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PENGARUH MODEL CREATIVE PROBLEM SOLVING (CPS)

TERHADAP PENINGKATAN KEMAMPUAN PEMECAHAN MASALAH


PADA PEMBELAJARAN IPA

Loura Handayani
1504400

ABSTRAK

Latar belakang dari penelitian ini adalah rendahnya kemampuan pemecahan masalah
peserta didik Indonesia, berdasarkan hasil PISA 2003 kemampuan peserta didik Indonesia
dalam pemecahan masalah hanya mencapai level 1 dan hanya 3 sampai 4 persen yang
mampu mencapai level 2. Selain itu, pada soal Ujian Nasional (UN) IPA SD tahun 2015
sampai dengan 2017 jenjang kognitif masih dalam tingkat level rendah belum pada level
tinggi yang meliputi aspek kemampuan pemecahan masalah. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk
mengetahui pengaruh model Creative Problem Solving (CPS) terhadap peningkatan
kemampuan pemecahan masalah. Model Creative Problem Solving (CPS) terdiri dari enam
tahap yaitu objective finding, fact finding, problem finding, idea finding, solution finding,
dan acceptance finding. Metode penelitian yang digunakan yaitu kuasi eksperimen dengan
tipe nonequivalent pretest-postest control group design. Sampel penelitian adalah
peserta didik kelas IV SD sebanyak 62 orang. Instrumen penelitian berupa soal tes dalam
bentuk uraian dan lembar observasi pengamatan aktivitas guru di kelas eksperimen. Hasil
penelitian menunjukkan peningkatan secara signifikan kemampuan pemecahan masalah
setelah menggunakan model Creative Problem Solving (CPS). Berdasarkan analisis uji-t
dua sampel bebas menunjukkan perbedaan peningkatan secara signifikan kemampuan
pemecahan masalah antara yang memperoleh pembelajaran menggunakan model Creative
Problem Solving (CPS) dengan yang memperoleh pembelajaran secara konvensional.
Rerata n-gain kelas eksperimen dan kelas kontrol termasuk pada kategori peningkatan
sedang dengan selisih 0,21. Berdasarkan hasil penelitian tersebut, model Creative Problem
Solving (CPS) berpengaruh terhadap peningkatkan kemampuan pemecahan masalah,
sehingga direkomendasikan untuk digunakan dalam meningkatkan kemampuan
pemecahan masalah, namun perlu memperhatikan alokasi waktu, pemilihan isu
kontekstual, dan kemampuan komunikasi peserta didik.

Kata Kunci: Kemampuan Pemecahan Masalah, Model Creative Problem Solving (CPS),
IPA di Sekolah Dasar.

iv
THE EFFECT OF THE CREATIVE PROBLEM SOLVING (CPS) MODEL
ON INCREASING PROBLEM SOLVING ABILITY IN SCIENCE
LEARNING

Loura Handayani
1504400

ABSTRACT
The background of this research is the low ability of problem solving of Indonesian
students, based on the results of PISA 2003 the ability of Indonesian students in problem
solving only reached level 1 and only 3 to 4 percent were able to reach level 2. Also, in the
matter of the National Examination of science in elementary school from 2015 to 2017
cognitive levels are still at a low level, it is not at a high level which includes aspects of
problem solving abilities. This study aims to determine the effect of the Creative Problem
Solving (CPS) model on increasing problem solving abilities. The Creative Problem
Solving (CPS) model consists of six stages, objective finding, fact finding, problem
finding, idea finding, solution finding, and acceptance finding. The research method used
is a quasi-experimental type with nonequivalent pretest-posttest control group design. The
sample of this research is 62 fourth grade elementary school students. The research
instruments are test questions of description and also observation sheet of teacher activity
in the experimental class. The results showed a significant increase in problem-solving
ability after using the Creative Problem Solving (CPS) model. The results of the study
through t-test analysis of independent two samples showed a significant difference in the
improvement of problem-solving abilities after learning using the Creative Problem
Solving (CPS) model and those that obtained conventional learning. The average n-gain of
the experimental class and the control class are in the moderate improvement category with
a difference of 0,21. Based on these results, the Creative Problem Solving (CPS) model
affects increasing problem solving abilities. This model is recommended for use to
increasing problem solving abilities but needs to pay attention to time allocation, contextual
issue selection, and students' communication skills.
Keywords: Problem Solving Ability, Creative Problem Solving (CPS) Model, Science in
Elementary School.