Discovered the involvement of

vitamin C in scurvy
• Found that citrus fruits bear other
material stabilizing blood vessels
• Introduced the term vitamin P
for flavonoids

Dr. Szent Györgi


• Protection from oxidative environment
• Protection from microbial decay
• Protection from insects

The highest amounts are found in a plant's surface:


the peel, the bark
Resveratrol is a OH
tri-hydroxy-stilbene
HO

OH

Resveratrol is suggested to have potent anti-aging activity


R1
OH
+
HO O
R2

OH
OH

Bilberry has been shown to support night-time vision


Effective for strengthening retinal capillaries
OH

HO O
OH

OH
OH OH

HO O
OH

OH
OH

HO OH

O
HO

OH
OH
The maritime pine tree grows
for 30-50 years in an
unspoiled environment:

 no pesticides
 no fertilizers
 no pollution

Ideal botanical source:

 mono-culture
 no seasonal influence
tomorrow

30 years ago
UV exposure leads to free radical production and inflammation
in the skin producing serious damage to skin cells
100%
Lipids saved from oxidation

80%

60%

40%

20%

0%
vit C lipoic vit E grape Pycnogenol®
acid seed

Chida et al., Ophthal Res 31: 407-415, 1999


Clinical study with
healthy volunteers.
More UV radiation is
required to cause a
sunburn when taking
Pycnogenol®.

While not a sunblock,


Pycnogenol does help
protect the skin from
sunburn by its
antioxidant and anti-
inflammatory actions.
Mice bearing papilloma 100%
nude pigmented mice
nude albino mice
80% pigmented mice
with Pycnogenol

60% albino mice


+Pycnogenol

40%

20%

0%
0 5 10 15 20 25
weeks
Kyriazi et al., Cancer Letters 2005 237: 234-241, 2006
Mean pigmented area size: - 37.7 %
Mean intensity index: - 22.4 %

70
60
Area size [mm2]

50
40
30
20 Hyper-pigmentation
10
0 30 women with hyperpigmentation:
Before After 25 mg Pycnogenol® 3x daily for 30 days
treatment treatment

Ni et al., Phytother Res 16: 567-571, 2002


mitochondria

Enzymes

cell wall

DNA
mitochondria

Enzymes

cell wall

DNA
mitochondria

enzymes

Pycnogenol®

cell wall

DNA
Presence of anti-oxidant enzymes in endothelial cells
after 8 hour exposure to Pycnogenol®

SOD Glutathione Catalase

Wei et al., Redox Report 3: 219-224, 1997


4

1
baseline 3 and 6 weeks 4 weeks
Pycnogenol® wash-out

Devaraj et al., Lipids 37: 931-934, 2002


101 elderly participants
(aged 60-85 years)

Presenting with impaired


cognitive function

Memory improvement
shown after 3 months

Ryan et al., J Psychopharmacol, in print 2008


Cardiovascular disease : disorders of the heart and blood vessels

Coronary heart disease (heart attacks)


Cerebrovascular disease (stroke)
Cholesterol abnormalities
Raised blood pressure (hypertension)
Peripheral vascular disease (clotting, edema)
Heart Failure

Major causes: tobacco use, physical inactivity, and an unhealthy diet

Facts: #1 cause of death globally


17.5 million people died from cardiovascular disease in 2005
30 % of all global deaths
7.6 million heart attacks
5.7 million strokes
http://www.who.int/topics/cardiovascular_diseases/en/
endothelial cells of blood vessel wall

blood platelets blood stream


NO

NO

arginine NO
NO
+ O2 NO

NO

Fitzpatrick et al., J Cardiovasc Pharm 32: 509-515, 1998


22% Mild
Improvement

Kohama, Progress in Medicine 24: 1503-1510, 2004


Double blind,
placebo controlled,
cross-over study
16 weeks (2 x 8)

p<0.05

Hosseini et al., Nutrition Res 21: 1251-1260, 2001


Devaraj et al., Lipids 37: 931-934, 2002
3 weeks
3 weeks
50 mg a day 3 weeks
100 mg a day
200 mg a day

Liu et al., Diabetes Care 27: 839, 2004


Cesarone et al., Phytother Res, in print 2008

Increase of 3
antioxidant
impact rate
units/ minute
2

0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 2 2½ 3 3½ 4
min min min min min min min min min h h h h h
Cesarone et al., Angiology 2008
Cesarone et al., Angiology 2008
Cesarone et al., Angiology 2008
Cesarone et al., Angiology 2008
Cesarone et al., Angiology 2008