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Code No: R05320101 Set No.

1
III B.Tech II Semester Regular Examinations, Apr/May 2008
GEO TECHNICAL ENGINEERING
(Civil Engineering)
Time: 3 hours Max Marks: 80
Answer any FIVE Questions
All Questions carry equal marks
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1. (a) Define the following terms with the help of phase diagram:
i. void ratio,
ii. percentage air voids,
iii. water content
iv. degree of saturation.
(b) A partially saturated sample from a barrow pit has a natural water content
of 14% and a bulk unit weight of 21 kN/m3 . The specific gravity of solids is
2.65. Determine the degree of saturation and void ratio. What will be the
unit weight of the sample on full saturation? [8+8]

2. (a) Describe the various corrections that are applied to the observed hydrometer
readings. How they are determined.
(b) What is plasticity chart? Explain its use in soil classification. [10+6]

3. (a) Derive an expression for determining permeability of soil by falling head per-
meameter.
(b) It is observed that in 12 minutes 800 ml of water passes through a soil sample
of 10 cm high and 75 cm2 cross section under a head of 60 cm. Determine
the discharge velocity and coefficient of permeability. If on oven drying the
sample weighs 0.0085 kN, compute the seepage velocity. Assume the specific
gravity of solids as 2.70. [8+8]

4. (a) Define: total stress, effective stress and neutral stress as applied to soils.
(b) What are the corrections to be made to the phreatic line? And how the same
is carried out.
(c) What is a flow net? State its properties and applications. What is the quantity
of seepage between two successive flow lines and equipotential lines? [4+4+8]

5. Discuss the essential differences between Boussinesq’s and Westergaard’s theories.

For which condition do both these theories yield approximately the same value of
vertical stress. 

6. What is a compaction curve? Give its salient features. What is a Zero-air void
line? 

7. (a) What are different causes of pre consolidation in soils? What is the effect of
pre consolidation on the settlement?

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Code No: R05320101 Set No. 1
(b) How would you determine the time-settlement curve in the field? [8+8]

8. Triaxial compression tests were conducted on a specimen from a large sample of

undisturbed day. Tests 1 to 4 were run slowly, permitting complete drainage, and
tests 5 to 8 were run without permitting drainage. Plot Mohr’s modified strength
envelope, and determine the shear strength parameters for both kinds of tests.

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
(σ1 − σ3 ) at 447 167 95 37 331 155 133 119
failure KN/m2
σ3 (KN/m2 246 89 36 06 481 231 131 53

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Code No: R05320101 Set No. 2
III B.Tech II Semester Regular Examinations, Apr/May 2008
GEO TECHNICAL ENGINEERING
(Civil Engineering)
Time: 3 hours Max Marks: 80
Answer any FIVE Questions
All Questions carry equal marks
⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆

1. (a) Describe the process of soil formation.

(b) Establish the relationship between degree of saturation, moisture content, spe-
cific gravity of soil particles and void ratio. [8+8]

2. (a) What are consistency limits? Explain their significance.

(b) The following data refers to the results of test on a soil:
i. Percentage of soil retained on 75 micron sieve = 80
ii. Percentage of coarse fraction retained on 4.75 mm sieve = 40
iii. Liquid limit = 58%
iv. Plastic limit = 23%
v. Uniformity coefficient = 3.5
vi. Coefficient of curvature = 1.1.
Classify the soil as per Indian Standard Classification system. [8+8]

3. (a) Explain the constant head method for determining the permeability of soil
and derive the equation used.
(b) Distinguish between discharge velocity and seepage velocity. Obtain a rela-
tionship between them. [10+6]

4. (a) Define: total stress, effective stress and neutral stress as applied to soils.
(b) What are the corrections to be made to the phreatic line? And how the same
is carried out.
(c) What is a flow net? State its properties and applications. What is the quantity
of seepage between two successive flow lines and equipotential lines? [4+4+8]

5. Two columns A and B are situated 5m part. Column A transfers a load of 550KN
and column B, a load of 275KN. Determine the resultant vertical stress on a hor-
izontal plane 4m below the ground surface at points vertically below the points A
and B. [8+8]

6. What are the different methods of compaction adopted in the field? How would
you select the type of roller to be used? [8+8]

7. As shown in Figure 7, a bore log obtained during sub-surface exploration. There

are two layers of clay of thickness 2m each, located 6m and 15m below the ground
surface. The bulk unit weights of sand and clay were found to be 20 kN/m3 and

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Code No: R05320101 Set No. 2
18.2 kN/m3 respectively. Compute the total settlement of each clay layer under a
uniformly distributed load of 420 kN/m2 spread over a large area on ground surface.
Cc = 0.40 eo = 1.08. 

Figure 7
8. (a) The following data are from a direct shear test on an undisturbed soil sample.
Compute the principal stresses and direction of principal planes:
Normal pressure = 16.8 KN/m2 , Tangential pressure = 14.2 KN/m2
Angle of internal friction = 230 , C = 7.6 KN/m2 .
(b) What is the effect of pore pressure on strength of soils? [12+4]

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Code No: R05320101 Set No. 3
III B.Tech II Semester Regular Examinations, Apr/May 2008
GEO TECHNICAL ENGINEERING
(Civil Engineering)
Time: 3 hours Max Marks: 80
Answer any FIVE Questions
All Questions carry equal marks
⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆

1. (a) What is meant by weathering? Describe its agents, process and effects on
rocks.
(b) A natural soil deposit has a bulk unit weight of 19 kN/m3 and water content
of 5%. Estimate the amount of water required to be added to 1 m3 of soil to
raise the water content to 15%. Assume the void ratio to remain constant.
The specific gravity of solids is 2.67. [8+8]

2. (a) What are consistency limits? Explain their significance.

(b) The following data refers to the results of test on a soil:
i. Percentage of soil retained on 75 micron sieve = 80
ii. Percentage of coarse fraction retained on 4.75 mm sieve = 40
iii. Liquid limit = 58%
iv. Plastic limit = 23%
v. Uniformity coefficient = 3.5
vi. Coefficient of curvature = 1.1.
Classify the soil as per Indian Standard Classification system. [8+8]

3. (a) Define the coefficient of permeability and explain the various factors that affect
the permeability of soil.
(b) A falling head test was performed on a soil specimen having a diameter of 100
mm and height 120 mm. The stand pipe had a diameter of 12 mm and the
water level in it dropped from 550 mm to 410 mm in 2 hours. Determine the
time required for the water level in the stand pipe to come down to 200 mm.
Also determine the height of water level in the stand pipe after a period of 24
hours from the beginning of the test. [8+8]

4. (a) Define the following terms:

i. flow line,
ii. equipotential line,
iv. uplift pressure,
v. phreatic line, and
vi. field.

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Code No: R05320101 Set No. 3
(b) A flow net for calculating the seepage under a sheet pile wall was drawn. The
coefficient of permeability of sand was 8×10−4 cm/sec. There were 5 flow
paths and 14 equipotential drops in the flow net. The head causing flow was
5.0 m. Estimate the quantity of seepage in m3 /day/m length of the sheet pile
wall. Also show the typical flow net below the sheet pile wall. [6+10]

5. A circular area is loaded with a uniform load intensity of 110 kN/m2 at ground
surface. Calculate the vertical pressure at a point ‘P’ situated on the vertical line
through the centre of loaded area, so that the area subtends an angle 900 at P. Use
the Boussinesq’s analysis. 

6. A sample of soil was prepared by a mixing a quantity of dry soil with 10% by
mass of water. Find the mass of this wet mixture required to produce a cylindrical,
compacted specimen, of 15cm diameter and 12.5 cm deep and having 6% air content.
Find also the void ratio and the dry density of the specimen if G = 2.68. 

7. Discuss Terzaghi’s theory of consolidation, stating the various assumptions and

their validity. 

8. (a) Define critical void ratio. Explain the shear behavior of a soil whose void ratio
is less than the critical void ratio.
(b) Explain how a negative pore water pressure develops in a consolidated -
undrained test on a over-consolidated clay. [8+8]

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Code No: R05320101 Set No. 4
III B.Tech II Semester Regular Examinations, Apr/May 2008
GEO TECHNICAL ENGINEERING
(Civil Engineering)
Time: 3 hours Max Marks: 80
Answer any FIVE Questions
All Questions carry equal marks
⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆

1. (a) Describe the process of soil formation.

(b) Establish the relationship between degree of saturation, moisture content, spe-
cific gravity of soil particles and void ratio. [8+8]

2. (a) Briefly describe the procedure to determine the liquid limit of a soil.
(b) The sieve analysis and consistency limit tests conducted on a soil sample gave
the following results:
Percent passing 4.75 mm sieve = 82; Percent passing 75 micron sieve = 9; D10
= 0.11 mm; D30 = 0.45 mm; D60 = 1.12 mm; Liquid limit = 22%; Plastic
limit =12%.
Classify the soil by Indian Standard Classification. [10+6]

3. (a) Distinguish between:

i. discharge velocity and seepage velocity
ii. coefficient of permeability and coefficient of percolation.
(b) Explain the phenomenon of capillary rise in soil and develop an expression for
the capillary rise.
(c) Indicate approximate range of values of coefficient of permeability for gravel,
sand, silt and clays. [6+6+4]

4. (a) Define: total stress, effective stress and neutral stress as applied to soils.
(b) What are the corrections to be made to the phreatic line? And how the same
is carried out.
(c) What is a flow net? State its properties and applications. What is the quantity
of seepage between two successive flow lines and equipotential lines? [4+4+8]

5. The ground surface of a building is lowered 2m below the existing surface. A 1.2 ×
1.2m square footing carrying a load of 200KN/m2 is then constructed at the level
of the new surface. Estimate the net increase in stress in the soil mass 1.2m below
the centre of the foundation. Take unit weight of soil to be 18 KN/m3 . 

6. What is the significance of compaction of soils Describe how quality control is

ensured in constructing an earthen embankment? [8+8]

7. A 2m thick saturated clay layer is sandwiched between two highly pervious layers of
coarse sand. When a building is constructed on the ground surface, it starts settling
due to the consolidation of the clay layer. If the overage coefficient of consolidation

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Code No: R05320101 Set No. 4
of clay is 4.5 ×10−4 cm2 /S, in how many days will the building reach half of its final
settlement. 

8. (a) Discuss the various factors which govern the shear strength of cohesion less
soils.
(b) Discuss the type of laboratory triaxial test you would recommend to be carried
out for the following field problems.
i. The initial stability of a foundation on saturated clay
ii. The stability of a clay foundation of an embankment, the rate of construc-
tion being such that some consolidation of the clay occurs. [4+12]

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