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CONDITIONAL

Pola conditional merupakan bentuk kalimat pengandaian dengan ciri hadirnya kata jika/apabila,
yang umumnya dinyatakan dangan kata IF. Terdapat dua kategori besar pola pengandaian yakni :
The real (factual dan nabiutral) dan unreal (centrary to the fact).
The real conditional yang lebih dikenal dengan istilah future conditional, merupakan pola
lamunan yang menyatakan sesuatu memiliki peluang untuk terjadi bila syarat tertentu terpenuhi
selanjutnya disebut conditional type 1.
Type unreal merupakan pola lamunan yang merupakan pengingkaran dari fakta sebenarnya akan
terjadi atau sedang terjadi sekarang yang lebih dikenal dengan present conditional atau
conditional type 2.
Dan kedua lamunan yang berkontradiksi dengan yang sebenarnya sudah terjadi yang lebih
dikenal dengan past conditional atau conditional type 3.

1. Future Conditional (Conditional Type 1)


Pengandaian ini menyatakan sesuatu mungkin terjadi pada waktu mendatang atau sekarang, jika
syarat atau kondisi tertentu terpenuhi. Conditional type 1 dibentuk oleh rangkaian simple present
sebagai sub-clause dan simple future sebagai
main clause.
If + subject 1 + present + subject 2 + [will/can/may/must] + verb 1 (simple form)

Example
1. If you come with me for a jogride to night, you will have a great fun.
2. You must study hard, if you want to enter favorite university
"If" Pada pola diatas dapat dilesapkan / dihilangkan tanpa mengubah makna dengan mengubah
structur polanya didalam bentuk inverse
Should + subject 1 + simple form + subject 2 + [will/can/may/must] + verb 1 (simple form)

Example
~ If you come with me for a jogride to night, you will have a gread fun
~ Should you want to enter favorite university, you must study hard

2. Present Conditional (Conditional Type 2)


Pengandaian ini menyatakan sesuatu yang bertentangan dengan apa yang ada / terjadi sekarang /
belakangan ini.

If + subject 1 + simple past + subject 2 + [would / could / might] + verb 1 / be


Example
1. If I had time, I would go to the beach with you this week and
2. He would tell you about, it if he were here
"If" dengan menggunakan to be "were" pada pola diatas dapat dilesapkan / dihilangkan tanpa
mengubah makna dengan mengubah structur polanya kedalam bentuk inversi.
Were +subject 1 + adjective + noun + subject 2 + [would / could / might] + verb / be

Example
~ Were I to have time, I would go to the beach with you this weekend
~ Were he here, he would tell you about it
3. Past Conditional (Conditional Type 3)
Pengandaian ini menyatakan sesuatu yang bertentangn dengan apa yang telah terjadi sesuatu
yang sudah berlalu
If + subject 1 + past perfect + subject 2 + [would / could / might] + have + verb 3 / been
Example
1. If I had known you were there, I would have writen you a letter
2. If you had asked me I would, have told you the whole story
Bentuk inversi (tanpa menggunakan kata "if") untuk type ini adalah
Had + subject 1 + verb 3/been + subject 2 + [would/could/might] + have + verb 3/been

Example
~ Had I known you were there, I would have written you a letter
~ Had you asked me I would have told you the whole story

Example of Conditional
1. If I were in town, I would go
I do not were in town, pn i would not go
2. If I had known you were, I would come to have you.
I do not had known you were, so I would not came to have you.

Rumus Conditional Sentence

Rumus Umum

Secara umum, rumus kalimat pengandaian ini adalah sebagai


berikut.
if + condition, result/consequence

atau tanpa tanda baca koma:

result/consequence + if + condition

Rumus Conditional Sentence berbagai tipe

Type Rumus Conditional Sentence

0 if + simple present, simple present

1 if + simple present, will + bare infinitive

2 if + simple past, would/could/might + bare infinitive

3 if + past perfect, would/should/could/might have + past participle

Contoh Conditional Sentence

Berikut contoh conditional sentence pada berbagai tipe sesuai dengan rumus di atas.
Type Contoh Conditional Sentence

If we burn paper, it becomes ash.


0 (Jika kita membakar kertas, itu menjadi abu.)

If I meet him, I will introduce myself.


1 (Jika saya bertemu dia, saya akan memperkenalkan diri.)

If it rained tomorrow, I would sleep all day.


2 (Jika besok hujan, saya akan tidur sepanjang hari.)

If you had remembered to invite me, I would have attended your party.
3 (Jika kamu ingat mengundang saya, saya akan hadir di pestamu.)

Negatif if + condition

Rumus: if…not dapat digantikan dengan unless.

Contoh conditional sentence: if…not dan unless:


Dengan menggunakan rumus negatif if, contoh conditional sentence seperti di bawah ini.
 If the students do not understand, they will raise their hand to ask.
 Unless the students understand, they will raise their hand to ask.

 Pengertian Conditional Sentence Type 1


 Conditional sentence type 1 ataufirst conditional adalah conditional sentence yang
digunakan ketika result/consequence (hasil) daricondition (syarat) memiliki
kemungkinan untuk terwujud di masa depan karena condition-nya realistik untuk
dipenuhi.
 Rumus Conditional Sentence Type 1
 Rumus conditional sentence type 1 dapat dilihat pada tabel sebagai berikut.
if + condition, result/consequence

if + simple present, (will + bare infinitive)/imperative

 atau

result/consequence + if + condition

(will + bare infinitive)/imperative + if + simple present

 Negatif if + condition
 Rumus: if…not dapat digantikan dengan unless.
 Contoh Kalimat Conditional Sentence Type 1
 Berikut beberapa contoh kalimat conditional sentence type 1.
Kalimat Contoh Kalimat conditional Sentence type 1

If I have free time, I will go swimming.


(Jika saya punya waktu luang, saya akan pergi berenang.)

If the bell rings, I’ll go home.


(+)
(Jika bel berbunyi, saya akan pulang ke rumah.)

If you meet Andy, ask him to call me. [Imperative]


(Jika kamu bertemu Andy, minta dia menghubungi saya.)

If you don’t finish your homework, your teacher will be angry.


(Jika kamu tidak menyelesaikan pekerjaan rumahmu, gurumu akan marah.)

If he doesn’t come, I won’t be angry. / Unless he comes, I won’t be angry.


(-)
(Jika kamu tidak datang, saya tidak akan marah.)

If he comes, I won’t be angry.


(Jika dia datang, saya tidak akan marah.)

If they invite you, will you come?


(?)
(Jika mereka mengundangmu, akankah kamu datang?

Soal Conditional Sentence Type 1 Pilihan Ganda


1. If a customer … chocolate ice cream from the restaurant, he or she will get extra
toppings.

 orders
 order
2. The hotel front desk clerk … you special price room rates if you don’t ask.

 wouldn’t offer
 won’t offer
3. If you call Tessa, I … others.

 will call
 would call
4. If I tell the truth, … hurt?

 will he gets
 will he get
5. Unless it snows, the pavements … slippery.

 will not
 will not be
6. If he … the book, I will borrow it in my university library.

 hasn’t
 doesn’t have
7. The manager … your current income if you can stay focused when working from
home.

 will double
 doubles
8. You will make your parents sad if you … responsible for your life.

 don’t
 aren’t
9. If you come to her house, she … something delicious for you.

 will be cooked
 will cook
10. If it rains heavily, … under water?

 will your home end up


 will your home be ended up

Jawaban
1. orders | a customer = singular subject, gunakan “orders”
2. won’t offer | gunakan won’t (will not) pada conditional sentence type 1, bukan wouldn’t
(would not)
3. will call | gunakan will pada conditional sentence type 1, bukan would
4. will he get | verb setelah modal auxiliary verb (will) berbentuk dasar (bare infinitive) tanpa
penambahan -s/-es
5. will not be | Karena slippery = adjective, maka perlu digunakan verb to be. Verb to be yang
dapat berada diantara modal dan adjective adalah “be”.
6. doesn’t have | Verb “have” membutuhkan dummy auxiliary verb “do/does/did” untuk
membentuk negative sentence.
7. will double | Conditional sentence type 1 menggunakan modal verb, bukan hanya verb.
8. aren’t | Karena responsible = adjective, maka perlu digunakan verb to be. Verb to be yang
cocok dengan subject “you” adalah “are”.
9. will cook | Kalimat menggunakan active voice.
10. will your home end up | Kalimat menggunakan active voice.

Pengertian Conditional Sentence Type 2

Conditional sentence type 2 atausecond conditional adalah conditional sentence yang


digunakan ketika result/consequence (hasil) daricondition (syarat) tidak memiliki atau
hanya sedikit kemungkinan untuk terwujud karena condition-nya tidak mungkin dipenuhi
dimasa sekarang (present unreal situation) atau condition-nya sulit untuk dipenuhi di
masa depan (unlikely to happen).

Rumus Conditional Sentence Type 2

Berikut rumus conditional sentence type 2.


if + condition, result/consequence

if + simple past, would/could/might + bare infinitive

atau

result/consequence + if + condition

would/could/might + bare infinitive + if + simple past


Negatif if + condition

Rumus: if…not dapat digantikan dengan unless.

Were Menggantikan Was

Pada conditional sentence type 2, were digunakan menggantikan was meskipun subjek
yang digunakan merupakan 3rd person pronoun (she, he, it) maupun kata benda tunggal.
Hal ini untuk menunjukkan bahwa pengandaiannya benar-benar hanya berupa
khayalan semata karena condition-nya tidak mungkin dipenuhi (present unreal
situation).
if + condition, result/consequence

if + S + were, would (could/might) + bare infinitive

Contoh Kalimat Conditional Sentence Type 2

Beberapa contoh kalimat conditional type 2 dapat dilihat pada tabel sebagai berikut di
bawah ini.
Kal. Contoh Kalimat Conditional Sentence type 2 Fact

but I don’t
have much
hope it
will rain
(tapi saya
tidak
punya
cukup
keyakinan
bahwa
(+) besok
If it rained tomorrow, I would sleep all day. (Jika besok hujan, saya akan akan
tidur sepanjang hari.) hujan)

but Nisa
doesn’t
study hard
(tapi Nisa
tidak
If Nisa studied hard, she would pass. (Jika Nisa belajar keras, dia akan belajar
lulus.) keras.)
but I don’t
have much
money
(tapi saya
tidak
punya
If I had much money, I would buy a sport car. (Jika saya punya banyak banyak
uang, saya akan membeli sebuah mobilsport.) uang)

but I’m
not a
millionaire
(tapi saya
bukan
If I were a millionaire, I would donate my money to charity. (Jika saya seorang
seorang millionaire, saya akan mendonasikan uang saya untuk amal.) milioner)

If Nisa studied hard, she wouldn’t fail. (Jika Nisa belajar keras, dia tidak akan gagal.)

If Nisa didn’t study hard, she would fail. atau Unless Nisa studied hard, she would fail.
(-)
(Jika Nisa tidak belajar keras, dia akan gagal.)

If I were a millionaire, I wouldn’t donate my money to charity.

If Nisa studied hard, would she pass?

(?) If you had much money, would you buy a sport car?

If you were a millionaire, would you donate my money to charity?

Inverted Word Order pada Conditional Sentence Type 2

Inverted word order berarti verb muncul sebelum subject. Kondisi ini dapat terjadi dengan
menghilangkan kata “if” dan menukar posisi subject dan verb. Contohnya sebagai
berikut.
Normal Inverted

If I (S) were (V) the shopkeeper, I would give you


discounts. (Jika saya pemilik toko, saya akan memberimu Were (V) I (S) the shopkeeper, I
potongan harga.) would give you discounts.
Soal Conditional Sentence Type 2 Pilihan Ganda
1. If I … his mind, I wouldn’t let him touch my PC.

 could read
 would read
2. If I … him, I would quit my job and start a business.

 was
 were
3. If he were here, I … him not to enter the room without permission.

 would advise
 would advice
4. It … appreciated if you returned the form as soon as possible.

 would be greatly
 would greatly
5. … I rich, I would send my son to study overseas.

 Were if
 Were
6. If he studied harder, he … the best score in his class.

 would got
 would get
7. Your parents wouldn’t be angry if you … to them.

 didn’t lie
 don’t lie
8. Unless Reny got enough sleep, she … productive.

 wouldn’t
 wouldn’t be
9. If I won a god medal at the international physics olympiad, I … admision in some
universities without test.

 could get
 can get
10. If you had a sister, … clothes with her?

 would you share


 you would share
Jawaban
1. could read
2. were
3. would advise
4. would be greatly
5. Were
6. would get
7. didn’t lie
8. wouldn’t be
9. could get
10. would you share
Pengertian Conditional Sentence Type 3

Conditional sentence type 3 atauthird conditional adalah conditional sentence yang


digunakan ketika result/consequence (hasil) dari condition (syarat) tidak ada
kemungkinan terwujud karenacondition-nya harus sudah dipenuhi di masa lalu.

Rumus Conditional Sentence Type 3

Bagian conditional clause (if + condition) menggunakansubordinate


conjunction “if” dan past perfect tense, sedangkan bagian main clause (result)
menggunakanperfect modal (modal + have + past participle). Berikut rumus conditional
sentence type 3.
if + condition, result/consequence

if + past perfect, would/should/could/might have + past participle

atau

result/consequence + if + condition

would/should/could/might have + past participle + if + past perfect

Contoh Kalimat Conditional Sentence Type 3

Beberapa contoh kalimat conditional sentence type 3 dapat dilihat pada tabel sebagai
berikut.
Kalimat Contoh Kalimat Conditional Sentence type 3 Fact
If you had remembered to invite me, I would have
attended your party.
(Jika kamu ingat mengundang saya, saya akan hadir but you didn’t remember
di pestamu.) (tapi kamu tidak ingat)
(+)
If I had given the interviewer really good answers, I but I didn’t give really
might have got a higher position than you. good answers
(Jika saya memberi jawaban yang benar-benar bagus (tapi saya tidak
ke pewawancara, saya mungkin memdapatkan posisi memberikan jawaban yang
yang lebih tinggi dari kamu.) benar-benar bagus)

If the waitress had been careful, she wouldn’t have but the waitress wasn’t
broken many plates. careful
(-)
(Jika pelayan tersebut hati-hati, dia tidak akan (tapi pelayan tersebut tidak
memecahkan banyak piring.) hati-hati)

If he had asked you for forgiveness, would you have but he didn’t ask you for
forgiven him? forgiveness
(?)
(Jika dia meminta maaf kepadamu, akankah kamu (tapi dia tidak meminta
memaafkannya?) maaf)

Inverted Word Order pada Conditional Sentence Type 3

Inverted word order berarti verb muncul sebelum subject. Kondisi ini dapat terjadi dengan
menghilangkan kata “if” dan menukar posisi subject dan verb. Contohnya sebagai
berikut.
Normal Inverted

If you (S) had (V) saved your gold in a safety


deposit box, it wouldn’t have gone.
(Jika kamu telah menyimpan emasmu
di safety deposit box, emasmu tidak akan Had (V) you (S) saved your gold in a safety
hilang.) deposit box, it wouldn’t have gone.

Soal Conditional Sentence Type 3 Pilihan Ganda


1. If you … an umbrella, you wouldn’t have got wet.

 had took
 had taken
2. If you … about personal financial planning, you could’ve spent your money
wisely.

 had known
 had knew
3. She … your calls if you had reply her text message fast.

 wouldn’t have been ignored


 wouldn’t have ignored
4. Had you treated your maid better, she …

 wouldn’t have ran away


 wouldn’t have run away
5. If he had come to ask forgiveness, … his apologies?

 would you have accept


 would you have accepted
6. If our friend hadn’t forgotten to renew his visa, he …

 wouldn’t have been deported


 wouldn’t have deported
7. If the student … the instructions carefully, he wouldn’t have broken an
dessicator.

 have listened and followed


 had listened and followed
8. If the driver …, he wouldn’t have crashed concrete road separators.

 hadn’t got enough sleep


 had got enough sleep
9. If you … that you couldn’t handle the pressure anymore, your parents might
have helped you.

 had told
 have told
10. If you … earlier, you could have saw the beautiful sunrise.

 had woken up
 had woke up

Jawaban
1. had taken
2. had known
3. wouldn’t have ignored
4. wouldn’t have run away
5. would you have accepted
6. wouldn’t have been deported
7. had listened and followed
8. had got enough sleep
9. had told
10. had woken up

(Isilah bentuk kata kerja yang benar yang ada di dalam kurung pada setiap kalimat berikut ini)

1. If we had left the house earlier, they……………….(be; negative) so late getting to the ship.
2. If I finish the assignment before Saturday, I………………..(submit) it to my lecturer.
3. If I had seen the concert, I………………..(tell) you about it last night.
4. Had Juki not interfered in his brother’s marital problems, there…………………(be) peace between them.
5. She would give you the money if she……………………(have) it.
6. They would call you immediately if they………………….(need) help.
7. Had my mother arrived at the sale early, she……………….(find) a better dress.
8. If you have enough time, please…………………..(clean) your room before you go to school.
9. They could go for a drive if today…………………(be) Sunday.
10. If I win the prize, it will be because I………………………(write) very well.
11. If your sister………………….(buy) that chocolate for you, will you be happy?
12. If she…………………..(decide) earlier, she could have left on the morning flight.
13. Had I known his address, I…………….(write) him a letter.
14. If the roofer doesn’t come soon, the rain………………………(leak) inside.
15. My cat always sleeps if it……………………(watch) drama on TV.
16. If you………….(see) John tonight, please ask him to call his mother.
17. If I……………(do) a good job, I would get the raise.
18. My lecturer will not accept my work if I…………….(submit) it in late.
19. If we had known her, we……………………(talk) to her.
20. They would understand it if you……………….(explain) it to them more slowly.
21. I……………..(rich), I would travel around the world.
22. She would have understood her English teacher if she………………(speak) slowly.
23. If my headache disappeared, I……………………(play) tennis this morning.
24. If today………………….(be) Sunday, we could go to the beach.
25. We……………….(go) tonight if we didn’t have to study.
26. If the fireman hadn’t arrived earlier, they…………………(save; negative) the house.
27. Peter……………..(pass) the examination if he studied well.
28. Roni could win the competition if he…………………(practice) more.
29. We wouldn’t know that our parents came if my teacher………………..(tell; negative) us.
30. Don’t expect too much if you………………(want) to be happy.
31. Had I known that Desti was a liar, I………………(tell) my secret.
32. If she………………(know) there was a test, she would have prepared for it well.
33. We……………..(do) our work if our computer had not broken down.
34. If he…………….(be) more confident during the interview, he might have the job he wanted.
35. They would have lost their bag if they…………………..(leave) it in the hotel.

Pengertian conditional sentences


Conditional sentence (kalimat pengandaian) adalah kalimat yang mengandaikan suatu
keinginan, harapan, rencana, dan Iain-lain yang masih bisa terjadi [possible), sesuatu
yang tak terpenuhi/angan-angan (unreal), dan tak ter- wujud (impossible).
Contoh:
 If I work hard, I will have a lot of money. (Jika aku bekerja keras, aku akan memiliki
banyak uang)
 If I study English, I will get good score in TOEFL. (Jika aku belajar bahasa Inggris, aku
akan mendapatkan nilai yang bagus dalam tes TOEFL)
 If I had a lot of money, I would buy an expensive car. (Jika aku memiliki banyak uang,
aku akan menibeli mobil yang mahal)
 If i were you, I would work in that foreign company. (Jika aku jadi kamu, aku akan
bekerja di perusahaan asing itu)
 If I had got high score in the national examination, I would have studeid in a state
university. (jika aku mendapatkan nilai yang bagus di ujian nasional, aku akan belajar
disebuah perguruan tinggi negeri)
 We would have got the ticket if we had come earlier. (Kita akan mendapatkan tiket jika
kita datang lebih awal.)
Catatan:
 Terdapat dua bagian di dalam struktur kalimat pengadaian. yaitu mduk Kalimat (main
clause) dan anak kalimat (dalam bentuk if clause).
Contoh:

If I work hard, 1 will have a lot of money.


If clause main clause

 Struktur atau posisi induk dan anak kalimat pada kalimat pengandaian dapat diubah-ubah.
Contoh:

 If I had got high score in the national examination, 1 would have entered state university.
 1 would have entered state university If I had got high score in the national examination.
Catatan:
Ketika posisi induk kalimat berada di depan, maka tidak perlu adanya pemisah berupa
tanda koma (,) di antara induk dan anak kalimat.

Ketika posisi anak kalimat (if clause) berada di depan, maka digunakan pemisah berupa
tanda koma (,).

KINDS OF CONDITIONAL SENTENCES


Kalimat pengandaian (conditional sentence) terbagi menjadi tiga, yaitu:
Kalimat pengandaian tipe 1 (type 1)
Pola kalimat pengandaian tipe 1:
If + subject + VI (Simple Present Tense)+Subject + will + VI (Simple Present tense)
atau

If + subect + (be) present + adjective/noun+Subject + will be + adjective/noun

Contoh:

If I study hard, I will pass the final examination. (jika aku belajar dengan sungguh-sungguh, aku akan
lulus dalam ujian akhir)
Keterangan:

> Kalimat pengandaian (conditional sentece) tipe 1 digunakan untuk mengungkapkan


atau mengandaikan sesuatu yang belum terjadi pada waktu sekarang dan memiliki
kemungkinan untuk terjadi dalam waktu dekat. Kalimat semacam ini menjelaskan untuk
menyatakan suatu pola sebab dan akibat.

Kalimat pengandaian tipe 2 (type 2)


Pola kalimat pengandaian tipe 2:

If + subject + V2/simple past tense + Subject + would + Vl/past future tense


atau
If + subject + were + adjective/noun + Subject + would be + adjective/noun

Contoh:

 Rony would buy a new car if he got the job in foreign company. (Rony akan membeli
mobil baru jika ia mendapatkan pekerjaan di perusahaan asing)
 If I passed the company entrance test, I would treat you a plate of steak. (jika aku lulus
dalam tes masuk perusahaan, aku akan mentraktirmu sepiring bistik)
 If I were you, I would apply for that scholarship. (jika aku jadi kamu, aku akan melamar
untuk beasiswa itu)

Keterangan:
 Kalimat pengandaian (conditional sentence) tipe 2 merupakan kalimat yang digunakan
untuk mengungkapkan sesuatu yang tidak mungkin terjadi atau yang bertentangan
dengan kenyataan pada waktu sekarang. Kalimat dengan tipe ini biasanya digunakan
untuk menyatakan suatu khayalan.
 Fakta: fakta yang diungkapkan oleh kalimat pengandaian tipe 2 adalah bahwa saat ini apa
yang diandaikan itu tidak terjadi.
Contoh:
Condotional Sentence:
If I had long holiday, I would visit your home. (jika aku libur panjang, aku akan
mengunjungi rumahmu)

Fakta/Fact :
I have not long holiday. (Aku tidak libur panjang)

Conditional Sentence:
If I were you, I would go to that party. (Kalau aku jadi kamu, aku akan pergi ke pesta itu)

Fact:
I am not you. (Aku bukan kamu)

Catatan : were digunakan baik oleh subjek tunggal maupun jamak. Namun. ada kalanya
bentuk was digunakan pada subjek (I , he, she, it) ketika digunakan pada percakapan
tidak formal.
Misalnya : If I was you. I would accept his invitation.

Kalimat pengandaian tipe 3 (type 3)


Pola kalimat pengandaian tipe 3:
If + subject + had + V3/past perfects + subject + would have + V3/past perfect
atau
if + subject + had been + adjective/noun + subject + would have been + adjective/noun

Contoh:

 If I had had enough time, I would have come to your wedding party. (Kalau saja aku
punya waktu yang cukup, aku akan datang ke pesta pernikahanmu)
 Ifl had worked hard, I would have got the promotion for manager position. (Kalau saja
aku bekerja keras, aku akan mendapatkan promosi untuk jabatan manajer)
 If I hadn’t gone to the mountain, I wouldn’t have had an accident. (Kalau saja aku tidak
pergi ke gunung, aku tidak akan mengalami kecelakaan)

Keterangan:
 Kalimat pengandaian (conditional sentence) tipe 3 adalah kalimat yang mengandaikan
sesuatu yang sudah terjadi dan tidak terjadi di masa lalu. Tipe kalimat ini biasanya
digunakan untuk menyatakan suatu penyesalan.
 Fakta yang diungkapkan dalam kalimat pengandaian ini adalah bahwa apa yang
diandaikan tidak pernah terjadi di masa lalu.
Contoh:
Conditional sentence:
If I had studied English well, I would have got good score in TOEIC. (kalau aku belajar
bahasa Inggris dengan baik, aku akan mendapatkan nilai yang baik di TOEIC.

Fact:
I did not study. Therefore, I had bad score in TOEIC. ( Aku tidak belajar. Maka dari itu,
aku mendapatkan nilai yang buruk di TOEIC. )

 Kalimat pengandaian (Conditional Sentence) juga dapat menggunakan bentuk


progressive atau continuous jika memang menerangkan proses yang sedang terjadi.
Contoh:
Conditional Sentence:
If I were working in England, I would be living together with my family. (jika aku bekerja
di Inggris. aku akan dapat tinggal bersama dengan keluargaku)
Fact:
I am not working in England. I am not living together with my family. (Aku tidak bekerja
di Inggris. Aku tidak tinggal bersama dengan keluargaku)

Conditional Sentence:
If it were not raining right now, I would go to the music concert. (kalau sekarang tidak
hujan, aku akan pergi ke konser musik)

Fact:
It is raining right now, so I will not go the music concert. (Sekarang sedang hujan, jadi
aku tidak akan pergi ke konser musik)

Conditional sentence:
If I had been working in England last year. I would have been living together with my
family. (Kalau aku bekerja di Inggris tahun kemarin, aku pasti tinggal bersama dengan
keluargaku).

Fact:
I was not working in England. I was not living together with my family (aku tidak bekerja
di Inggris. Aku tidak tinggal bersama dengan keluargaku)

Conditional sentence:
If it has not been raining, I would have gone to the music concert. (kalau tidak hujan,
aku pasti pergi ke konser musik)

Fact:
It was raining yesterday, so 1 did not go to the music concert. (Kemarin hujan, jadi aku
tidak pergi ke konser musik)

 Conditional sentence (kalimat pengandaian) dapat mengungkapkan kejadian atau


pengandaian yang terjadi pada waktu yang berbeda. Misalnya, klausa if (anak
kalimat) mengungkapkan kejadian pada waktu lampau [past), sedangkan induk kalimat
mengungkapkan kejadian yang sekarang [present).
Contoh:
Conditional sentence:
If I had prepared some foods several hours ago, I would not be hungry right now. (Jika
aku mempersiapkan makanan beberapa jam yang lalu, aku tidak akan lapar sekarang)

Fact:
I did not prepare some foods several hours ago so 1 am hungry right now. (Aku tidak
mempersiapkan makanan beberapa jam yang lalu, jadi aku lapar sekarang).


Jika terdapat penggunaan were, had (past perfect), dan should terkadang terdapat
penghilangan if.
Contoh:
Were I you, I would attend the state university entrance test.

Were I you = if I were you

Terdapat pola suatu kalimat yang mengindikasikan suatu kalimat pengandaian


(conditional sentence)
Contoh:
I would have come to your party, but I had to go to my sister’s wedding party. (Kalau
aku tidak harus pergi ke pesta pernikahan kakakku aku pasti akan datang ke pestamu).

oal Conditional Sentence Pilihan Ganda


1. If you got a bunch of money, … it on stupid things?

 would you spend


 would you have spent
2. If the student had got enough sleep, she … difficulties in reading the material.

 wouldn’t have faced


 wouldn’t has faced
3. If I … you, I would look for my passion to find a new career.

 was
 were
4. When he … to sleep, he never counts sheep leaping over fences.
 goes
 will go
5. If I advise her about travelling by plane with children, … to me?

 will she listen


 she will listen
6. It would be fun if the button to lower volume on my PC … properly.

 could worked
 could work
7. … good quality cookware, we mightn’t have needed to get rid of burnt taste in
this food.

 We had used
 Had we used
8. Your calls … if you had replied her text message fast.

 wouldn’t have ignored


 wouldn’t have been ignored
9. Unless it rains, I … clothes in the sun instead of using the dryer.

 would dry
 will dry
10. Your sister … to you if you don’t stop yelling at her.

 won’t be nice
 wouldn’t be nice
11. If adults … a single espresso, it can slow the flow of blood to their heart.

 drink
 will drink
12. … I tall, I would consider joining the army.

 If were
 Were

Jawaban
1. would you spend
2. wouldn’t have faced
3. were
4. goes | zero conditional berupa habitual activity (kebiasaan)
5. will she listen
6. could work
7. Had we used
8. wouldn’t have been ignored
9. will dry
10. won’t be nice
11. drink | zero conditional berupa scientific fact
12. Were | Inverted conditional sentence type 2: “if” dihilangkan dan subject dan verb pada if-
clause ditukar posisinya.

Subjunctive adalah suatu bentuk kata kerja untuk mengungkapkan kebutuhan, saran,
harapan, atau pengandaian yang berbeda dengan kenyataan.

Kata kerja ini terbagi menjadi presentdan past subjunctive dimana memiliki aturan
penggunaan berbeda.
Subjunctive merupakan satu dari tiga verb moods (ada
pula imperative dan indicative). Padamodern English, bentuk kata kerja ini hanya terdapat
pada bagian dependent clause, bukan main clause.

Aturan Penggunaan Subjunctive

Aturan Contoh Verb


Normal Subjunctive

Present

reads read
Kecuali untuk verb be, present
subjunctive menggunakanbare infinitive [kata kerja bentuk sederhana
tanpa penambahan -s goes go
atau -es meskipun subjek yang digunakan
merupakan orang ketiga tunggal (the man, Ana, mother) is be
maupunpronoun (I, she, he, it)]. Verb be (is/are) yang digunakan
pada present indicative/normal, digantikan oleh “be”. are be

Past

walked walked

ate ate

Kecuali untuk verb be, past subjunctive was were


sama seperti past
indicative/normal. Verb be baik was maupunwere menggunakan “were”. were were

Conditional Auxiliary Verbs vs. Subjunctive

Karena penggunaannya yang rawan kesalahan,subjunctive jarang


digunakan di dalam bahasa inggris. Modal auxiliary verbs lebih disukai untuk digunakan.
Adapun untuk menghasilkan makna pengandaian unreal condition (kenyataan berbeda
dengan harapan), conditional auxilliary verbs (could, should, would) dapat digunakan
menggantikan subjunctive. Contohnya sebagai berikut.

Contoh Kalimat Subjunctive vs Modal Auxiliary Verb:

 I wish the teacher were nice to me. (Subjunctive)


 I wish the teacher could be nice to me. (Auxiliary Verb)

Fungsi dan Contoh Kalimat Present dan Past Subjunctive


Secara umum, subjunctive digunakan pada dependent clause di dalam suatu complex
sentence. Berikut rincian kondisi serta contoh kalimatnya.
Contoh Kalimat
Fungsi Subjunctive
Subjunctive

I recommend that
you take a
cooking class.
(Saya
merekomedasikan
kamu mengambil
kelas memasak.)

The doctor
suggested that
white
rice bereplaced
with brown rice.
(Dokter
Present subjunctive berada pada dependent clause dimana bagian independent menyarankan
clause-nya menggunakan verb: ask, command, demand, determine, insist, order, beras putih
propose, recommend, regret, request, require, suggest, untuk diganti dengan
mengekspresikan requirement (kebutuhan) atau suggestion (saran). beras merah.)

It is desirable that
they be on time.
(Diharapkan
mereka datang
tepat waktu.)

It is necessary
that
she prepare for
the next exam.
Present subjunctive berada pada dependent clause dimana bagian independent (Perlu untuk dia
clause-nya menggunakan adjective yang mempersiapkan
mengekspresikan urgency/requirement: crucial, desirable, essential, important, ujian
imperative, necessary, urgent, vital selanjutnya.)

If I were a
millionaire, I
would donate my
money to charity.
(Jika saya
miliuner, saya
akan
Past subjunctive berada pada dependent clause dimana independent mendonasikan
clauseberupa conditional sentence yang kenyataannya berbeda pengandaian uang untuk amal.)
(present unreal events: conditional type 2dengan simple past, past unreal
events:conditional type 3 dengan past perfect) I wouldn’t be
panic if
I were you.
(Saya tidak akan
panik jika jadi
kamu.)

I wish
he were here to
repair my
computer.
(Saya harap dia
disini
memperbaiki
komputer.)

Everybody
wishes that
Sarah were able
to control her
emotion.
(Setiap orang
berharap Sarah
dapat mengontrol
Past subjunctive mengikuti kata wish. emosinya.)

Robi acts as
though he were a
king.
(Robi berlaku
seakan-akan dia
raja.)

Siti eats much as


if she had not
eaten for a month.
(Siti makan
banyak seakan-
akan dia sudah
tidak makan
Past subjunctive mengikuti kata as if dan as though. sebulan.)

Soal Subjunctive Mood Pilihan Ganda


1. It is imperative that everybody … quiet in the library.

 be
 is
2. We wish that we … another choice.

 had
 have
3. I wish he … my best friend.

 were
 was
4. He insisted that I … a gift from him.

 receive
 received
5. If I … a doctor, I would never diagnose heart failure by symptoms alone.

 was
 were
6. Raissa acted as if she … Lady Macbeth.

 was
 were
7. It is important that a newcomer student … the instructions carefully.

 read
 reads
8. My husband requested that tea … used instead of coffee.

 were
 be
9. She cried as though she … a million dollars.

 lose
 lost
10. She would have helped you if you … asked her.

 have
 had

Jawaban
1. be | Present subjunctive ditempatkan pada subordinate clause yang main clause-nya
menggunakan adjective yang menyatakan urgency/requirement.
2. had
3. were
4. receive | Present subjunctive ditempatkan pada subordinate clause yang main clause-nya
menyatakan requirement/suggestion.
5. were | Past subjunctive digunakan pada conditional type 2.
6. were
7. read | Present subjunctive ditempatkan pada subordinate clause yang main clause-nya
menggunakan adjective yang menyatakan urgency/requirement.
8. be | Present subjunctive ditempatkan pada subordinate clause yang main clause-nya
menyatakan requirement/suggestion.
9. lost
10. had | Past subjunctive digunakan pada conditional type 3.