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E.

P
Geometrical Considerations

Cumulative frequency
distribution of measured
Parts of a bench bench face angles (Call, 1986).

2
Geometrical Considerations

Functioning of catch benches.


Section through a working bench.

3
Geometrical Considerations

Double benches at final pit limits. Catch bench geometry (Call, 1986).

Typical catch bench design dimensions (Call, 1986).


Bench height Impact zone Berm height Berm width Minimum bench width
(m) (m) (m) (m) (m)
15 3.5 1.5 4 7.5
30 4.5 2 5.5 10
45 5 3 8 13

4
Geometrical Considerations

Safety berms at bench edge

5
Geometrical Considerations

Height of reach as a
function of bucket
size.

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Geometrical Considerations

Ramp access for the example orebody.

Example orebody geometry.

Blast design for


the ramp
excavation.

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Shovel Working Range

8
Geometrical Considerations

Minimum width drop cut


geometry with shovel
alternating from side to side.

9
Geometrical Considerations

Minimum width drop cut


geometry with shovel
alternating from side to side.

10
Geometrical Considerations

Diagrammatic
representation of the
expanding mining front.

Isometric view of the ramp in


waste approaching the
orebody.

11
Geometrical Considerations

Dropcut / ramp placement in ore. Expansion of the mining front.

12
Geometrical Considerations

Plan view of an actual pit bottom


Showing drop cut and mining
Expansion (McWilliams, 1959).

13
Geometrical Considerations

Extension of the current


Ramp close to the pit wall
(McWilliams, 1959).

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Geometrical Considerations

Creating initial access /


benches.

Shovel cut sequence when


initiating benching in a hilly
Sidehill cut with a shovel. terrain (Nichols, 1956).
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Geometrical Considerations

Detailed steps in the


development of a
new production level.

16
Geometrical Considerations

Parallel cut
with drive by.

17
Geometrical Considerations

Parallel cut with


the double
spotting of trucks.

18
Geometrical Considerations

Parallel cut with


the single spotting
of trucks.

19
Geometrical Considerations

Time sequence
showing shovel
loading with single
spotting.

20
Geometrical Considerations

Time sequence
showing shovel
loading with double
spotting.

22
Geometrical Considerations

(Continued).
23
Geometrical Considerations

(Continued).
24
Geometrical Considerations

Section and plan views through a working bench.

Simplified presentation of a safety berm.

25
Geometrical Considerations

Initial geometry for the push back example.

Cut mining from bench 1.

Cut mining from bench 2.

26
Geometrical Considerations

Safety bench geometry


showing bench face angle.

Overall slope angle.

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Geometrical Considerations

Overall slope angle with ramp included.

Interramp slope angles.

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Geometrical Considerations

Overall slope angle with


Working bench included.

Interramp angles associated with


the working bench.
29
Geometrical Considerations

Overall slope angle with


one working bench an a ramp section.

Interramp slope angles for a slope containing


a working bench and a ramp.

30
Geometrical Considerations

Overall slope angle for a


slope containing two
working benches.

31
Geometrical Considerations

Slopes for each working group.


32
Geometrical Considerations

Final overall
pit slope.

33
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