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Teaching today has numerous challenges both inside and outside of the classroom. As a
current teacher, you must be skilled in appropriately using the internet and technology in
the classroom, provide a nurturing and positive classroom climate, learn how to enhance
a student’s motivation, and design the curriculum to meet the needs of your students and
the standards of your school.

Whether you teach children, teenagers, or adults, this seminar will provide you practical
skills and increase your confidence in the classroom as you learn the latest developments
in the field.

I would like to suggest that viable current approaches to language teaching are principle
in that there is perhaps a finite number of general research based principles on which
classroom practice is grounded.

Towards the end of the late 1800s, a revolution in language teaching philosophy took
place that is seen by many as the dawn of modern foreign language teaching. Teachers,
frustrated by the limits of the Grammar Translation Method in terms of its inability to
create communicative competence in students, began to experiment with new ways of
teaching language. Basically, teacher began attempting to teach foreign language in a
way that was more similar to first language acquisition. It incorporated techniques
designed to address all the areas that the Grammar Translation did not namely oral
communication, more spontaneous use of the language, and developing the ability to
think in the target language. Perhaps in an almost reflexive action, the method also
moved as far away as possible from various techniques typical of the Grammar
Translation Method – for instance using L1 as the language of instruction, memorizing
grammatical rules and lots of translation between L1 and the target language.
The appearance of the “Direct Method” thus coincided with a new school of thinking
that dictated that all foreign language teaching should occur in the target language only,
with no translation and an emphasis on linking meaning to the language being learned.
The method became very popular during the first quarter of the 20 th century, especially in
private language schools in Europe where highly motivated students could study new
languages and not need to travel far in order to try them out and apply them

communicatively. One of the most famous advocates of the Direct Method was the
German Charles Berlitz, whose schools and Berlitz Method are now world-renowned.
Still, the Direct Method was not without its problems. As Brown (1994:56) points out, “
(it) did not take well in public education where the constraints of budget, classroom size,
time, and teacher background made such a method difficult to use”. By the late 1920s, the
method was starting to go into decline and there was even a return to the Grammar
Translation Method, which guaranteed more in the way of scholastic language learning
orientated around reading and grammar skills. But the Direct Method continues to enjoy a
popular following in private language school circles, and it was one of the foundations
upon which the well-known “Audiolingual Method” expanded from starting half way
through the 20th century.
The basic premise of the Direct Method is that students will learn to communicate in the
target language, partly by learning how to think in that language and by not involving L1
in the language learning process whatsoever. Objectives include teaching the students
how to use the language spontaneously and orally, linking meaning with the target
language through the use of realia, pictures or pantomime (Larsen-Freeman 1986:24).
There is to be a direct connection between concepts and the language to be learned.
Key features
Richards and Rogers (1986:9-10) summarize the key features of the Direct Method thus :
(1) Classroom instruction is conducted exclusively in the target language.
(2) Only everyday vocabulary and sentences are taught.
(3) Oral communication skills are built up in a carefully traded progession organized
around question-and-answer exchanges between teachers and students in small, intensive
(4) Grammar is taught inductively.
(5) New teaching points are taught through modeling and practice.
(6) Concrete vocabulary is taught through demonstration, objects, and pictures;
abstract vocabulary is taught by association of ideas.
(7) Both speech and listening comprehension are taught.
(8) Correct pronunciation and grammar are emphasized.
Typical Techniques
Diane Larsen-Freeman, in her book Techniques and Principles in Language Teaching
(1986:26-27) provides expanded descriptions of some common/typical techniques closely
associated with the Direct Method. The listing here is in summary form only.
(1) Reading Aloud
(Reading sections of passages, plays or dialogs out loud)
(2) Question and Answer Exercise
(Asking questions in the target language and having students answer in full sentences)
(3) Student Self-Correction

(Teacher facilitates opportunities for students to self correct using follow-up
questions, tone, etc)
(4) Conversation Practice
( Teacher asks students and students ask students questions using the target language)
(5) Fill-in-the-blank Exercise
(Items use target language only and inductive rather than explicit grammar rules)
(6) Dictation
( Teacher reads passage aloud various tempos, students writing down what they hear)
(7) Paragraph Writing
(Students write paragraphs in their own words using the target language and various
The Direct Method is undoubtedly a highly effective method in terms of creating
language learners who are very competent in terms of using the target language
communicatively. However, as pointed out above, it requires small class sizes, motivated
learners and talented teachers in order to succeed really well. It is also an unfortunate fact
of life that students of foreign languages these days need more than just the ability to
communicate confidently – they need to be able to demonstrate grammatical accuracy
and good reading skills in order to succeed in both national and international language
testing systems. It becomes something of an issue in countries where English language
learning is primarily EFL-based (that is, English as a Foreign Language) and there is a
distinct shortage of both (1) the opportunity to apply the language communicatively in
real-life situations outside the actual classroom, and (2) teachers who have the required
level of native or native-like ability in the target language and the creativity to provide
realistic examples to illustrate what elements of the language actually mean.
Some of the teachers who go on to pratice this kind of methodology tend to be native
speakers who travel to foreign countries where they have no ability in the local language.
In many cases they are not even aware they are following what is known as the “Direct
Method” – they are trying to make the best out of a difficult classroom situation where
creativity and constant (careful) use of the target language are required to make up for
teachers’ shortcomings elsewhere, whether that be a lack of ability in the students’
mother language or a lack of knowledge about various pedagogic approaches to language
In an interesting development, it is not at all uncommon to find a blend of teaching
techniques consisting of partner teachers – one a native speaker with no knowledge of the
local language, culture or educational system, the other a local teacher who speakers
English as a second or foreign language. The native speaker is often referred to as the
“conversation teacher”, and represents the “global communication” aspect of a marketing
strategy so important for private language institutes. The local teacher may be known as
the “grammar and translation” half of the overall package, the teacher who can use the
students’ mother language to control their behavior, put them at ease and explain how the
grammar works. In essence, this kind of teaching teamwork is an often unconscious

effect to combine the Direct Method with the Grammar Translation Method in an attempt
to provide a (basically misguided) “holistic” approach to teaching the language – the
basic premise being that the shortfallings of one are covered by the other and vice-versa.
The Direct Method was an important turning point in the history of foreign language
teaching, and represented a step away from the Grammar Translation Method that was
progressive and heading in the right direction. I would encourage teachers to view the
method in exactly the same way – not a bad way to teach but a long way short of the big
picture modern language teaching methodology is attempting to achieve.


Mid 1960's - three new technological aids came into general use in the classroom-
language laboratory, portable tape-recorder and film-strip projector. All these were
greeted with euphoria in all modern language departments. Extensive use of tapes and
equipment was revolutionary for language teachers. Instead of buying sets of books to
equip a class, teachers were demanding most expensive boxes of film-strips and sets of
tapes. Blackout facilities and electric points had to be installed.

Potential offered to language teaching by tape-recorder was enormous - now possible to

bring native speaking voices into classroom. Editing and self-recording facilities now
available. Tapes could be used with tape recorder or in language laboratory. Early audio-
visual courses consisted of taped dialogues, accompanied by film -strips which were
designed to act as visual cues to elicit responses in the foreign language.

Most audio-lingual courses consisted of short dialogues and sets of recorded drills.
Method was based on a behaviourist approach, which held that language is acquired by
habit formation. Based on assumption that foreign language is basically a mechanical
process and it is more effective if spoken form precedes written form. The stress was on
oral proficiency and carefully- structured drill sequences (mimicry/memorisation) and the
idea that quality and permanence of learning are in direct proportion to amount of
practice carried out.

But early enthusiasm for audio-visual materials and language laboratory soon cooled as
teachers gradually recognised limitations of this approach.

* Disadvantages of Audio-Lingual Method

1.Basic method of teaching is repetition, speech is standardised and pupils turn into
parrots who can reproduce many things but never create anything new or spontaneous.

Pupils became better and better at pattern practice but were unable to use the patterns
fluently in natural speech situations.

2 Mechanical drills of early Audio-Visual approach criticised as being not only boring
and mindless but also counter-productive, if used beyond initial introduction to new

3 Audio-Visual materials were open to same sort of misuse. Tendency to regard audio-
visual materials as a teaching method in themselves, not as a teaching aid.

4 Soon became clear to teachers that audio-visual approach could only assist in
presentation of new materials. More subtle classroom skills were needed for pupils to
assimilate material and use it creatively. This final vital phase was often omitted by

New technology caught publishers and text-book writers unprepared - very few
commercial materials were available in the early stages. Those that did exist stressed oral
and aural skills and didn't develop reading and writing skills.

6 New materials necessitated extensive use of equipment with all associated problems of
black-out, extension leads, carrying tape-recorders from classroom to classroom. Some
schools set up Specialist- Language rooms, but teachers still had to set up projectors and
find places on tape. Equipment could break down, projector lamps explode, tapes tangle -
not sophisticated equipment of today. Hardware involved extra time, worry and
problems, and, for these reasons alone, its use gradually faded away.

7 Series of classroom studies threw doubt on claims made for language laboratory.
Showed that this costly equipment did not improve performance of 11+ beginners, when
compared with same materials used on single tape-recorder in classroom.

But Audio-Lingual/(Visual approach did mark start of the technological age in language
teaching and it did introduce important new elements Emphasised need for visual
presentation and possibility of eliciting language from visual cues. It placed far more
weight on use of foreign language in classroom by both teacher and pupil, and the
language used was of far greater practicality.

More gifted and energetic teachers used new courses with great success - moved forward
to open-ended question and answer work and extended dialogue, designed own
supplementary materials, exercises and worksheets.

However, generally teachers were disillusioned and dissatisfied with the new methods -
at a time when whole secondary education was being reorganised with advent of
comprehensive schools.


Not a highly structured method of teaching. Rather a broad assembly of ideas from a
range of sources which have come to be accepted as 'good practice' by many
contemporary teachers.

Origins of Approach

In 1960's and 70's foreign language learning was widely extended with the establishment
of comprehensive schools. Led to the teaching of a foreign language to virtually all
children. Created pressure for a change in teaching methods and curriculi to suit the
needs of non-traditional groups of learners. Recognition of inadequacy of traditional
grammar/translation methods and also of 'structural' methods with emphasis on
meaningless pattern drills and repetition.

New syllabuses took into account needs of different pupils. Traditional academic
syllabuses had assumed learner's goal was in-depth mastery of target language. But for
less academic pupil a more immediate 'pay-off' was necessary, in terms of usefulness for
practical purposes.

* Communicative Method

1 - Focuses on language as a medium of communication. Recognises that all

communication has a social purpose - learner has something to say or find out.

2 - Communication embraces a whole spectrum of functions (e.g. seeking information/

apologising/ expressing likes and dislikes, etc) and notions (e.g. apologising for being
late / asking where the nearest post office is).

3 - New syllabuses based on communicative method offered some communicative

ability from early stage.

Graded Objectives in Modern Languages - movement which flourished in 1970's and 80's
- raised pupils' motivation through short-term objectives and through teaching language
appropriate to a range of relevant topics and situations (e.g. shopping/ hobbies/
4 - Hitherto languages were taught in a vacuum - language for the sake of language /
passing exams - rather than language for true communication.
Professor Dodson distinguishes between language as a 'medium' level communication
and as a 'message' level communication, ex.

i) Young lady teacher is teaching Yr 7 pupils to say how old they are ( 'tu as quel age?'.
). They are merely practising the pattern in the foreign language, for the sole purpose
of mastering the construction - teacher actually knows the age of the class - pupils also
know that the teacher knows their age. According to professor Carl J Dodson, they are all

performing at 'medium' level, ie. practising how to say it in the language but with no
added purpose.

ii) Suddenly, a curious member of the class raises his hand and asks the young lady
teacher 'tu as quel age?'. This is language being used at a totally different and higher
level, ie 'message' level ( pupil doesn't know the teacher's age, but actually uses the
construction practised at the 'medium' level for a specific purpose, namely that of
finding out the teacher's age!

One has to practise language at 'medium' level first in order to be able to exercise it at
'message' level. The problem is that a great number of teachers never used to go beyond
'medium' level and use the language for true purposes of sending and receiving
'messages'. They were teaching pupils 'about' the language, about its patterns and rules,
rather than using it actively for real purposes!

Prior to National Curriculum, teaching was left almost totally at 'medium' level. Very
little scope to test true communicative ability or to use the language spontaneously.

5 - Classroom activities maximise opportunities for learners to use target language in a

communicative way for meaningful activities. Emphasis on meaning (messages they
are creating or task they are completing) rather than form (correctness of language and
language structure) - as in first language acquisition.

6 - Use of target language as normal medium for classroom management and

instruction - reflects naturalistic language acquisition.

7 - Communicative approach is much more pupil-orientated, because dictated by

pupils' needs and interests.

8 - Accent is on functional/ usable language. Learners should be able to go to foreign

country, prepared for reality they encounter there. Need to be able to cope / survive in a
variety of everyday situations.

9 -Classroom should provide opportunities for rehearsal of real-life situations and provide
opportunity for real communication. Emphasis on creative role-plays/ simulations/
surveys/ projects/ playlets - all produce spontaneity and improvisation - not just repetition
and drills.

10 - More emphasis on active modes of learning, including pairwork and group-work

- often not exploited enough by teachers fearful of noisy class.

11 - Primacy of oral work. Emphasis on oral and listening skills in the classroom.
Contact time with language is all-important - paves way for more fluid command of the

language / facility and ease of expression. Not just hearing teacher, but having personal
contact themselves with language, practising sounds themselves, permutating sentence
patterns and getting chance to make mistakes and learn from doing so.

12 - Errors are a natural part of learning language. Learners trying their best to use
the language creatively and spontaneously are bound to make errors. Constant correction
is unnecessary and even counter-productive. Correction should be discreet / noted by
teacher - let them talk and express themselves - form of language becomes secondary.

13 - Communicative approach is not just limited to oral skills. Reading and writing
skills need to be developed to promote pupils' confidence in all four skill areas. By using
elements encountered in variety of ways (reading/ summarising/ translating/ discussion/
debates) - makes language more fluid and pupils' manipulation of language more fluent.

14 - Grammar can still be taught, but less systematically, in traditional ways

alongside more innovative approaches. Recognised that communication depends on
grammar. Disregard of grammatical form will virtually guarantee breakdown in

15 - Language analysis and grammar explanation may help some learners, but extensive
experience of target language helps everyone. Pupils need to hear plenty said about the
topic in the foreign language at regular and recurrent intervals, so they are exposed
to the topic and can assimilate it. (Not mere passive acquisition of certain lexical items).

16 - Communicative approach seeks to personalise and localise language and adapt it

to interests of pupils. Meaningful language is always more easily retained by learners.

17 - Use of idiomatic/ everyday language (even slang words 'bof bof' / 'i'sais pas'). This
is kind of language used in communication between people - not a 'medium'/
grammatical/ exam-orientated/ formal language!

18 - Makes use of topical items with which pupils are already familiar in their own
language - motivates pupils arouses their interest and leads to more active participation.

19 - Avoid age-old texts - materials must relate to pupils' own lives / must be fresh
and real (cf. Whitmarsh texts developing language but not communicative language!)
Changing texts and materials regularly keeps teacher on toes and pupils interested.

20 - Language need not be laboriously monotonous and 'medium' orientated. Can be

structured but also spontaneous and incidental. Language is never static. Life isn't like
that - we are caught unawares, unprepared, 'pounced upon!' Pupils need to practise
improvising/ ad-libbing/ talking off the cuff, in an unrehearsed but natural manner.

21 - Spontaneous and improvised practice helps to make minds more flexible and
inspire confidence in coping with unforeseen, unanticipated situations. Need to 'go off at
tangents' / use different registers / develop alternative ways of saying things.

22 - Communicative approach seeks to use authentic resources. More interesting and

motivating. In Foreign language classroom authentic texts serve as partial substitute for
community of native speaker. Newspaper and magazine articles, poems, manuals,
recipes, telephone directories, videos, news bulletins, discussion programmes - all can be
exploited in variety of ways.

23 - Important not to be restricted to textbook, Never feel that text-book must be

used from cover to cover. Only a tool / starting-point. With a little inspiration and
imagination, text-book can be manipulated and rendered more communicative. Teacher
must free himself from it, rely more on his own command of language and his
professional expertise as to what linguistic items, idioms, phrases, words, need to be
drilled / exploited/ extended.

24 - Use of visual stimuli - OHP/ flashcards, etc - important to provoke practical

communicative language. (3 stages presentation / assimilation/ reproducing language in
creative and spontaneous way).

Visual resources can be exploited at whatever level one wishes - help to motivate and
focus pupils' attention.

II. Aims

Writing a good lesson plan is essential for every teacher. A lesson plan determines the
purpose, aim, and rational of your class time activity. It also provides focus for the lesson
you are presenting. A lesson plan is a fairly detailed plan of instruction. It helps you think
through the best way to present the information to the students. You will need to develop
clear and specific objectives. The following important components must be included in
all lesson plans:
 To make teachers aware of the aims and language content of the lesson they

 To help teachers to distinguish the various stages of a lesson, and to see the
relationship between them.

 To create a comfortable atmosphere where students are not afraid to speak

and enjoy communicating .

 To improve their knowledge so that they can use the new structure to talk
about themselves. .

III. Structure of a lesson plan

1. Using the teacher’s notes

Before going to the class to teach a lesson, you need to know the main things that you
should prepare

• To know the subject matter you will be teaching

• List the important facts, key concepts, skills, or vocabulary terms that you intend to
• Indicate what you intend to teach.
• Identify the aims or outcomes you want the students to achieve.
• Have a clear idea of what you want the students to learn.
• The objective must contain a behavior, the content, the condition, and the criterion,
so that you can write, in detail, what is learned and how well the students learn it.
• Indicate what is to be learned.
• Objectives demonstrate how well the students have learned or understood the lesson
• Provide a detailed, step-by-step description of everything you will do.
• Include a description of how you will introduce the lesson.
• Tell the actual techniques you will use.
• Plan frequent and varied opportunities for the students to be involved.
• Include specific things that the student will do during the lesson.
• Check for student understanding.

2. Aims and content of the lesson

a) Aims of the lesson

A lesson without an aim is like a boat without a rudder or a traveller without a map:
there's very little chance you'll get to your destination because you don't even know what
it is!
The first thing a teacher must do is decide on the lesson plan's focus. The teacher creates
one idea or question they want the students to explore or answer. Next, the teacher
creates classroom activities that correlate with the established idea or question. This
includes individual and group activities. Having established these activities, the teacher

identifies what language arts skills the lesson plan must cover. After the teacher
completes these activities, they must ensure the lesson plan adheres to the best practices
used in language arts. This includes conducting research on what teaching methods result
in a high success rate for students. The teacher must ensure the lesson plan goals are
compatible with the developmental level of the students. The teacher must also ensure
their student achievement expectations are reasonable

Try telling your students what your aims are at the beginning of each lesson. You can
write them up on the board. Alternatively, you could ask your students at the end of the
lesson what they thought the aims were. It might be interesting to see what they say. If
their ideas are different from yours, it is interesting to explore why.
Writing aims for each step or stage in a lesson can help you think carefully about what
you are trying to achieve with your students.

b) Language

It is important for the teacher to know exactly what language will be taught in the lesson.
Most lessons introduce either new vocabulary or a new structure, or both. Make these
New vocabulary: Not all new words in a lesson are equally important. As part of the
presentation for the lesson, the teacher should decide which words need to be practiced,
and which only need to be briefly mentioned.
Structures: If a new structure is introduced in the lesson, it will need to be presented
carefully and practiced. The teacher should also be aware of any structure which are
practiced in the lesson, but which were introduced in earlier lessons.

c) Skills
The teacher needs to be aware of what skills will be developed in the lesson: speaking,
listening, reading or writing. If possible, the lesson should include practice of more than
one skill. This will increase the variety and interest of the lesson.

3. Stages of the lesson.

A Lesson Plan is simply a step-by-step guide to what an teacher plans to do in the

classroom . The more detailed the step-by-step, the better.
Good lesson design begins with a review of previously learned material. New material is
then introduced, followed by opportunities for learners to practice and be evaluated on
they are learning. In general, a lesson is composed of the following stages:
Presentation: The teacher presents new words or structures, gives examples, write them
on the board, etc…

Practice: Students practice using words or structures in a controlled way, e.g. making
sentences from prompts, asking and answering questions, giving sentences based on a
picture. Practice can be oral or written.
Production: Students use language they have learnt to express themselves more freely,
e.g. to talk or write about their own lives and interests, to express opinions, to imagine
themselves in different situations. Like practice, production can be oral or written.
Reading: Students read a text and answer questions or do a simple “ task”.
Listening: The teacher reads a text or dialogue while students listen and answer
questions, or the students listen to a cassette.
Review: The teacher reviews language learnt in an earlier lesson, to refresh students’
memories, or as a preparation for a new presentation.
All the stages above are not fixed order. Usually teachers present new language, then do
some practice, then get students to use language more freely. But a teacher might, for
example, present a structure, practise it quickly, then present and practice something else
before going to a final production activity- each stage could occur several times in a
single lesson.
The stages overlap. For example, reading a text might be part of presentation or it might
be a quite separate activity, answering questions on a text is part of reading but also gives
students oral practice. When we talk about “ stage” of a lesson, we are thinking of the
main focus of the activity.

However, the stages listed here are only the most important ones; there are other
activities that could form part of a lesson; for example:

When you teach a lesson with a topic “An English Wedding” is aimed at the acquisition
of typical wedding vocabulary, and its use in both oral speech and writing. At the
beginning of the class students are given a list of wedding vocabulary such as: “
wedding”, “bride”, “ groom”, “church”, “wedding cake”…

Warm up
The teacher plays a video tap of a wedding or he starts asking questions such as: “have
you ever been to a wedding?”, and “what was it like?”… and so on. After that he is going
to present some new words in the text. You can use photos, pictures, music (a song of
marriage) and other resources…
- For example: Show a picture of wedding
T: Now the whole class, look at the picture – This is a wedding.
T: Who knows what it means?
Ss: Đám cưới.
T: Good, now repeat after me “wedding”.
Ss: Wedding.
- Next, the teacher show second picture of bride

T: And next the whole class, look at the picture. This is two important persons of
wedding : bride and groom. Bride usually wear a beautiful dress.
T: Who knows what mean of bride ?
Ss: Cô dâu
T: That’s right, now repeat after me “ bride ”.
Ss: Bride.
Then, the teacher wil continue teaching all remain new words of above list.

Before next lesson, we read a text in the book about an English wedding. In the text,
students can come across many examples of the present continuous structure. After
students have read text, they are given some present continuous sentences taken from the
text and answering some questions in the text such as: “ what’s the bride wearing?”, “
what the groom wearing?”, “ where are they going to spend their honeymoon?”…The
teacher presents new structure and write them on the board
Structure of present continuous tense
Form: S + TO BE + V – ING
Example: I am reading
He is swimming
They are working

Once the students are comfortable with the introduction, they repeat the new structure on
the board. After that, you will in turn introduce the form of negative and interrogative of
the present continuous tense and through some situation and examples you help your
students learn how to use the present continuous tense.
For example:
T: Look, what am I doing?
( go forward the blackboard and write a sentence)
Ss: You are writing on the board
T: That’s right. Now, repeat after me “ you are writing on the board”
Ss: you are writing on the board.
You can also use a picture to teach. e.g. show a picture with a man is swimming and ask a
T: Lan, Look at the picture and tell me what is he doing?
Lan: He is swimming.
T: Good. Thank
Before you move on to the Guided Practice section of the lesson, check for understanding
to ensure that your students are ready to practice the skills and concepts you have
presented to them.


Divide class in groups of two ( student A, student B); first student A ask student B about
wedding customs in their home countries. The teacher listed a set of questions to get
- Do you think marriage is important?
- Do you have wedding in your country?
- How do you celebrate weddings?
- Are marriage arranged by your families or are they “love” marriages?
- What happens at a traditional wedding in your country?
- What would you like to wear at your wedding?
- Who is invited to a wedding?...
Both students in each pair take on the roles and exchange the roles. This thing make them
aware of the many differences in other communities and cultures and broaden their
knowledge of the world.
Closer to the end of the class, students are engaged in a general discussion about wedding
and wedding traditions in different country and cultures, as well as advantages and
disadvantages of a big/ small weddings, wedding gifts, the best age to get married. In the
end, the teacher gives the assignment at home.

4. Writing a lesson plan

The purpose of a lesson plan is to provide us with a lesson framework. Our lesson will
need to include a variety of components, because students will quickly get bored if we
just do one thing and the plan helps us order these components.This order should be
logical and enable us to see a link between each of the components, which leads us to
achieve the aim of the lesson plan. We need to consider five elements in our planning
which are present below:

Title: Family
Aims: Helps students understand the importance of the relationships between relative and
practice talking about their families.
New vocabulary: Nouns: family, father/ daddy, mother/ mummy, grandfather/
grandmother, sister, brother.
Structures: To Have: I have a young sister, she has a son….
1. Review: The teacher greets the students. Well, first we reviewed words for animals,
which the students had learnt last week, and then I taught them nouns to describe a
2. Presentation: Show a picture of the family, then explain the name of the members in
the family, then write it on the board and ask the students speak loudly one by one new
words in order to become aware of the ways words are spelled.
3. Practice:
a) Now, look at pictures and make sentences; e.g. I have a family, I have a young
b) Pairwork: A: Have you got a sister?

B: No, I haven’t or Yes, I have
B: Do you have a watch?
A: Yes, I do.
4. Reading: The teacher read text and helps them to translate it .Write some questions on
the board, then asks the students read text silently, and find answers to guiding questions.
5.Writing: Teacher write the prompt on the board

IV. Conclusion
The things above are just basics which should be considered when making lesson plan
formats. By doing so, you are doing more than simply making the process of teaching the
class easier for yourself. In fact, you are improving the environment of classroom as well
where students can easily. The more they are aware of the mingled elements of discipline
and spontaneity, the easier it will be for them to relax and settle into the daily routine