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Anda di halaman 1dari 11

1, FEBRUARY 2002

and Three-Phase Carrier-Based PWM:

A Comprehensive Analysis

Keliang Zhou and Danwei Wang, Member, IEEE

Abstract—This paper comprehensively analyzes the rela- easy digital implementation and wide linear modulation range

tionship between space-vector modulation and three-phase for output line-to-line voltages are the notable features of space

carrier-based pulsewidth modualtion (PWM). The relationships vector modulation.

involved, such as the relationship between modulation signals

(including zero-sequence component and fundamental compo- The comprehensive relation of the two PWM methods

nents) and space vectors, the relationship between the modulation provides a platform not only to transform from one to another,

signals and the space-vector sectors, the relationship between but also to develop different performance PWM modulators.

the switching pattern of space-vector modulation and the type Therefore, many attempts have been made to unite the two

of carrier, and the relationship between the distribution of zero types of PWM methods [16], [17]. The relationship between

vectors and different zero-sequence signal are systematically

established. All the relationships provide a bidirectional bridge space vectors and fundamental modulation signals was derived

for the transformation between carrier-based PWM modulators in [18]–[21]. Reference [17] suggested the relationship between

and space-vector modulation modulators. It is shown that all common-node voltage (zero-sequence voltage) and the space

the drawn conclusions are independent of the load type. Fur- vectors on the basis of a three-phase inverter with a symmetrical

thermore, the implementations of both space-vector modulation Y-connected load. However, the dependence on the load [17]

and carrier-based PWM in a closed-loop feedback converter are

discussed. hinders the universal significance of its drawn conclusions.

This paper aims to reveal the comprehensive relationship be-

Index Terms—Carrier-based pulsewidth modulation, space- tween space-vector modulation and carrier-based PWM. The re-

vector pulsewidth modulation.

lationship between modulation signals and voltage vectors, the

relationship between zero-sequence signal and space vectors,

I. INTRODUCTION the relationship between the modulation signals and the vector

sectors, the relationship between the sequence of space vectors

P ULSEWIDTH modulation (PWM) has been studied ex-

tensively during the past decades. Many different PWM

methods have been developed to achieve the following aims:

and the type of carrier, and the relationship between the distri-

bution of zero vectors and different carrier-based PWM mod-

wide linear modulation range; less switching loss; less total har- ulators are systematically investigated without dependence on

monic distortion (THD) in the spectrum of switching waveform; the load type. Furthermore, the implementations of these two

and easy implementation and less computation time. PWM methods in the feedback closed-loop converter are dis-

For a long period, carrier-based PWM methods [1] were cussed with corresponding solutions. Simulation results are pro-

widely used in most applications. The earliest modulation vided to validate the drawn conclusions.

signals for carrier-based PWM are sinusoidal. The use of an

injected zero-sequence signal for a three-phase inverter [2] II. CARRIER-BASED PWM

initiated the research on nonsinusoidal carrier-based PWM

A. Basic Properties

[3]–[7]. Different zero-sequence signals lead to different

nonsinusoidal PWM modulators. Compared with sinusoidal A carrier-based PWM modulator is comprised of modulation

three-phase PWM, nonsinusoidal three-phase PWM can extend signals and carrier signal.

the linear modulation range for line-to-line voltages. The operation of PWM can be divided into two modes [22],

With the development of microprocessors, space-vector mod- [23].

ulation has become one of the most important PWM methods for 1) Linear Mode.—In the linear mode, the peak of a modu-

three-phase converters [8]–[15]. It uses the space-vector con- lation signal is less than or equal to the peak of the car-

cept to compute the duty cycle of the switches. It is simply the rier signal. When the carrier frequency is greater than

digital implementation of PWM modulators. An aptitude for 20 modulation signal frequency , the gain of PWM

.

Manuscript received November 3, 1999; revised July 6, 2001. Abstract pub- 2) Nonlinear Mode—When the peak of a modulation signal

lished on the Internet December 5, 2001. is greater than the peak of the carrier signal, overmodu-

The authors are with the School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering lation occurs with . The six-step mode marks the

Nanyang Technological University, Singapore 639798 (e-mail:edwwang@ntu.

edu.sg). end of the nonlinear mode. The THD of output switched

Publisher Item Identifier S 0278-0046(02)00933-4. waveforms increases.

0278–0046/02$17.00 © 2002 IEEE

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ZHOU AND WANG: SPACE-VECTOR MODULATION AND THREE-PHASE CARRIER-BASED PWM 187

ages satisfy

(2)

When overmodulation occurs, i.e., , (1) and (2) are

not satisfied.

B. Carrier-Based PWM

A universal representation of modulation signals

for three-phase carrier PWM modulators is as follows:

(3)

where are injected harmonics, and are called funda-

mental signals that are three-phase symmetrical sinusoidal sig-

nals as follows:

(4)

According to (2) and (4), the output line-to-neutral voltages

(as shown in Fig. 2 ) are

(5)

(6)

Fig. 2. Three-phase PWM inverter.

In the linear modulation range, (5) , (6), and show

As shown in Fig. 1, in the linear mode, for carrier-based two- that output line-to-line voltages are equal to or less than dc-bus

level PWM modulators, we have voltage . Therefore, the possible maximum modulation index

is in the linear range, and we have

(7)

.

where and are the positive and the negative pulsewidths It is clear that the injected harmonics do not appear in the

in the th sampling interval, respectively; is the normal- line-to-line voltages. Therefore, is usually called as zero

ized amplitude of modulation signal in the th sampling in- sequence signal [14], [21], and can be calculated by

terval ( ); and the normalized peak value of the car-

rier signal is 1. Equation (1) is usually referred to as the Equal (8)

Voltage—Second principle [14], [18], [24].

Fig. 2 shows a three-phase PWM inverter without consid- yields sinusoidal PWM. In the linear range, from

eration of the load type. In the linear modulation range, ne- (4) and (5) and , we have and the maximum

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188 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON INDUSTRIAL ELECTRONICS, VOL. 49, NO. 1, FEBRUARY 2002

modulation occurs.

When , nonsinusoidal PWM occurs. When

is a suitable signal, such as [2], all the

tops of are cut by . is and the maximum

output line-to-line voltages reach in the linear range. Dif-

ferent leads to different carrier-based PWM modulators

for three-phase converters [4], [5] . It shows that suitable

can extend the linear modulation range of three-phase RSPWM

modulators.

In terms of the switching characteristics, PWM schemes can

be divided into continuous PWM and discontinuous PWM in (a)

the linear modulation range.

For continuous PWM schemes,

3 . Therefore, in each carrier signal

period, each output of the converter legs is switching between the

positive or negative rail of the dc link, whereas, for discontinuous

PWM schemes, in the linear modulation range, the zero-sequence

component or . Ob-

viously, in each carrier cycle, one modulation signal will be equal

to “ 1” and the corresponding leg is tied to the positive or nega-

tive rail of the dc link without switching actions. Thus, from an av-

erage view, compared with continuous PWM schemes, discontin-

uous PWM schemes can reduce the average switching frequency

by 33% and cause less switching loss.

For the three-phase two-level PWM inverter as shown in

Fig. 2, the switch function is defined by (9), shown at the (b)

bottom of the page. where ; “1” denotes at the Fig. 3. Space vectors. (a) Eight switching states. (b) Voltage vector space.

inverter output with reference to point ; “0” denotes

; is the neutral point of the dc bus. In one sampling interval, the output voltage vector can be

There are eight switch states , written as

(as shown in Fig. 3). The output voltages of the in-

verter are composed by these eight switch states. Define eight (11)

voltage vectors corresponding to

where are the turn-on time of the vectors

the switch states , respectively. The lengths of vectors

; , ; and is the

are unity and the lengths of and are zero, and

sampling time.

these eight vectors form the voltage-vector space as displayed

According to (10) and (11), the decomposition of into

in Fig. 3. The voltage-vector space is divided up into six sectors.

has infinite ways. However, in order to reduce

In the vector space, according to the equivalence principle,

the number of switching actions and make full use of active

the following operation rules are obeyed:

turn-on time for space vectors, the vector is commonly split

into the two nearest adjacent voltage vectors and zero vectors

and in an arbitrary sector. For example, in sector I, in

one sampling interval, vector can be expressed as

(12)

(9)

the upper switch is off and the bottom switch is on

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ZHOU AND WANG: SPACE-VECTOR MODULATION AND THREE-PHASE CARRIER-BASED PWM 189

TABLE I

SPACE-VECTOR-MODULATION ALGORITHM

(13)

Thus,

(14)

where .

The length and angle of are determined by vectors

that are called active vectors, and are

called zero vectors. Decomposition of in all six sectors is

shown in Table I. Equations (12) and (13) are the commonly Fig. 4. Modulation range for space-vector modulation.

used formulation of the space-vector modulation modulator.

It is shown that the turn-on times for active is - - - - - - - [3]. Furthermore, it should be

vectors are identical in a different space PWM modulator. pointed out that the trajectory of voltage vector should

The different distribution of and for zero vectors yields be circular while maintaining sinusoidal output line-to-line

different space-vector PWM modulators. voltages. From Fig. 4 and (20), in the linear modulation range,

There are not separate modulation signals in each of the when the length of , the trajectory of

three phases in space-vector modulation technique [3]. Instead, becomes the inscribed circle of the hexagon and the maximum

a voltage vector is processed as a whole [8]. For space-vector amplitude of sinusoidal line-to-line voltages is the dc-bus

modulation, the boundary between the linear modulation range voltage . [12], [15], providing several useful overmodulation

and the overmodulation range in vector sector I is strategies for space-vector modulation.

Moreover, for space-vector PWM, there is a degree of

freedom in the choice of zero vectors in one switching cycle,

(15) i.e., whether or or both.

For continuous space-vector schemes, in the linear modula-

From (14) and (15), we have tion range, both and are used in one switching cycle, that

is, and .

(16) For discontinuous space-vector schemes, in the linear modu-

lation range, only or only is used in one switching cycle,

that is, or .

Therefore, the boundary between the linear modulation range

and the overmodulation range is the hexagon [3], [15] in Fig. 4. IV. RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN CARRIER-BASED PWM AND

The linear modulation range is located within the hexagon. If SPACE-VECTOR PWM

the voltage vector exceeds the hexagon, as calculated from

(14), becomes greater than and unrealizable. Thus, A. Modulation Signals and Space Vectors

the overmodulation region for space-vector modulation is out- Comparison between the two-level carrier-based PWM and

side the hexagon. In the six-step mode, the switching sequence the space-vector modulation in sector I [18] is illustrated in

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190 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON INDUSTRIAL ELECTRONICS, VOL. 49, NO. 1, FEBRUARY 2002

TABLE II

ZERO-SEQUENCE e (t) AND SPACE VECTORS

Fig. 5. Based on the Equal Voltage-Second principle and Fig. 5, The representations of in the other five sectors are listed

we have in Table II.

Equations (18) and (19) represent the relationship between

the modulation signals and the space vectors. Therefore, an ar-

bitrary carrier-based PWM modulator can be easily transformed

into an equivalent space-vector modulation modulator. It seems

that (19) is the same as the formulation for common-node

voltage in [17]. However, a symmetrical Y-connected load with

(17) a common node is connected with the inverter in [17]. Equation

Thus, (19) is independent of this assumption. Equations (18) and (19)

are of universal significance.

Vectors

According to (6) and (17), we have

(18)

by

(19) (20)

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ZHOU AND WANG: SPACE-VECTOR MODULATION AND THREE-PHASE CARRIER-BASED PWM 191

TABLE III

FUNDAMENTAL SIGNALS AND SPACE VECTORS

Thus,

(21) signals.

Equation (20) shows the direct relationship between the

line-to-line voltages and the space vectors in sector I. It also Equations (26) and (27) are the well-known 3/2 transforma-

indicates that the output line-to-line voltages are determined by tion and 2/3 transformation, respectively. Because of the sym-

the active vectors, not the zero vectors. Equation (21) shows metry of space sectors, the above transformations can be ex-

the relationship between the fundamental signals and the space tended to all other five sectors.

vectors in sector I. The relationships between the fundamental

signals and the space vectors in all six sectors are listed in C. Modulation Signals and Space-Vector Sectors

Table III.

The relationships between the modulation signals and the

From Table I, and are calculated as follows:

space-vector sectors are displayed in Fig. 6 and Table IV.

For space-vector modulation, due to ,

(22) there are infinite different ways to distribute and . Different

distributions of and yield different space-vector modula-

where is defined as shown in Fig. 3

tion modulators. A unified representation for the distribution of

Comparing (14) with (22) leads to the relationship between

and in sector I can be written as

length coefficient of and modulation index of the three-

phase carrier-based PWM as follows

(23) 1

As shown in Fig. 3, we have (28)

where ; , ; and are deter-

mined by (22). When , the cor-

responding space-vector PWM modulators have been discussed

in [18], whereas, a carrier-based PWM modulator is determined

(24) by its unique zero-sequence signal and a unified representation

for

Thus, and can be expressed as

(29)

With the help of (19), it is easy to find an equivalent zero-

(25) sequence signal for an arbitrary distribution of zero vectors, and

Therefore, according to (21) and (25), bidirectional transfor- the opposite is true. Here are some typical examples.

mations between fundamental signals in the plane and 1) Continuous PWM: yields sinusoidal carrier-

active space vectors in the plane are derived as follows: based PWM with maximum modulation index in

the linear modulation range as shown in Fig. 7(a). According to

(26) (19), its equivalent distribution of and in sector I is

and

(30)

(27) leads to third harmonics injec-

tion PWM (HIPWM) [2] with maximum modulation index

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192 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON INDUSTRIAL ELECTRONICS, VOL. 49, NO. 1, FEBRUARY 2002

TABLE IV

SPACE-VECTOR SECTORS AND FUNDAMENTAL MODULATION SIGNALS

(a) (a)

(b) (b)

(c)

(c)

Fig. 8. Modulation signals of discontinuous PWM (m = 1:0). (a) DPWM1.

Fig. 7. Modulation signals of continuous PWM (m = 1 0). (a) SPWM. (b

:

(b) DPWMMAX. (c) DPWMMIN.

HIPWM. (c) SYPWM.

brings symmet-

in the linear modulation range as shown in rical PWM (SYPWM) [18], [20] with maximum modulation

Fig. 7(b). Its corresponding and in sector I are

index in the linear modulation range as shown

in Fig. 7(c). Its corresponding and in sector I are

(31) (32)

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ZHOU AND WANG: SPACE-VECTOR MODULATION AND THREE-PHASE CARRIER-BASED PWM 193

Fig. 10. Equivalent switching patterns for double-edge carrier-based PWM.

2) Discontinuous PWM (DPWM): For DPWM1 [24] as E. Switching Pattern of Space-Vector Modulation and Carrier

shown in Fig. 8(a), can be expressed by Type

Whenthemodulationsignalswithfrequency andacarrierwith

(33)

frequency are determined, a carrier-basedPWM modulator is

DPWM1’s equivalent distribution of and [14] in sector determined. The main performance of a carrier-based PWM mod-

I are ulator is determined by its modulation signals. However, a carrier

affectsthe superior performance of the modulator, too.

The main function of the space-vector modulation strategy is

(34) to determine the pulsewidth for active vectors within each sam-

For DPWM with , (DPWMMAX) its equiva- pling interval (i.e., voltage-second average over that interval)

lent distribution of zero vectors is and which contributes fundamental components in the line-to-line

in all six space-vector sectors [as shown in Fig. 8(b)]. voltages. The optimal sequence of the pulse within the sampling

For DPWM with (DPWMMIN), its equiv- interval leads to a superior-performing space-vector modulation

alent distribution of zero vectors is and modulator. In this section, the relationship between carrier type

in all six space-vector sectors [as shown in Fig. 8(c)]. and switching pattern of space-vector modulation is discussed.

The leading feature of DPWM is that the switching actions Fig. 9 shows all the possible transitions between different

of a DPWM modulator are 2/3 as much as those of a contin- switching states, every single arrow representing one switching

uous PWM modulator with identical carrier frequency. Fewer action only. For example, a transition from state to needs

switching actions leads to less switching loss. The maximum switching action of at least one bridge leg, while the transition

modulation index for all DPWM modulators is in from to needs at least three switching actions [3], [17] . It

the linear modulation range. shows that the switching pattern of the space-vector modulation

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194 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON INDUSTRIAL ELECTRONICS, VOL. 49, NO. 1, FEBRUARY 2002

(a)

Fig. 13. Conventional nonsinusoidal PWM modulator implementation.

(a)

(b)

Fig. 15. Simulation results of two implementation methods (m = 1 0). (a)

:

Conventional SYPWM. (b) Feedback SYPWM.

the double-edge carrier-based PWM is the triangle carrier. In

pattern I, there are six switching actions for the three legs of the

inverter during one sampling interval. In pattern II, there are

(b) four switching actions in one sampling interval. The number of

Fig. 14. Closed-loop feedback PWM modulator implementation. (a)

Nonsinusoidal carrier-based PWM modulator. (b) Space-vector PWM switching actions for pattern II is only 67% of that of pattern I.

modulator. Fig. 11 shows the equivalent switching patterns for the

back-to-back single-edge carrier-based PWM with a carrier

in one sampling interval does affect the number of switching ac- frequency . The typical carrier for the single-edge car-

tions. Fewer switching actions leads to less switching loss. All rier-based PWM is the sawtooth carrier. In pattern I, there are

transitions between arbitrary two successive space vectors for three switching actions for the three legs of the inverter during

the optimal switching pattern need only one switching action one sampling interval. In pattern II, there are two switching

(as shown in Fig. 9). actions in one sample action. The overall switching frequency

In Figs. 10 and 11, two kinds of optimal switching pattern of of pattern II is only 67% of that of pattern I. It shows that, at the

space vectors in sector I are displayed. Pattern I which adopts same sampling frequency , the switching actions of pattern

both and in one sampling interval is corresponding to I (or II) in Fig. 11 is 1/2 as much as that of corresponding

continuous PWM. Pattern II which uses only one zero switching pattern I (or II) in Fig. 10.

state, either or , is corresponding to discontinuous PWM. Furthermore, the center-pulse switching pattern results in

Fig. 10 shows the equivalent switching pattern of space-vector minimization of the harmonic distortion of the inverter currents

modulation for the center-pulse double-edge carrier-based [5], [26] .

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ZHOU AND WANG: SPACE-VECTOR MODULATION AND THREE-PHASE CARRIER-BASED PWM 195

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[25] A. M. Hava, R. Kerkman, and T. A. Lipo, “A high-performance gener-

[1] S. R. Bowes, “New sinusoidal pulsewidth modulated inverter,” Proc. alized discontinuous PWM algorithm,” IEEE Trans. Ind. Applicat., vol.

Inst. Elect. Eng., vol. 122, pp. 1279–1285, 1975. 34, pp. 1059–1071, Sept./Oct. 1998.

[2] J. A. Houldsworth and D. A. Grant, “The use of harmonic distortion to [26] D. G. Holmes, “The significance of zero space vector placement for

increase the output voltage of a three-phase PWM inverter,” IEEE Trans. carrier-based PWM schemes,” IEEE Trans. Ind. Applicat., vol. 32, pp.

Ind. Applicat., vol. 20, pp. 1224–1228, Sept./Oct. 1984. 1122–1129, Sept./Oct. 1996.

Authorized licensed use limited to: PONDICHERRY ENGG COLLEGE. Downloaded on July 16,2010 at 04:32:31 UTC from IEEE Xplore. Restrictions apply.

196 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON INDUSTRIAL ELECTRONICS, VOL. 49, NO. 1, FEBRUARY 2002

Keliang Zhou was born in Hubei, China, in 1970. Danwei Wang (S’88–M’89) received the B.E.

He received the B.S. degree from Huazhong Univer- degree from South China University of Technology,

sity of Science and Technology, Wuhan, China, and Guangzhou, China, and the M.S.E. and Ph.D.

the M.E.E degree from Wuhan University of Trans- degrees from the University of Michigan, Ann

portation, Wuhan, China, in 1992 and 1995, respec- Arbor, in 1982, 1985, and 1989, respectively.

tively, both in electrical engineering. He is currently Since 1989, he has been with the School of

working toward the Ph.D degree at Nanyang Techno- Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Nanyang

logical University, Singapore. Technological University, Singapore, where he

His research interests are in the fields of power is an Associate Professor. His research interests

electronics and electric machines, advanced control include robotics, control theory, and applications.

theory, and applications. He has authored publications in the areas of manip-

ulator/mobile robot dynamics, path planning, robust control, iterative learning

control, and adaptive control, and their applications to industrial systems.

Authorized licensed use limited to: PONDICHERRY ENGG COLLEGE. Downloaded on July 16,2010 at 04:32:31 UTC from IEEE Xplore. Restrictions apply.

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