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King Abdulaziz University

Research and Consulting Institute

Muallim Muhammad 'Awad
Bin Laden Chair of Qur'anic Studies

The Series of "Replying to Anti-Islamic


A Reply to the Allegation

That Prophet Muhammad Had
Greed for money and Booty

Prepared by

Professor Hekmat Bin Basheer

Bin Yaseen
Muallim Muhammad Awad Bin Laden Chair
of Qur'anic Studies

Revised by

Dr. Muhammad Bin Abdullah Al-Halawani

Chair Supervisor and Former Chairman of Islamic Studies Dept.

Translated by: Tamer Muhammad Saleem

Translation Revised by: Dr. Khaled Tawfik


All praise is due to the Lord of the Worlds, and peace and
blessings be upon Allah's Messenger Muhammad and all those loyal to

To commence, this research paper comes as a reply to "the

Allegation That Prophet Muhammad, peace be upon him, had Greed for
Money and Booty", within the series of "Replying to Anti-Islamic
Allegations"; one of the works by Bin Laden Chair of Qur'anic Studies.
The research starts with highlights of the allegation at hand, then replies
to it with authentic textual proofs and explicit logical ones. It also
includes citations of testimonies by foreign scholars whose creed is the
same as that of those arousing such an allegation.

I would like to express deep thanks to the sponsors of this Chair:

Engineer Bakr Bin Muhammad Bin Awad Bin Laden, the General
Manager and the Head of the Board of Directors of Bin Laden Group and
Engineer Yahia Bin Muhammad Bin Awad Bin Laden, the Acting General
Manager and the Head of the Board of Directors; may the Mercy of Allah
Almighty be upon the father of those in charge of the Chair, Mu'allim
Muhammad 'Awad Bin Laden, after whose name our Chair has been
named and who had the honor of perfecting the refurbishment of the
three Sacred Mosques. Special thanks are also due to Saudi Bin Laden
Advisor and Deputy Director for Administrative Development, Professor
Abdur-Rahman Khamakhim, for his blessed efforts, concern with and
appreciation of the Chair. I would also like to extend thanks to the

University President, Professor Usamah Bin Sadeq Tayyib, the University
Vice President for Business and Cognitive Creativity, Ahmad Bin Hamid
Naqadi, the Dean of the Research and Consulting Institute, 'Abdul-Malek
Bin Ali Al-Juneidi, and his Vice Deans, Professor 'Abdullah Bin Ahmad Al-
Ghamdi and Professor Haitham Bin Hasan Lingawi. Thanks also go to the
members of the KAU Scientific Chairs Research Committee.

Let me also express deep gratitude to Chair Supervisor, Dr.

Muhammad Bin Abdullah Al-Halawani, who exerted praiseworthy efforts
in revising this research paper. I also thank Assistant Researcher, Sheikh
Ibraheem Bin Muhammad Awwal, who typed this research paper.

Allah Almighty is the Source of all success!

Prof. Hekmat Bin Basheer Bin Yaseen

Professor of Mu'allim Muhammad 'Awad Bin Laden Chair

of Qur'anic Studies

Replying to the Allegation

Related to the allegation of violence attributed to Prophet

Muhammad (PBUH) is the allegation accusing him of greed for money
and spoils of war. Such an allegation distorts the image of Islam and its
Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) who set a sublime example of asceticism
and had only little of the transient joys of life. Those behind that
allegation claim that the merciful Prophet's target out of war was merely
seeking wealth and looting. They thus overlook the lofty targets of the
Prophet and his life that was elevated far from luxury and worldly
pleasures, as evident in authentic narrations and the remaining traces of
his ascetic life as later shown in the reply to the allegation.

Highlights of the Allegation

This allegation was aroused by some orientalists like Margoliouth

and French Orientalist Tor Andrae. English Orientalist Margoliouth said,
"True, Mohammed had now for six years lived by robbery and
brigandage: but in plundering the Meccans he could plead that he had
been driven from his home and possessions: and with the Jewish tribes
of Medinah he had in each case some outrage, real or pretended, to
avenge. But the people of Khaibar, all that distance from Medinah, had
certainly done him no wrong: for their leaving unavenged the murder of
one of their number by his emissary was no act of aggression." 1

In his "Mohammed, the Man and his Faith", French Orientalist Tor
Andrae was skeptic about merciful Prophet Muhammad's asceticism and
piety. This book is considered the contemporary French orientalists'
starting point in studying the Prophet's Biography.

Talking about the characteristics of Prophet Muhammad (PBUH),

Andrae mentioned his asceticism and piety, but in such a skeptic and
undermining tone, stating that some of Prophet Muhammad's
characteristics seem true, but "The actions which seem to cast a shadow
on upon Mohammed's character are often difficult to interpret, and we
are always uncertain whether we have understood…" Andrae went on
saying that there are other narrations that provide an "… entirely
different picture of the Prophet, and emphatically deny that he practiced
an ascetic ideal… This much is certain, however, that the descriptions of
the poverty and deprivations of the Prophet must be greatly

exaggerated… so that if he could present 'Ayesha with a costly pearl
necklace he would not need to pawn his coat of mail…"2

The Reply

First: The legacy left behind by merciful Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) is

the best reply to those claims; that modest legacy consisted of a white
mule, his weapon, a land he (PBUH) had willed to be one of charity and
his modest chambers.3

Second: His wives' chambers still exist inside the Prophet's Mosque
attesting to his ideal asceticism and Prophetic piety. In other words, he
(PBUH) conquered lands and he could have built palaces and edifices as
he willed. But he (PBUH) did not leave his chambers; each of which was
only a few square meters in length and width, which eradicates all
doubts about his greed for money!

Third: Reliable proofs and explicit incidents prove that sometimes,

Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) did not have sustenance so much that he
had to pawn his armor with a Jew just to buy food.4 So was the condition
in Mecca; it was narrated in an authentic Saying that once Allah's
Messenger (PBUH) went out (of his house) one day or one night, and
there he found Abu Bakr and 'Umar also. He said: "What has brought
you out of your houses at this hour?" They said: "Allah's Messenger, it is
hunger." Thereupon he said: "By Him in Whose Hand is my life (i.e. By
Allah), what has brought you out has brought me out too; get up." They
got up along with him and (all of them) came to the house of an Ansari
(Medinan Helper of the Prophet), but he was not at home. When his
wife saw him she said: "Most welcome, and Allah's Messenger (PBUH)
said to her: "Where is so and so?" She said: "He has gone to get some

fresh water for us." When the Ansari came and he saw Allah's
Messenger (PBUH) and his two Companions, he said: "Praise be to Allah,
no one has more honourable guests today than I (have)." He then went
out and brought them a bunch of ripe dates, dry dates and fresh dates,
and said: "Eat some of them." He then took hold of his long knife (for
slaughtering a goat or a sheep). Allah's Messenger (PBUH) said to him:
"Beware of killing a milk animal." He slaughtered a sheep for them and
after they had eaten of it and of the bunch and drank, and when they
had taken their fill and had been fully satisfied with the drink, Allah's
Messenger (PBUH) said to Abu Bakr and 'Umar: "By Him in Whose Hand
is my life, you will certainly be questioned about this bounty on the Day
of judgment. Hunger brought you out of your house, then you did not
return until this bounty came to you." 5

So, he (PBUH) did not dread poverty; it was reported in an

authentic Saying that he said, "I do not fear poverty for you, but I fear
abundant wealth for you. And I do not fear for you that you err, but I
fear for you that you intentionally commit sins."

Dr. Abdul-'Azeez Quraishi said, "Orientalists committed a mistake

by thinking that materialistic need was what pushed Muslims to conquer
lands under the threat of swords, given that in some Muslim conquests,
no single drop of blood was shed and the conquest of Jerusalem is the
best example of that and it will always remain as a wonderful example in
recorded Islamic history."7

Fourth: As for Margoliouth's claiming that the reason for Muslims' taking
revenge on Jews in the Battle of Khaibar is a Jew's attempted murder of
Prophet Muhammad (PBUH), this is untrue and a blatant lie distorting

uncontested historical facts which Margoliouth is undoubtedly aware of.
It is a historical fact 8 that the attempted murder of Prophet Muhammad
(PBUH) at the hand of a Jew from Khaibar, namely Abdullah Ibn Sahl,
came only after, not before, the conquest of Khaibar,9 which means
revenge was not the reason for attacking its Jews.10

Fifth: Regarding Margoliouth's claim that the Jews of Khaibar did no

harm to Allah's Messenger Muhammad (PBUH) or his followers, it is a
fact that the Battle of Khaibar took place due to its Jews' intrigues
aiming at enticing the disbelieving Confederates to fight the Muslim
believers and because those very Jews urged Bani Quraizah to betray
Muslims and adopt treachery on dealing with them, and they were even
preparing to fight Muslims. Moreover, upon the Prophet's return to Al-
Qura Valley, some Jews and Bedouins attacked some of his Companions
and thus, fighting erupted. Later on, he (PBUH) concluded a treaty with
them, just as he had done with the Jews of Khaibar.

Sixth: Tor Andrae's argument has two defective points:

The first is: the "costly pearl necklace" was but necklace of Jez' Azfar
(i.e., black beads) 11 from Yemen.12

The second is: He denied that the Prophet (PBUH) mortgaged his
armor, although this incident is cited in a reliable Saying as mentioned
earlier in the third point.

Seventh: The Prophet's Sunna allows individuals to have as many

possessions as they please, no matter how much wealth or properties
they may have, provided that they pay the Zakat (Obligatory Charity). It
even encouraged people to have possessions declaring that this is better

than having nothing; in an authentic Saying, Prophet Muhammad said,
"The upper hand is better than the lower one; the upper being the one
which bestows and the lower one which begs." 13

Islam also allows non-Muslims to have possessions; French

Orientalist Jack Ressler said that people of all faiths had the right to the
unrestricted practice of religion and Jews were absolutely free to
possess wealth and they sometimes attained high positions.

Eighth: Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) was generous and giving on dealing

with non-Muslims such as those whose hearts were being inclined
towards Islam i.e., those who had Islam endeared to them, who are
mentioned by Allah Almighty among those eight categories deserving
Zakat when He says, "The alms are only for the poor and the needy, and
those who collect them, and those whose hearts are to be reconciled,
and to free the captives and the debtors, and for the cause of Allah, and
(for) the wayfarer; a duty imposed by Allah. Allah is Knower, Wise." (The
Qur'an, 9:60). Considering the Prophet's Tradition, one sees how he
(PBUH) applied that on dealing with disbelievers. Indeed, he used to give
them a lot of grants as if he did not dread poverty to have their hearts
reconciled and to do them good, for souls by nature love those who do
them good. So was his treatment with those new converts. An instance
of Prophet Muhammad's actions recorded in his Sunna is what was
narrated by Muslim quoting Ibn Shihab as saying, "Allah's Messenger
(PBUH) went on the expedition of Victory (Mecca's Conquest) and then
he went out along with the Muslims and they fought at Hunayn, and
Allah granted victory to his religion and to Muslims, and Allah's
Messenger (PBUH) gave one hundred camels to Safwan Ibn 'Umayyah.

He again gave him one hundred camels, and then again gave him one
hundred camels."

Ibn Shihab narrated that Sa'id Ibn al-Musayyab said that Safwan
told him: "(By Allah) Allah's Messenger (PBUH) gave me what he gave
me (and my state of mind at that time was) yet he was the most
detested person amongst people in my eyes. But he continued giving to
me till he became the dearest of people to me." 15

In an authentic Saying, Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) said, "I give to

Quraish people in order to let them adhere to Islam, for they are near to
their life of Pre-Islamic Age of Ignorance (i.e. they have newly embraced
Islam and it is still not strong in their hearts)." 16

In fact, he (PBUH) would give them a share of the Khumus

(literally, an allocated fifth of the booty); Al-Bukhari wrote a Book titled
‫فرض الخمس‬comprising a Chapter titled, ً‫ ٌعط‬-‫ صلى هللا علٌه وسلم‬-ً‫ما كان النب‬
‫" المؤلفة قلوبهم وغٌرهم من الخمس ونحوه‬The Amount Deducted from the
Khumus and Its Like Which the Prophet (PBUH) Used to Give to Those
Whose Hearts Were Endeared to Islam and Others", as in the previous

Al-Hafez Ibn Hajar said, " 'Khumus and Its Like' implies the money
of taxes, tribute money and spoils of war obtained without fighting or

Isma'eel Al-Qadi said, "The Prophet's giving those whose hearts

were endeared to Islam a share of the Khumus denotes that it is an
allocation for the leader and he is free to spend it in any way that serves

interests … Later on, the source of the money he used to give to those
whose hearts were endeared to Islam was controversial."

Malik and a group of scholars said, 'it was part of the Khumus.'

Ash-Shafe'i and a group of scholars said, 'it was a fifth of the Khumus'.17

Ninth: One of Prophet Muhammad's virtues confounding such claims is

that he (PBUH) would defend and fight for the Non-Muslim subjects.
Why not if one of the reasons for taking tribute money from them is to
preserve their lives and defend them? That is why he (PBUH)
commanded that Muslims would do the same. Verily, he (PBUH)
defended them in various situations. For example, in an authentic
Saying, 'Umar, Allah be pleased with him, said, "I also recommend him
concerning Allah’s Dhimmah (Covenant) and His Messenger's Dhimmah
i.e., regarding non-Muslim subjects, to fulfill their vows and to fight for
them and not to let them be overburdened with what is beyond their

Ibn Hajar said, "This Saying calls on Muslims to fulfill their

covenants, consider the consequences of affairs well and do good
regarding money and ways of its acquisition."19

Well-versed Scholar Al-'Ayni said, " 'Allah's Dhimmah' implies

'Allah's Covenant'. 'Fight for them' implies defending them against
disbelieving enemies and their likes. 'Not to let them be overburdened'
('Yukallafu' in Arabic) is in the passive voice and it implies 'not to exceed
the amount of the tribute money collected from non-Muslim subjects.' "20

Ash-Shafe'i , may Allah rest his soul, said, "The leader must make it
clear for them (non-Muslim subjects) that if they are in a Muslim land or

among Muslims, be them individuals or groups, he is obliged to protect
them from being captured or killed by the enemy, just as he does with
Muslims. If their houses are amid those of Muslims i.e., they have one of
the Muslims between them and the enemy, and there is no pact
stipulating protecting them, still he has to defend them because
defending them implies defending the Muslim land from that enemy.
Also if there is no access to a position where they are alone except
through part of their land, he has to defend them, even though he has
not already agreed with them on that."21

Tenth: The world is already familiar with Prophet Muhammad's

asceticism, piety, contentment and abstaining from indulging in
worthless worldly pleasures. Here are some foreign scholars' testimonies
in reply to the allegation at hand:

1. Count Henri de Castri said that Muhammad (PBUH) refrained from

worldly pleasures and he was not a miser, and he would milk his sheep
himself, sit on dust, sew his clothes and mend his shoes with his hands,
and then wear them patched. De Castri added that he (PBUH) was
content and he never went out feeling full after eating barley bread even
once in his lifetime. He further added that he (PBUH) was far from being
greedy and he could attain the highest rank in Arabia, but he never was
despotic and he never had a retinue or minister, and he derided wealth.
De Castri also said that although Prophet Muhammad attained utmost
power, its signs never showed on him as he only had a silver ring on
which "Muhammad, Allah's Messenger" was written.22

2. French Orientalist Emile Dermenghem said that Prophet Muhammad

who created leadership did not demand his contemporaries to do acts

other than ordained obedience to a man conveying Allah's Message.
Dermenghem added that Prophet Muhammad thus was a link between
Allah, the Lord of the Worlds and all people. He went on saying that
Muhammad (PBUH) attained power, wealth and glory, but he was never
allured by all that as to him, a man's adopting Islam was far better than
the greatest booty and it really upset him that many could not realize
the core of his Mission.

3. English Writer Thomas Carlyle said, "Mahomet himself, after all that
can be said about him, was not a sensual
man. We shall err widely if we consider this man as a common
voluptuary, intent mainly on base enjoyments,--nay on enjoyments of
any kind. His household was of the frugalest; his common diet barley-
bread and water: sometimes for months there was not a fire once
lighted on his hearth. They record with just pride that he would mend
his own shoes, patch his own cloak. A poor, hard-toiling, ill-provided
man; careless of what vulgar men toil for." 24

4. American Orientalist Washington Irving said, "The riches which

poured in upon him from tribute and the spoils of war were expended in
promoting the victories of the faith, and in relieving the poor among its
votaries; insomuch that his treasury was often drained of its last coin.
Omar Ibn Al Hareth declares that Mohammed, at his death, did not leave
a golden dinar nor a silver dirhem, a slave nor a slave girl, nor anything
but his gray mule Daldal, his arms, and the ground which he bestowed
upon his wives, his children, and the poor. “Allah,” says an Arabian
writer, “offered him the keys of all the treasures of the earth; but he
refused to accept them.”

5. Irving also said, "Was there anything brilliant in the outset of his
prophetic career to repay him for these sacrifices, and to lure him on?
On the contrary, it was begun in doubt and secrecy. For years it was not
attended by any material success. In proportion as he made known his
doctrines, and proclaimed his revelations, they subjected him to ridicule,
scorn, obloquy, and finally to an inveterate persecution; which ruined
the fortunes of himself and his friends; compelled some of his family and
followers to take refuge in a foreign land; obliged him to hide from sight
in his native city, and finally drove him forth a fugitive to seek an
uncertain home elsewhere. Why should he persist for years in a course
of imposture which was thus prostrating all his worldly fortunes, at a
time of life when it was too late to build them up anew?"

6. Irving went on talking about Prophet Muhmmad (PBUH) saying, "His

military triumphs awakened no pride nor vain glory, as they would have
done had they been effected for selfish purposes. In the time of his
greatest power he maintained the same simplicity of manners and
appearance as in the days of his adversity. So far from affecting a regal
state, he was displeased if, on entering a room, any unusual testimonials
of respect were shown to him. If he aimed at a universal dominion, it
was the dominion of faith; as to the temporal rule which grew up in his
hands, as he used it without ostentation, so he took no step to
perpetuate it in his family." 25

7. US Scholar George Sarton said that Prophet Muhammad (PBUH)

starting propagating Islam in 610 A.D. when 40 and he was like his
brother Prophets who came before him, but he was by far their better,
and he was ascetic, knowledgeable, legislator and a practical man. 26

The best conclusion is the noble verse which shows who is
interested in collecting money and is content with it; Allah Almighty
says, "O mankind! There hath come unto you an exhortation from your
Lord, a balm for that which is in the breasts, a guidance and a mercy for
believers. Say: In the bounty of Allah and in His mercy: therein let them
rejoice. It is better than what they hoard." (The Qur'an, 10:57-58).

1. ‫ اإلحسان فً تقرٌب صحٌح ابن حبان‬by Prince 'Ala'ud-Deen Bin Bilban Al-
Faresi, edited by Shu'ayb Al-Arna'ut, Ar-Resalah Foundation,
Beirut, 1st edition, 1408 A.H.
2. ‫ اإلسالم والمستشرقون‬by an elite group of Muslim scholars, 'Alam Al-
Ma'refah Press, Jeddah, 1st edition, 1405 A.H.
3. ‫االهتمام بالسٌرة النبوٌة‬, in French, Dr. Hasan Edrees 'Azzouzi. These
research papers were submitted to the KSA Seminar on Caring
about the Prophet's Sunna, held at King Fahd Qur'an Printing
Complex (15-17/3/1425 A.H.)
4. ‫ األم‬by Imam Ash-Shafe'i, 2nd edition, Dar Al-Ma'refah, Beirut,
1393 A.D.@
5. "The Incubation of Western Culture in the Middle East", George
Sarton, Arabized by 'Umar Farroukh, Al-Ma'arif Library, Beirut,
1952 A.D.
6. "The Life of Mahomet" by Washington Irving, translated by Ali
Hussein Al-Kharbutly, Dar Al-Ma'aref, Cairo, 2nd edition (1962
7. "Sahih Muslim" by Imam Muslim Ibn Al-Hajjaj Al-Qushairi An-
Nisaburi, reviewed by Dr. Muhammad Fu'ad Abdul-Baqui, Dar
Ehya' At-Turath Al-Arabi, Beirut, Lebanon.
8. ‫ عمدة القاري‬by learned Scholar Badr Al-'Ayni, Dar Ehya' At-Turath,
9. ‫ فتح الباري بشرح صحٌح البخاري‬by Ibn Hajar Al-'Asqalani, Dar Al-Fikr
edition, Beirut, a photocopy of the Egyptian Salafi Edition.
10. ‫ قالوا عن اإلسالم‬by Dr. 'Emadud-Deen Khaleel, the World Assembly
of Muslim Youth, Riyadh, 1st dition, 1412 A.H.

11. ‫ مجمع الزوائد ومنبع الفوائد‬by Al-Haithami, Dar Al-Kutub Press, Beirut,
2nd edition, 1967 A.D.
12.‫ المستدرك على الصحٌحٌن‬by Al-Hafez Al-Hakim, followed by a summary
by Al-Hafez Adh-Dhahabi, a photocopy of the Indian edition.
13.‫ المسند‬by Imam Ahmad Ibn Hanbal, edited by Shu'ayb Al-Arna'ut
and a group of scholars, supervised by professor Abdullah Ibn
'Abdul-Mohsen At-Turki, Ar-Resalah Foundation, Beirut, 1st
edition, 1421 A.H.

End Notes

1. ‫ اإلسالم والمستشرقون‬P.256.
2. ‫االهتمام بالسٌرة النبوٌة‬. in French, PP 53-54.
3. ‫ باب الوصاٌا‬- ‫ كتاب الوصاٌا‬-‫صحٌح البخاري‬, Saying 2739.
4. ‫ باب من رهن درعه‬- ‫ كتاب الرهن‬- ‫صحٌح البخاري‬, Saying 5/142, No. 2509.
5. ‫ كتاب األشربة – باب جواز استتباعه غٌره إلى دار من ٌثق برضاه‬- ‫صحٌح مسلم‬
‫ذلك‬, Saying 2038.
6. ‫ المسند‬2/308, and Ibn Hebban's ‫صحٌح‬, 8/16, Saying 3222, and Al-
Hakim's ‫المستدرك‬, 2/534; he said, "It is authentic according to
Muslim and they did not transmit it. Adh-Dhahabi agreed with
him." Al-Haithami said, "Its narrators are ones of authentic
Sayings, and he attributed it to Ahmad." ‫ مجمع الزوائد‬3/121. Ahmad
Shakir said, "Its chain of narrators is authentic." ‫ المسند‬edited by
him, Saying 8060. Al-Arna'ut deemed its chain of narrators good.
)‫(حاشٌة اإلحسان‬.
7. ‫ سماحة اإلسالم‬P.146.
8. ‫ صحٌح البخاري‬Saying 6142-6143, and ‫ صحٌح مسلم‬3/1291-1295,
Saying 1669.
9. Ibid. it is explicitly mentioned that two Medinan Helpers of the
Prophet, Abdullah Ibn Sahl and Humaisah Ibn Mas'oud, went out
to Khaibar at the time of Allah's Messenger while its people were
governed by the items of the peace treaty and its people were
10. ‫ االستشراق وموقفه من السٌرة النبوٌة‬PP. 44-48.

‫‪11.‬‬ ‫"لو ال إذ سمعتموه ظن المؤمنون‬ ‫صحٌح البخاري‪ ،‬كتاب التفسٌر‪ ،‬النور‪ ،‬باب‬
‫‪ Saying 4750.‬والمؤمنات بأنفسهم خٌرا" إلى قوله‪" :‬الكاذبون"‬
‫‪1/435.‬فتح الباري ‪12.‬‬
‫‪13.Transmitted by Al-Bukhari,‬‬ ‫كتاب الزكاة – باب الصدقة إال عن ظهر غنى‬
‫‪Saying 1427, and‬‬ ‫‪ 2/717,‬صحٌح مسلم – الزكاة – باب أفضل صدقة الشحٌح‬
‫‪Saying 1033.‬‬
‫‪ P.290.‬قالوا عن اإلسالم‪14.‬‬
‫كتاب الفضائل‪ ،‬باب ما سئل رسول هللا‪ -‬صلى هللا ‪ 4/1806, Saying 2313,‬الصحٌح‪15.‬‬
‫‪.‬علٌه وسلم‪ -‬شٌئا قط وقال‪ :‬ال‬
‫صحٌح البخاري‪ ،‬كتاب فرض الخمس‪ ،‬باب ما كان النبً ‪-‬صلى هللا علٌه وسلم‪ٌ -‬عطً ‪16.‬‬
‫المؤلفة قلوبهم وغٌرهم من الخمس ونحوه (‪)3146( :)259/6‬‬
‫فتح الباري (‪17. )252/6‬‬
‫‪ (3/1111),‬صحٌح البخاري ‪18.‬‬ ‫‪,‬كتاب الجهاد ‪ ،‬باب ٌقاتل عن أهل الذمة وال ٌسترقون‬
‫‪Saying 3052.‬‬
‫‪ (6/267).‬فتح الباري ‪19.‬‬
‫‪ (14/297).‬عمدة القاري‪20.‬‬
‫‪ (4/207).‬األم‪ ،‬فصل ما ٌعطٌهم اإلمام من المنع من العدو ‪21.‬‬
‫‪ P. 317.‬اإلسالم والمستشرقون‪22.‬‬
‫‪23."The Life of Mahomet", P.360.‬‬
‫‪24."Europe and Islam", PP. 46-47.‬‬
‫‪25.Ibid, PP. 300-303.‬‬
‫"‪26."The Incubation of Western Culture in the Middle East‬‬


Serial No. Subject Page

1 Introduction 1
2 Highlights of the 4

3 The Reply 6
4 Foreign Scholars' 12
5 References 16
6 End Notes 18