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Classification of fungi

Classification of fungi

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Classification of fungi
INTRODUCTION

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Classification of fungi

The scientific classification of living organisms started in the 18th


century and at that time there were only two Kingdoms of living
organisms—the Plant Kingdom and the Animal Kingdom. Anything that
didn't move was put in the Plant Kingdom, so that's where fungi were
classified. However, fungi are very strange 'plants' since they don't
make their own food, as 'ordinary' plants do via photosynthesis. Despite
that, the two-kingdom system was retained into the second half of the
20th century. By then, the electron microscope's ability to show fine
microscopic structural detail was making it obvious that the two-
Kingdom classification was inadequate.
While everyone now agrees that fungi do not belong in the Plant
Kingdom, there is still some debate over the number of Kingdoms
needed to accommodate the living world. This means that you are very
likely to see a number of different classification schemes as you look in
different books or web sites.
The basis of which fungi are classified
1. Nutrition andGrowth
Fungi obtain their food either by infecting living organisms as parasites (Gr. Parasitos-
eating beside another), or by attacking dead organic matter as Saprobes (Gr. sapros-
rotten, bios- life).
Fungi which live on dead matter and are incapable of infecting living organisms are called
obligate saprobes. Those fungi capable of causing diseases or of living on dead organic
matter, according to circumstances, facultative parasites (or facultative saprobes), and
those which cannot live except on living protoplasm are called obligate parasites. Some
fungal hyphae show a widespread association with the roots of higher plants and this
association is known as mycorrhiza (Gr. mykes- mushroom + rhiza- root). In these
associations both plant and fungus derive the benefit. Fungi differ from most plants in that
they require already elaborated food inorder to live, and are incapable of manufacturing
their own. But if given carbohydrates in some form preferably glucose, sucrose or maltose
most fungi can synthesize their own proteins by utilizing inorganic or organic sources of
nitrogen and various mineral elements essential for their growth. Many fungi are capable
of synthesizing vitamins they require for their growth and reproduction. Some, however
are deficient in thiamine or biotin or both and must obtain these or their precursors from
the substratum. Fungi usually store excess food in the form of glycogen and oil.
0 0
Most fungi will grow between 0 and 35 C but optimum temperatures lie in the range of
0 0
20-30 C. The ability of fungi to withstand extremely low temperatures (as low as –195 C)
for at least a few hours has been demonstrated.

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Classification of fungi
They prefer an acid medium for growth, a pH of 6 being near the optimum for most of the
species.

Although light is not required for the growth of fungi, some light is essential for
sporulation in many species. Light also plays a part in spore dispersal, the spore bearing
organs being positively phototrophic and discharging their spores towards the light.
2. Somatic Structures
• The vegetative structure of fungi not differentiated into shoot and root is referred to as
thallus. It consists of microscopic tubular filaments called hyphae (sing: hypha), Mass
of hyphae constituting the thallus is called mycelium (plural: mycelia).
• The hyphae are branched (rarely unbranched), and the branches ramify on or inside the
substratum to form a three dimensional network. Cytoplasmic streaming in fungal
hyphae is unidirectional towards the tip, where growth takes place.
• The hyphae may be septate or unseptate (Fig. 1). The unseptate hyphae have nuclei
scattered in the cytoplasm. This is known as coenocytic condition. Depending on the
species, the protoplasm may be continuous throughout or it may be interrupted at
irregular intervals by partitions or crosswalls, which divide the hypha into cells.
• The crosswalls are called septa (sing: septum; septum meaning hedge, partition). In
septate forms, the protoplasts on each side of a septum are connected by living strands,
which pass through a central pore in the septum. Even in the aseptate hyphae septa are
formed to cut off old, empty portions of hyphae in the older region and to delimit the
sex organs in the concentration of cytoplasm and are called adventitious septa.
• Fungi have eukaryotic cell structure (Fig. 2). They have double-membrane bound cell
organelles like nucleus and mitochondria, tubular endoplasmic reticulum (ER), the
golgi bodies and the ribosomes. However, there are some differences from typical
eukaryotic cells, like the ribosomes, lying free in the cytoplasm and not attached to
endoplasmic reticulum.
• Though hypha is the characteristic unit of structure in fungi, there are fungi whose thallus
may consist of a single cell. Some fungi show dimorphism and exist in both mycelial
and unicellular forms in different environments.
• Fungi possess organized, demonstrable nuclei each with a nuclear membrane, a
nucleolus, and chromatin strands, which become organized into chromosomes during
division.
• The chemical composition of the cell wall is not the same in all fungi. In most fungi,
particularly in the higher forms the cell wall is composed chiefly of chitin. In some
forms cellulose is probably the chief constituent. Callose, a complex carbohydrate,
lignin like substances and other organic materials have also been detected in many
fungi.
• The mass of hyphae constituting the thallus of a fungus is called the mycelium. The
mycelium of some of the higher fungi forms thick strands. These strands loose their
individuality and form complex tissues,

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Classification of fungi
which exhibit a division of labour. These are called rhizomorphs and are resistant to
adverse conditions and remain dormant until favorable conditions return.
• The mycelium of parasitic fungi grows on the surface of or more often inside, the host
either spreading between the cells or penetrating into them. Intercellular hyphae of
many fungi, especially of obligate parasites of plants, obtain nourishment through
haustoria (sing: haustorium, Latin: haustor = drinker). They are regarded as specialised
absorbing organs. Haustoria may be knob like in shape, elongate or branched like a
miniature root system. The hyphae of saprobic fungi come in intimate contact with the
substratum and obtain food by dirrect diffusion through the hyphal walls, causing
disintegration of the organic matter which they utilize.
• The mycelium of most of fungi becomes organized into loosely or compactly woven
tissues known as plectenchyma (Greek: pleko = I weave + enchyma = infusion i.e a
woven tissue). There are two general types of Plectenchyma (Fig. 3).
i. Prosenchyma: (Greek: pros = toward + enchyma = infusion i.e approaching a
tissue). It is a rather loosely woven tissue in which the component hyphae lie
more or less parallel to one another.
ii. Pseudoparenchyma: (Greek: pseudo = false + parenchyma = a type of plant
tissue). It consists of closely packed more or less isodiametric or oval cells
resembling the parenchyma cells of higher plants.

Prosenchyma and Psuedoparenchyma compose various types of somatic and reproductive


structures which many fungi form. Two such somatic structures are the stroma (plural:
stromata: Greek: stroma = mattress) and the sclerotium (plural: sclerotia ; Greek. skleros =
hard).
A stroma is a compact, somatic structure much like a mattress, on which or in which
frutifications are usually formed.
A sclerotium is a hard resting body resistant to unfavorable conditions, it may remain
dormant for long periods of time and germinate upon the return of favorable conditions.

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Classification of fungi

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Classification of fungi
3. Life Cycles

Many fungi, like other sexually reproducing organisms show an alternation between
haploid and diploid nuclear phases in their life cycles. The haploid phase begins with the
completion of meiosis and the diploid phase starts with the fusion of the haploid nuclei
during sexual reproduction. In many higher Asco and Basidiomycotina a third phase – the
dikaryophase, intervenes the haploid and diploid phases. The nuclei associate in pairs to
form dikaryons which divide simultaneously and the daughter pairs of nuclei form new
cells. This multiplication of the gametic nuclei after karyogamy, results in the formation of
numerous diploid nuclei.

A life cycle involving dikaryons is found only in fungi and nowhere else. Fungi display
different types of life cycles centred around the sexual reproduction. Seven basic types of
life cycles in fungi are generally recognised.
These are:
1. Asexual cycle: the entire group of “fungi imperfecti” shows this type of life cycle.
There is no alternation of haploid and diploid nuclear phases. The diploid (2n)
phase is lacking.
2. Haploid cycle: The life cycle is completely haploid (n), the diploid phase is
restricted only to the zygote nucleus. This is the most common type of life
cycle found in majority of lower fungi and Ascomycotina.
3. Hapliod cycle with restricted dikaryon: This type of life cycle is found in
higher Ascomycotina forming (n + n) ascogenous hyphae, which are
completely dependent on the haploid mycelium. This is predominantly a
haploid life cycle but it differs in the separation of plasmogamy from
karyogamy in space and time. The gametic nuclei pair to form dikaryons
which multiply by conjugate mitotic divisions in the ascogenous hyphae. The
dikaryons finally undergo karyogamy and meiosis in the ascal primordia.
4. Haploid – dikaryotic cycle: Most of the Basidiomycotina, excluding the smuts,
exhibit this type of life cycle in which the dikaryophase (n + n) is more
extensive and also independent of the haploid phase. The cycle comprises of
two roughly equivalent phases and terminates in a single diploid nuclear
generation represented by the diploid zygote nucleus.
5. Dikaryotic cycle: The complete life cycle is passed in dikaryotic phase, and both
the haploid and diploid generations are represented by single nuclear
generation. The immediate products of meiosis like the ascospores or the
basidiospores fuse to initiate the dikaryophase, which persists until karyogamy
occurs. Examples are the rusts and smuts.
6. Haploid – diploid cycle: This type of life cycle, which is characteristic of algae,
occurs only in two groups of fungi like the Blastocladiales and Endomycetales
(Ascocybe grovesii) and Saccharomyces cerevisiae. In this type, haploid and
diploid phases are equally extensive and important.

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Classification of fungi
7. Diploid cycle: This type of life cycle, that is completely diploid except for the
immediate products of meiosis, is reported in a number of yeasts,
Myxomycetes, Blastocladiales and the Oomycetes.

4. Reproduction:
Reproduction is the formation of new individuals having all the characteristics typical of
the species. Two general types of reproduction are recognized,
Asexual and Sexual
Asexual reproduction, sometimes called somatic or vegetative, does not involve the union
of nuclei, sex cells or sex organs. The union of two nuclei on the other hand characterizes
sexual reproduction.
In the formation of reproductive organs, either sexual or asexual, the entire thallus may be
converted into one or more reproductive structures, so that somatic and reproductive
phases do not occur together in the same individual. Fungi, which follow this pattern, are
called holocarpic (Greek. holos = whole + karpos = fruit). In the majority of fungi,
however, the reproductive organs arise from but a portion of the thallus, while the
remainder continues its normal somatic activities. The fungi in this category are called
eucarpic (Greek. eu = good + karpos = fruit). The holocarpic forms are, therefore less
differentiated than the eucarpic and are regarded, for the most part, as more primitive.

• Asexual reproduction:
It is the non–sexual production of specialized reproductive cells such as spores. A broader
definition, however, also includes any method of propagation of new individuals, such as
simple division of a unicellular organism into two daughter cells or of a multicellular
thallus into a number of fragments each of which grows into a new individual.
Fungi exhibit the following methods of asexual reproduction.
1. Fragmentation: A detached fragment of the hypha, in suitable conditions, gives
rise to a new individual. This happens frequently in nature.
2. Budding: Budding of vegetative cells is common in yeasts (fig. 4). A soft zone
appears on the cell wall, which bulges out, constricts and finally pinches off to
form a daughter cell.
3. Fission: This is characteristic of bacteria and occurs only in ‘fission yeasts’
Schizosaccharomyces. In fission, the cell divides in transverse plane into two
cells (by constriction and later formation of a cell wall in between).
4. Spores: Spores are the most common method of asexual reproduction in fungi.
The term spores is used for any small propagative, reproductive or survival unit
which separates from a hypha or a sporogenous cell and gives rise to a new
individual. In contrast to the vegetative mycelium, the spore is characterized by :

i. cessation of cytoplasmic movement


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Classification of fungi
ii. small water content
iii. slow metabolism and lack of vacuoles.
Asexual spores are also called Mitospores. They are of two main types:
Sporangiospores and Conidia (Fig. 5).
i. Sporangiospores: These are formed within a sac like structure called sporangium
(Pl. sporangia) which is borne on undifferentiated or specialized hyphal structure
called sporangiophore. They may be motile or non-motile. The motile
sporangiospores are called zoospores and are provided with one or two flagella, the
nonmotile sporangiospores are called aplanospores, and they lack flagella (fig.5).
Zoospores are naked spores lacking cell wall, which after a swarming period,
encyst, i.e. secrete a wall, and germinate to form a germ tube that develops
into the thallus.
Flagella
The flagella are of two types.
ii. Tinsel type ii. Whiplash type

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Classification of fungi

The tinsel type flagella have a ‘whip’ having a broader and rigid basal portion and a
thinner, small, flexible distal region. The flagella originate from kernal like granule
called blepharoplast, lying in the cytoplasm close to the plasmamembrane. The
blepharoplast is connected to the nucleus by a strand called rhizoplast. A cross-
section of the shaft of the flagellum shows in electron microphotographs, a 9 + 2
structure (fig.6) which is a characteristic feature of a flagella of all eukaryotic
organisms. The flagellum is composed of eleven fibres, 2 central fibres covered by a
central sheath and a separate outer fibre couplets in the peripheral region. A
membrane surrounds the eleven fibres. Between the outer and central fibres is
composed of 2 sub fibres. Each of 9 outer fibres is composed of 2 sub fibres. One of
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Classification of fungi
the sub fibres of each outer fibre bears two short projections, designated as arms,
which point in the clockwise direction. The two central fibres are connected to the
blepharoplast. The membrane surrounding the 9 + 2 fibres is continuous with the
plasmamembrane of the spore.
• Uniflagellate zoospore with a posterior whiplash flagellum.
• Uniflagellate zoospore with an anterior tinsel type flagellum.
• Biflagellate zoospore with one flagellum of each type attached apically or
laterally.
• Biflagellate zoospore with two anterior whiplash flagella.

These four types of zoospores form the basis of division of sub division
Mastigomycotina into four classes.
ii. Conidia : They are formed by transformation of pre- existing cells of the thallus and
are detached by decay of the hypha, or disarticulation of the cells.
a. Arthrospores: (sing: oidia) are formed by close septation of the distal end of the
hypha, in a basipetalous succession (proceeding from the apex to the base of the
hypha). Both exogenous and endogenous arthrospores are known (fig. 8). The
exogenous arthrospores separate by splitting of the transverse septa. In endogenous
formation of arthrospores transverse septa are laid down as in the exogenous
arthrospores and neighbouring or alternate cells develop a thin wall. The
intermediate cell lose their contents entirely and the thin lateral walls break to free
the arthrospores. Small pieces of hyphal remnants remain attached at both ends of
the arthrospores.

b. Chlamydospores: They are thick walled, resistant spores formed by terminal or


intercalary cells of the hypha and are released after death of hyphae. In the formation
of chlamydospores the cells round off, usually enlarge and develop a thick, often
coloured wall. The cytoplasm becomes dense with enough reserve food for
consumption during unfavorable environment. Chlamydospores are resistant to lysis
by chemicals produced by other soil organisms.
c. Conidiospores: These are formed as new structures on the thallus and are easily
detachable. They are true conidia and are most common in Ascomycotina and fungi
imperfectii. Conidia may be unicellular or multicellular, display varied shapes and
colour. The conidiophores may be free or aggregated to form compound sporophores
like synnemata (sing: synnema) or sporodochia (sing: sporodochium). The
conidiophores of a large number of fungi are borne inside structures called fruiting
bodies, which may be saucer shaped acervuli (sing: acervulus). Pycnidium : (sing :
pycnidium) is an ostiolate, spherical or flask shaped fruit body whose innerwall is
lined with short conidiophores.
• Sexual reproduction:

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Classification of fungi
Sexual reproduction involves three principle events Plasmogamy, Karyogamy and
Meiosis, occurring in a cyclic manner. Plasmogamy is the fusion of two sex cells –
a process that results in coming together of compatible sexually differentiated nuclei
in a single protoplast in preparation for nuclear fusion. Karyogamy (fusion of
nuclei) results in the production of a diploid zygote nucleus. Meiosis promotes
genetic recombination through random assortment of chromosomes or crossing over,
resulting in the production of genetically different individuals.

The sexual cycle of different fungi may vary due to variations in timings of the
above events. In many Ascomycotina and most Basidiomycotina the plasmogamy
and karyogamy are separated in space and time. The compatible nuclei do not
undergo karyogamy immediately after plasmogamy but remain paired and called a
dikaryon.

Sex organs of fungi are called gametangia, these form the sex cells – the male and
the female gametes. The male gametangia is called the antheridium and female, the
oogonium. The motile male gamete is called antherozoid and the female gametes,
contained inside the oogonium as a differentiated nucleated mass, the egg or
oosphere. Morphologically similar gametangia and gametes are called
isogametangia and isogametes respectively.

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Classification of fungi

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Classification of fungi

Plasmogamy: There are five basic modes of union of sexual elements. These modes of
sexual fusions are often referred to as methods of sexual reproduction.
1. Planogametic copulation: This involves the fusion of two naked, free gametes, one
or both of which may be motile. The motile gametes are called planogametes.
Depending on size and motility of the fusing gametes, there are three types of
planogametic copulation. (Fig. 10)
i. Isogamy: When the two fusing gametes are of the same shape and size, they are
called isogametes and their fusion isogamy.

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Classification of fungi
ii. Anisogamy: This occurs only in one genus – Allomyces a chytrid, the two
planogametes are morphologically similar but different in size.
iii. Heterogamy: It involves the fusion of a motile male gamete with a non –
motile female gamete (oosphere, contained in an oogonium) the motile
gamete, the antherozoid, enters the oogonium and fertilizes the egg or
oosphere. Heterogamy occurs only in one genus Monoblepharis.
2. Gametangial contact: In this type of plasmogamy the male gamete is usually
represented by the nucleus contained inside the antheridium, while the female
gametes is represented by the egg contained in the oogonium (Fig.11).
When the two gametangia come in contact, the male gametic nucleus (or nuclei)
migrates into the oogonium either through a pore dissolved at the point of contact or
through a fertilization tube, especially developed for the purpose by the male
gametangium. The two gametangia do not fuse and retain their identity. The
oogonium undergoes post – copulation changes while the antheridium usually
disintegrates. Examples: Pythium, Albugo, Phytophthora etc.
3. Gametangial copulation: The entire contents of the two gametangia fuse and
become one (Fig.12). It occurs in two ways
a. Direct fusion of gametangia: the two gametangia fuse and become one cell. Eg.
Mucor.
b. Migration of the entire protoplast of one gametangium into other through a pore.
The entire gametangia act as gametes. The recipient gametangium is called the
female, while the gametangium that empties its contents is the antheridium. Eg.
Rhizophidium.
c. Spermatization: In this minute conidia like male gametes, called spermatia (sing:
spermatium) are produced on spermatiophores borne externally on hyphae or
inside cavities called spermogonia (sing: spermogonium) (Fig.13). On contact
with the female organ the spermatia empty their contents through a pore. The
female organ may be a female gametangium a specialized receptive hypha or
even a somatic hypha. The spermatia are carried to the female organ through
wind, water, insects etc. the spermatia differ from conidia in being smaller.
d. Somatogamy: Fusion between undifferentiated vegetative cells or spores is called
somatic copulation or somatogamy (Fig.14). In mycelial forms anastomosis
(fusion between vegetative hyphae), a phenomenon common in higher fungi but
absent in lower fungi is followed by reciprocal nuclear migration, each mate
fertilizing the other.

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Classification of fungi

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Classification of fungi

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Classification of fungi
Karyogamy:
After plasmogamy, the two compatible nuclei may undergo fusion (Karyogamy)
immediately to give rise to a diploid (2n) nucleus or may start a dikaryotic (n + n)
association (Dikaryophase) extending for varying periods in different fungi.
Meiosis:
The diploid nucleus in the zygote may undergo meiosis immediately or after an interval. In
many lower fungi the diploid zygote undergoes a resting period for varying duration and
therefore called the resting spore. In such fungi sexual reproduction takes place when
conditions become unfavorable for growth. The resting spores serve for survival. On the
return of favourable conditions the resting spores germinate indirectly forming zoospores
or directly, through a germ tube. Meiosis occurs during the germination.

The meiosis in Asco and Basidiomycotina occurs in charateristic structures the asci and the
basidia. The products of meiosis are the meiospores like ascospores and basidiospores
which on germination give rise to the haploid mycelium.
Heterothallism and Homothallism:
Heterothallism is a condition in which the fungi, require another isolate for zygospore
formation. The two isolates or mating types are designated as (+) and (-) strains, as their
gametangia are morphologically similar and indistinguishable into male and female
individuals.
The opposite condition in which an individual originating from a single asexual spore, is
capable of forming zygospore independently is called Homothallism.
In heterothallism the two mating partners are derived from two genetically unlike spores,
designated as (+) and (-) spores.
Homothallic species are more common than heterothallic in all groups of fungi, except
in Basidiomycotina.
Parasexual Cycle:
An alternative method to sexual reproduction was discovered in fungi (Aspergillus
nidulans) by Pontecorvo and Roper as early as 1952. This they named as the parasexual
cycle. In this process the genetic recombination is achieved through “mitotic
crossingover” and “haploidization”. It is also called as somatic recombination.

In A. nidulans, the parasexual cycle occurs in addition to normal sexual reproduction.


While the events of sexual reproduction are extremely uniform, having a fine coordination
between recombination, seggregation and reduction, there is no such coordination in the
parasexual cycle. The karyogamy and haplodization are accidental events not bound by
space and time. The phenomenon is reported in several fungi belonging to Ascomycotina,
Basidiomycotina and Deuteromycotina. There are strong evidences of its occurrence in
some coenocytic fungi, like Phytophthora cactorum.

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Classification of fungi

Classification:
Earlier fungi were placed under division Thallophyta of the sub kingdom Cryptogamia of
the kingdom Plantae. Fitzpatrick (1930) divided the thallophyta into sub-divisions
Myxothallophyta (including Myxomycetes) and Euthallophyta (which included lichens,
bacteria, algae and fungi).

This is detailed below

Once bacteria, lichens and myxomycetes were included among fungi. Though bacteria
were promptly removed from fungi, the Myxomycetes continued their inclusion among
fungi. These are studied by mycologists by tradition and preserved along with collections
of fungi. Nonetheless, they have always been kept separated from the true bonafide fungi,
the Eumycetes. Tippo (1942) removed the division thallophyta because of its heterogenity.
In a very early attempt to classify fungi, the true fungi were divided by Saccardo (1866)
into four classes- Phycomycetes, Ascomycetes, Basidiomycetes and Deuteromycetes, on
the basis of presence or absence of septa and characteristics, sexually produced spores.

(viz. Oospores, zygospores, ascospores and basidiospores).

The Phycomycetes are also sometimes loosely called as ‘lower fungi’ and the fungi
belonging to Asco-, Basidio-, and Deuteromycetes as the ‘higher fungi’. 17

The four class classification of fungi dominated mycology for a long time. However, it
was felt that the sub class Oomycetes was an assemblage of unrelated fo

Phycomycetes) could be separated into two series uniflagellate and biflagellate.


Sparrow emphasized that flagellation was a good taxonomic and phylogenetic criterion.
The classes are: o Chytridiomycetes,

o Hypochytridiomycetes
o Oomycetes and
o Plasmodiophoromycetes.

The other sub class Zygomycetes o f the class Phycomycetes was also given class
rank. A group of Phycomycete of arthropods was also elevated to class rank.
This resulted in nine classes of fungi :

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Classification of fungi

1-Chytridiomycetes
2- Hyphochytridiomycetes
3- Oomycetes
4-Zygomycetes
5-Trichomycete
6-Ascomycetes
7-. Basidiomycetes
8- Ascomycetes
9- Deuteromycete

Alexopoulos (1962) used this nine class classification his book .the immense popularity of
which made this classification accepted . He named this devision as mycota and separated
Myxomycetes and true fungi under two sub divisions

• The Myxomycotina and


• Eumycotina, respectively

The next important change come in 1966 when Ainsworth proposed aclassification of
fungi which have been used in the Dictionary of fungi and also followed in “The Fungi, An
Advanced Treatise Fungi are treated in this classification as a separate kingdom but those
unable to reconcile with this complete separation of fungi from plants, can continue
considering them as a sub kingdom of Plantae. Further Hawksworth et al. in 1995 used this
as the basis for classifying fungi .

The kingdom of fungi is divided into two divisions: The Myxomycota, for plasmodial
forms and Eumycota for non-plasmodial forms, which are usually mycelial The true fungi
are divided into five sub divisions viz . Mastogomycotina, Zygomycotina, Ascomycotina,
Basidiomycotina and Deuteromycotina. The outline of the classification of Ainsworth
widely accepted currently is given below.

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Classification of fungi
KINGDOM MYCOTA (Fungal Kingdom)
I
Division: MYXOMYCOTA - (4 Classes)
i. Acrasiomycetes
ii. Hydromyxomycetes
iii. Myxomycetes
iv. Plasmodiophoromycetes

II
Division:Euomycota (5 sub- division)
.
A
MASTIGOMYCOTINA- (4 classes)

i. Chytridiomycetes
ii. Hyphochytridiomycetes
iii. Plasmodiophoromycetes
iv. Oomycetes

B
ZYGOMYCOTINA - (2 classes)
i. Zygomycetes
ii. Trichomycetes

C.
ASCOMYCOTINA - (6 classes) i. Hemiascomycetes
ii. Laculoascomycetes
iii. Plectomycetes
iv. Laboulbeniomycetes
v. Pyrenomycetes
vi. Discomycetes

D.
BASIDIOMYCOTINA - (3 classes)
i. Teliomycetes
ii. Hymenomycetes
iii. Gasteromycetes

E.
DEUTEROMYCOTINA - (3 classes) i. Blastomycetes
ii. Hyphomycetes
iii. Coelomycetes

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Classification of fungi
WHY OOMYCETES AND ZYGPMYCOTINA ARE NOT INCLUDES
WITHIN DEVISION DEUTEROMYCOTINA?

Becouse OOMYCETES AND ZYGOMICOTINA reproduce by sexually


and asexually,and DEUTEROMYCOTINA includes fungi which make
asexually reproduction only.

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