Anda di halaman 1dari 123

Course Profiles

Public District School Board Writing Partnership

Course Profile
Visual Arts
Grade 10
Open

• for teachers by teachers

This sample course of study was prepared for teachers to use in meeting local classroom
needs, as appropriate. This is not a mandated approach to the teaching of the course.
It may be used in its entirety, in part, or adapted.

Summer 2000
Course Profiles are professional development materials designed to help teachers implement the new
Grade 10 secondary school curriculum. These materials were created by writing partnerships of school
boards and subject associations. The development of these resources was funded by the Ontario Ministry
of Education. This document reflects the views of the developers and not necessarily those of the
Ministry. Permission is given to reproduce these materials for any purpose except profit. Teachers are
also encouraged to amend, revise, edit, cut, paste, and otherwise adapt this material for educational
purposes.

Any references in this document to particular commercial resources, learning materials, equipment, or
technology reflect only the opinions of the writers of this sample Course Profile, and do not reflect any
official endorsement by the Ministry of Education or by the Partnership of School Boards that supported
the production of the document.

© Queen’s Printer for Ontario, 2000

Acknowledgments
Public District School Board Writing Teams – Visual Arts

Lead Board
Upper Canada District School Board

Management Team
Eleanor Newman
Dorothy Stewart
Dona Cruickshank

Course Profile Writing Team:


Susan Jones, Durham DSB
Alan Wilkinson, Limestone DSB
Cyrel Troster, York Region
Rhonda Johnson, Upper Canada DSB
Susan Pidlubny, Durham DSB
Teresa Reeves, Peel DSB

Page 2 • Visual Arts - Open


Course Overview
Visual Arts, Grade 10, Open

Identifying Information
Course Developers
Susan Jones, Durham DSB (Project Leader)
Rhonda Johnson, Upper Canada DSB
Susan Pidlubny, Durham DSB
Cyrel Troster, York Region DSB
Alan Wilkinson, Limestone DSB
Teresa Reeves, Peel DSB
Course Title: Visual Arts
Grade: 10
Course Type: Open
Development Date: October 1999
Credit Value: One
Ministry Course Code: AVI2O

Description/Rationale
The Grade 10 course profile provides opportunity for students to explore and to further develop their
artistic and creative processes. Students make connections between works of art and their historical
context. This will occur through practice that builds on what students know. By introducing them to new
ideas, materials, and processes for artistic thinking and experimentation, students will discover and
understand the relationship between form and content. Units are organized according to themes that
reflect issues that are relevant to students as individuals, and as artists (p. 52 of The Ontario Curriculum,
Grade 9 and 10, The Arts, 1999). Students produce works designed around specific objectives with an
overall unifying theme which demonstrates the ability to take varied and creative approaches to using
materials, tools, processes, and technologies in studio activities. Students will analyse their artwork
critically and describe the relationship between art and the community.
In this course, Units 1-4 are organized as a sequential continuum. Teachers can note that the Grade 10
course has been designed with a parallel structure that builds on the content of the Grade 9 Course
Profile. Teachers should also note that this Grade 10 Course Profile can stand on its own, without the
support of the Grade 9 profile content. See the chart below.
Grade 9 Grade 10
The Individual Creates (The “Why”) The Tools To Create (The “How”)
Unit 1: The Individual ⇒ Unit 1: The Artist’s Point of View
⇓ ⇓
Unit 2: Culture ⇒ Unit 2: The Artist Deals with Place, Time, and Spaces
⇓ ⇓
Unit 3: Technology ⇒ Unit 3: The Artist Investigates the Mathematical
⇓ Measurement of Art

Unit 4: Artistic Responsibility ⇒ Unit 4: The Artist Makes a Statement
⇓ ⇓
Unit 5: The Final Assessment/Evaluation ⇒ Unit 5: I Am the Artist (Final Assessment/Evaluation)

Page 3 • Visual Arts - Open


In each unit, the student becomes the inquiring artist. In Unit 1, the student, as the inquiring artist, is
asking questions and discovering processes of creativity. In Unit 2, the inquiring artist takes creativity
and investigates the significance of place, time and space in the creation of art. In Unit 3, the inquiring
artist will examine some of the significant accomplishments of Mathematics as they relate to art through
history. In Unit 4 the inquiring artist enters the 21st century. Students examine the relationship that exists
between the expression of the artist as a mirror of, and a contributor to, contemporary society.
Throughout the course, students will demonstrate an understanding of visual arts concepts by viewing
artworks that represent historical (the mid-segment of the Western timeline), non-Western, and Canadian
cultures. They explore aspects of, and options for, visual arts careers.
Throughout each unit, three probing essential questions act as a catalyst to encourage personal student
inquiry, higher level thinking and discussion. These questions are based on the three strands from The
Ontario Curriculum, Grades 9 and 10, The Arts, 1999. The theory questions probe at inquiry around the
context of cultural and historical relevance of artworks and artifacts. The creation questions refer to the
production of works of art and design. The analysis questions encourage reflection of philosophical
questions about art making and more personal questions about the value of personal creative expression.
These essential questions can be incorporated into the theme discussion of each unit.

Unit Titles (Time + Sequence)


Unit 1 The Artist’s Point of View 18 hours
Unit 2 The Artist Deals with Place, Time, and Spaces 25 hours
Unit 3 The Artist Investigates Mathematical Measurement of Art 25 hours
Unit 4 The Artist Makes a Statement 20 hours
Unit 5 I Am the Artist: The Window of My Mind 24 hours

Unit Descriptions

Unit 1: The Artist’s Point Of View: How Creation Happens


Time: 18 hours
This is the first of five units. The central theme is the student as an inquiring artist. The teacher, as a
facilitator, can direct students to question how they create. As an inquiring artist, the students will
investigate how their creativity happens. The three essential questions in this unit, are linked to the
strands in The Ontario Curriculum, Grades 9 and 10, The Arts, 1999. These questions will help the
students find creative ideas, reflect on where original ideas come from, and explore how ideas are
developed and improved.
In the Grade 10 profile, students investigate creative theory. Through guided discovery and activities,
teachers will direct students to explore a variety of media. Students will use drawing techniques, a review
of the elements and principles of design, and activities that foster the creative process.
The three essential questions that frame this unit are:
1. Where does the inquiring artist find ideas? (theory)
2. How does the artist create? (creation)
3. How does the artist develop and improve? (analysis)
Strand(s): Theory, Creation, Analysis
Overall Expectations: THV.01; CRV.01; CRV.02; CRV.03; CRV.04; ANV.01; ANV.02.
Specific Expectations: TH1.02; TH3.01; CR1.01; CR1.02; CR1.03; CR2.01; CR2.02; CR2.03; CR3.01;
CR3.02; CR3.03; AN1.01; AN2.01; AN2.02.

Page 4 • Visual Arts - Open


Unit 2: The Artist Deals With Place, Time and Spaces
Time: 25 hours
In this unit, students will discover how the influence of place, time, and spaces also affect art that is
produced by a culture or society. Students will be given the opportunity to compare and contrast different
artistic approaches as seen in two different works of art in order to discover commonalities and
differences based on place, time, and spaces. Activities in this unit include a landscape watercolour
painting, a written and visual interpretation of architecture and a mixed media composition based on a
literary source.
Throughout the unit, the teacher can facilitate discussion and inquiry around three essential questions:
1. How does art reflect the place, time, and spaces from which it was created? (theory)
2. How do tools and materials influence the artistic product? (creation)
3. How does the past influence what the artist does in the present? (analysis)
Strand(s): Theory, Creation, Analysis
Overall Expectations: THV.01; THV.02; THV.03; CRU.01; CRV.02; CRV.03; CRV.04; ANV.01;
ANV.02; ANV.03.
Specific Expectations: TH2.01; TH2.02; TH2.03; TH3.01; TH3.02; TH3.03; TH3.04; CR1.01; CR1.02;
CR1.03; CR2.01; CR2.02; CR2.03; CR3.01; CR3.02; CR3.03; AN1.01; AN1.02; AN1.03; AN2.01;
AN2.02; AN2.03.

Unit 3: The Artist Investigates the Mathematical Measurement of Art


Time: 25 hours
In this unit, students will investigate connections made between the importance of mathematical inquiry
and art in the Renaissance Period. The Ontario Curriculum, Grade 9 and 10, The Arts, 1999 states,
“Links can be made between the arts and other disciplines” (page 4). Any prior learning for Mathematics
that is applicable to this unit, would have occurred for students in Grades 1 – 8 Mathematics expectations
for geometry. Like the Renaissance artists, students will be encouraged to make “inquiries” about their
art and the processes available to them. They will learn to use mathematical ratios and a system of
proportions to create pleasing and balanced compositions. The three essential questions of this unit will
assist teachers in making mathematical connections to art.
Renaissance artists also drew upon the knowledge of the Greek and Romans. They also used ratios such
as the Golden Section, to create balanced and pleasing compositions. The Golden Section uses the
proportion of 1 to 1.6 to create balance in a composition. This ratio is also found in many objects in
nature, such as human anatomy, shell spirals, and natural spiral forms. Students will learn how to use this
ratio as they create their own painting.
Teachers can adapt the Golden Section painting formula for most students in their classroom. Teachers
will find suggestions for remediation, consolidation, and enrichment activities in this unit. Select the
appropriate activities based on your students’ abilities and needs. Refer to Appendix J to learn how to
construct the Golden Section.
The teacher can use three essential questions for student inquiry:
1. How do artists use mathematical principles? (theory)
2. What do artists create from mathematical models? (creation)
3. How does art change through new discoveries? (analysis)
Strand(s): Theory, Creation, Analysis
Overall Expectations: THV.01; THV.02; THV.03; CRV.01; CRV.02; CRV.03; CRV.04; AVN.01;
AVN.02.
Specific Expectations: TH1.01; TH1.02; TH2.02; TH2.03; TH3.01; TH3.02; CR1.01; CR1.02; CR1.03;
CR2.01; CR2.02; CR2.03; CR2.04; CR3.01; Cr3.02; CR3.03; AN1.01; AN1.02; AN1.03; AN1.04;
AN2.01; AN2.02; AN2.03.

Page 5 • Visual Arts - Open


Activity Titles (Time + Sequence)
Activity 1 Renaissance Art Consultant 120 minutes
Activity 2 Math, Measurement, and the Golden Section 1380 minutes

Unit 4: The Artist Makes a Statement


Time: 20 hours
The central theme of this unit is the role of the artist in shaping society. Students will investigate how
artists have created artworks that shape and form contemporary civilization. Artists have designed
buildings, furniture, clothing, and typefaces for print materials. Artists have influenced the look of past
and present societies. Artists who present messages in their work on contemporary issues, such as Jane
Ash Poitras, Carl Beam, Joyce Weiland, Michael Snow, and Greg Curnoe, will be examined. Students
will investigate how artists can change their world by creating designs for living through posters and
wearable art. They will also explore the ever-changing world and subject matter of fine and applied art.
The teacher can focus student inquiry around three essential questions to generate ideas about the
extended role of the artist:
1. How does an artist influence the production of objects? (theory)
2. Do artists need to create a reaction from the viewer through their work? (creation)
3. How does an artist determine what is art and what is not? (analysis)
Strand(s): Theory, Creation, Analysis
Overall Expectations: THV.01; THV.04; CRV.01; CRV.02; CRV.03; CRV.04; ANV.01; ANV.02;
ANV.03.
Specific Expectations: TH1.01; TH1.02; TH3.02; TH3.03; TH3.04; CR1.01; CR1.03; CR2.01; CR2.02;
CR2.03; CR2.04; CR3.01; CR3.02; CR3.03; AN1.01; AN1.02; AN1.03; AN1.04; AN2.02; AN2.03.
Activity Titles (Time + Sequence)
Activity 1 Canadian Identity Through Art 60 minutes
Activity 2 Banners Make a Statement 300 minutes
Activity 3 Spread the Message: Using Printmaking for Multiple Images 540 minutes
Activity 4 Wearable Art: I Am My Art 180 minutes
Activity 5 Artists Who Care About the World 120 minutes

Unit 5: I Am the Artist: The Window of My Mind


Time: 24 hours
In this unit, students use art production, analysis, and critical thinking to consolidate student learning.
The culminating activity for this unit challenges students, requiring them to apply concepts attained in
the course. It provides them opportunity to express their own ideas about their individual creative
process. In this activity, students must represent the content of the course in a visual manner. This unit is
the summative evaluation of student achievement, based on the expectations and the achievement chart
for this course. The unit represents 30% of the final mark. (See Program Planning and Assessment, The
Ontario Curriculum, Grades 9 and 10, 1999, p. 11.)
The three essential questions are:
1. What makes my art creative and unique? (theory)
2. Am I using the right tools and processes to make my ideas clear to others? (creation)
3. How do I communicate to others through my artwork? (analysis)
Strand(s): Theory, Creation, Analysis
Overall Expectations: In the final evaluation piece, students will demonstrate their most consistent
levels of achievement based on the Achievement Chart, The Ontario Curriculum, Grades 9 and 10, The
Arts, 1999. See page 58 of this curriculum for a description of how to use this assessment tool.

Page 6 • Visual Arts - Open


Activity Titles (Time + Sequence)
Activity 1 Reflections on Units 1-4 60 minutes
Activity 2 Wearable Symbol of Honour 300 minutes
Activity 3 Portfolio Interview Preparation 60 minutes
Activity 4 Window of My Mind 1020 minutes

Course Notes
Access to a wide variety of visual and technical resources to support a curriculum is important. Please
see Appendix D.
Teachers should adapt this profile in response to student and community resources, supplies available
and limitations.
Modifications need to be made to accommodate students with special needs. See Appendix B.
Health and safety in the classroom must be a priority when dealing with materials, equipment and
routines. See Appendix C.
Portfolio assessment is an important student assessment tool for visual arts. Please see Appendices L, M,
N, and O.
The course content develops essential learning and creative thinking skills. See Appendices P, Q, R, S, T,
U, V, and W.
Teachers can make connections across units by directing student learning to the essential questions.
Students should keep a resource journal that is divided into the following sections: sketches; ideas;
reflection; technical information; historical context. See Appendices E, X, and Y.

Teaching/Learning Strategies
Direct instruction, indirect instruction, interactive instruction, and independent instruction are strategies
that can be incorporated into teaching strategies for visual arts. Individual learning styles of students need
to be addressed in lesson delivery. See Appendix B.

Assessment and Evaluation


The Grade 10 visual arts course builds on what students know, introducing them to new ideas, materials,
and processes for artistic thinking and experimentation. Teachers then need to assess, evaluate, and
report each student’s growth. Assessment will occur throughout the course, in the form of guided
coaching for students. Teacher feedback to students becomes important so that students are aware of their
accomplishments, based on the Achievement Chart in The Ontario Curriculum, Grades 9 and 10, The
Arts, 1999. A variety of assessment and evaluation strategies should be used. See Appendix F –
Assessment and Evaluation Strategies. A student resource journal and a student portfolio will assist
teachers with this. Evaluation will occur throughout the course, as the student work develops to meet
small groupings of expectations. 70% of the mark for the course will be accumulated from assessments
and evaluations directed at meeting all of the expectations in Units 1-4. Unit 5 becomes the final
evaluation piece for the course. Teachers will base final individual student reporting on observations,
with no feedback. Students must demonstrate course expectations based on the achievement levels for the
categories outlined on the Achievement Chart in The Ontario Curriculum, Grades 9 and 10, The Arts,
1999.

Page 7 • Visual Arts - Open


Resource Summary
Resources are available to teachers through public libraries, Internet, CD-ROMs, book stores, and
community resources. Many college and university programs offer courses for teachers that are
recognized by the Ontario College of Teachers. Other special interest courses are available through
community and school board programs that are not recognized by the Ontario College of Teachers.
OSEA, the Ontario Society for Education Through Art, is a subject association for teachers in Ontario
(the World Wide Web address is: osea.on.ca) and offers resources, conferences, and membership for
teachers. Internet access has opened up the art world for educators. Most galleries around the world have
web sites with virtual galleries that show master works of art. CD-ROMs for art classes, are numerous.
Periodicals, books, newspapers, community galleries, and partnerships can be found to enhance resource
lists.

OSS Policy Applications


This Course Profile has been developed to assist in the implementation of The Ontario Curriculum,
Grade 9 and 10, The Arts, 1999. In using this material, teachers and administrators must take careful note
of the applicable sections of:
Ontario Secondary Schools, Grades 9 to 12, Program and Diploma Requirements, 1999. (OSS) Sections
4, 5, 6, 7
Choices Into Action: Guidance and Career Education Program Policy For Ontario Elementary and
Secondary Schools, 1999.
The Ontario Curriculum, Grades 9 and 10, Program Planning and Assessment, 1999.

Assessment and Evaluation of Program


The reflective nature of a student’s resource journal will provide on going feedback from students. More
formal types of course reviews (questionnaire, rubrics, checklists, etc.) given to students will provide
periodic and/or final feedback to teachers.

Page 8 • Visual Arts - Open


Coded Expectations, Visual Arts, AVI2O

Theory
Overall Expectations
THV.01
– demonstrate an understanding of the design process;
THV.02
– differentiate historical artworks by content, theme, style, techniques, and materials;
THV.03
– explain the social and historical context and the chronology of distinctive artistic styles;
THV.04
– identify the skills required in various visual arts and art-related careers.

Specific Expectations
Design and Composition
TH1.01
– explain how compositions are altered by a change in design principles (e.g., contrast of lines versus
contrast of colour);
TH1.02
– describe the steps of the design process (i.e., specifications, research, experimentation, preliminary
sketches, prototypes, revision, presentation, reflection).
Art History and Cultural Community
TH2.01
– describe the characteristics of a historical stylistic movement in Canadian art (e.g., the art of New
France, Canadian Impressionists, Painters Eleven);
TH2.02
– demonstrate an understanding of a mid-segment of the Western art history timeline (e.g., the
Middle Ages);
TH2.03
– produce a survey of a particular subject or medium through a period of time, noting stylistic
changes (e.g., posters, photography, typography).
Personal Applications
TH3.01
– explain how they have incorporated into their studio assignments characteristic materials and
expressive qualities of artworks studied;
TH3.02
– explain how their personal artworks have been influenced by works they have viewed in galleries
and museums;
TH3.03
– research the history of an art form, craft, or area of design (e.g., stone sculpture, textile design,
pottery);
TH3.04
– describe similarities and differences between careers in design and fine art.

Page 9 • Visual Arts - Open


Creation
Overall Expectations
CRV.01
– produce a work designed around specific objectives and challenges (e.g., composition issues,
subject matter, use of visual language);
CRV.02
– demonstrate the ability to take varied and creative approaches to using materials, tools, processes,
and technologies in studio activities;
CRV.03
– explain the importance of process in relation to the final product;
CRV.04
– use concepts of visual literacy in describing their art activities.

Specific Expectations
Perceiving and Planning
CR1.01
– use various strategies in creating images (e.g., symbolism, interpretation of same idea in both two
and three dimensions);
CR1.02
– use tools, materials, processes, and technologies safely and appropriately;
CR1.03
– use research from various sources (e.g., books, databases, conversation with local artists) as part of
the creative process.
Experimenting and Producing
CR2.01
– demonstrate the ability to solve artistic problems and make creative choices when completing
artworks that reflect their concerns;
CR2.02
– demonstrate the ability to use an increasing range of tools, materials, processes, and technologies in
producing works of fine art and applied design;
CR2.03
– execute sketches and drawings in an increasing variety of media;
CR2.04
– demonstrate ever-expanding use of technology in producing artworks.
Reviewing and Evaluating
CR3.01
– use appropriate visual arts vocabulary in describing materials and processes;
CR3.02
– develop sketchbooks, a portfolio, and/or planners that document their personal art process;
CR3.03
– demonstrate the ability to review and evaluate the creative processes they use, as well as the
resulting artworks.

Page 10 • Visual Arts - Open


Analysis
Overall Expectations
ANV.01
– apply critical analysis processes to their artwork and works studied;
ANV.02
– identify sensory, formal, expressive, and technical qualities in their own works and works studied;
ANV.03
– describe interrelationships among art, the consumer, and the community.

Specific Expectations
Critical Process
AN1.01
– describe the stages of the design process followed in a particular assignment;
AN1.02
– analyse the formal composition of an example of artwork from personal and/or historical works
studied;
AN1.03
– explain the significant expressive qualities of a work of art with reference to a list of possible
categories (e.g., sensory, formal, expressive, technical);
AN1.04
– identify possible meanings of a work by referring to background information and specific visual
indicators.
Aesthetics
AN2.01
– explain how the formal organization of visual content (formalism) as well as the imitation of life
(imitationalism) can be used to create and think about works of art;
AN2.02
– demonstrate an understanding of the use of symbols in creative expression;
AN2.03
– describe how a culture shapes its art with reference to historical and contemporary examples (e.g.,
Byzantine icons, Chinese landscape, painting in fifteenth-century Europe, pre-Columbian pottery,
Warhol’s soup cans).

Page 11 • Visual Arts - Open


Unit 1: The Artist’s Point of View: How Creation Happens
Time: 18 hours
Unit Developers: Susan Jones, Rhonda Johnson, Susan Pidlubny, Teresa Reeves, Cyrel Troster, Alan
Wilkinson
Development Date: October 1999 and March 2000

Unit Description
This is the first of five units for the Grade 10 course of study. The central theme for the Grade 10 course
is the student as an inquiring artist. The teacher, as a facilitator, directs students to question how they
create. As an inquiring artist, the student gains an understanding of the creative process. The three
essential questions in this unit are linked to the strands in The Ontario Curriculum, Grades 9 and 10, The
Arts, 1999. These questions will help the students find and develop creative ideas, reflect on where
original ideas come from, and explore how ideas are developed and improved.
This profile provides a variety of strategies for students to investigate creative theory. Through guided
discovery and activities, teachers direct students to explore a variety of media. Students use drawing
techniques, a review of the elements and principles of design, and activities that foster the creative
process.

Essential Questions
Where does the inquiring artist find ideas? Theory
How does the artist create? Creation
How does the artist develop and improve? Analysis

Strand(s) and Expectations


Strand(s): Theory, Creation, Analysis

Overall Expectations
THV.01 - demonstrate an understanding of the design process;
CRV.01 - produce a work designed around specific objectives and challenges (e.g., composition issues,
subject matter, use of visual language);
CRV.02 - demonstrate the ability to take varied and creative approaches to using materials, tools,
processes, and technologies in studio activities;
CRV.03 - explain the importance of process in relation to the final product;
CRV.04 - use concepts of visual literacy in describing their art activities;
ANV.01 - apply critical analysis processes to their artwork and works studied;
ANV.02 - identify sensory, formal, expressive, and technical qualities in their own words and works.

Specific Expectations
TH1.02 - explain how compositions are altered by a change in design principles (e.g., contrast of lines
versus contrast of colour);
TH3.01 - explain how they have incorporated into their studio assignments characteristic materials and
expressive qualities of artworks studied;
CR1.01 - use various strategies in creating images (e.g., symbolism, interpretation of same idea in both
two and three dimensions);
CR1.02 - use tools, materials, processes, and technologies safely and appropriately;
CR1.03 - use research from various sources (e.g., books, data bases, conversations with local artists) as
part of the creative process;

Unit 1 - Page 1 • Visual Arts - Open


CR2.01 - demonstrate the ability to solve artistic problems and make creative choices when completing
artworks that reflect their concerns;
CR2.02 - demonstrate the ability to use an increasing range of tools, materials, processes, and
technologies in producing works of fine art and applied design;
CR2.03 - execute sketches and drawings in an increasing variety of media;
CR3.01 - use appropriate visual arts vocabulary in describing materials and processes;
CR3.02 - develop sketchbooks, a portfolio, and/or planners that document their personal art process;
CR3.03 - demonstrate the ability to review and evaluate the creative processes they use;
AN1.01 - describe the stages of the design process followed in a particular assignment;
AN2.01 - analysis the formal composition of an example of art work from personal and and/or historical
works studied;
AN2.02 - demonstrate an understanding of the use of symbols in creative expression.

Activity Titles (Time + Sequence)


Activity 1 Introduction to the Grade 10 Course 120 minutes
Activity 2 Creative Theory 120 minutes
Activity 3 Transformation 120 minutes
Activity 4 Back to the Drawing Board 720 minutes

Unit Planning Notes


• Post the three essential questions in a prominent place in the classroom so teachers can easily address
these questions throughout the unit.
• The co-operative group activities in this unit help establish a positive classroom environment.
Resources suggested in this unit assist teachers in the initial planning of group activities.
• The resource journal should be used as an important visual, thinking, planning, and drawing
component of this course, and is a resource that will continue to be important throughout the
student’s secondary school experiences.
• Teachers make a variety of quality materials available: heavy stock paper, drawing pencils, pencil
crayons, oil and chalk pastels, conte crayons, and tracing paper.

Prior Knowledge Required


• Students are not required to complete Grade 9 Visual Arts as a prerequisite for Grade 10 Visual Arts.
They should have prior learning from the expectations listed in The Ontario Curriculum, Grades 1-8,
The Arts, 1998 (from The Ontario Curriculum, Grades 1-8, The Arts, 1998).

Unit 1 - Page 2 • Visual Arts - Open


Activity 1: Introduction to the Grade 10 Course
Time: 120 minutes

Description
The purpose of these activities is to provide students with a course outline, establish a positive classroom
environment, and allow the teacher to become familiar with the students’ artistic interests and abilities.
Students are introduced to the content, structure, assessment and evaluation of the course. The course
evaluation consists of 70% term work and 30% summative evaluation. Appendices are included to
facilitate the communication of this important information. Students will participate in short interactive
activities over a two-hour time period. Portfolios and resource journals will be introduced. Students will
complete a studio activity in which they create a monogram design on their portfolio and resource
journal.

Strand(s) and Expectations


Strand(s): Theory, Creation, Analysis
Overall Expectations
THV.01 - demonstrate an understanding of the design process;
CRV.01 - produce a work designed around specific objectives and challenges (e.g., composition issues,
subject matter, use of visual language);
CRV.03 - explain the importance of process in relation to the final product;
CRV.04 - use concepts of visual literacy in describing their art activities.
Specific Expectations
CR1.01 - use various strategies in creating images (e.g., symbolism, interpretation of same idea in both
two and three dimensions);
CR1.02 - use tools, materials, processes, and technologies safely and appropriately;
CR3.02 - develop sketchbooks, a portfolio, and/or planners that document their personal art process.

Planning Notes
• The teacher uses these short activities as an introduction to the entire course: content, assessment,
evaluation, classroom and behavioural expectations, and health and safety issues.
• These activities offer teachers an opportunity to assess student entry-level characteristics, and make
appropriate program decisions.
• Teachers need to prepare handouts in advance and make appropriate materials available for student
use.
• Teachers adjust some strategies in order to accommodate a variety of learning styles

Prior Knowledge Required


• See Unit Overview.

Teaching/Learning Strategies
1. Suggested Preparatory Activities. The teacher places a numbered card at each seat prior to the
students’ entering the room. The teacher prepares a corresponding set of numbered cards and places
them in a container. As students arrive they pull a numbered card from the container and sit in the
corresponding seat. This establishes a seating plan and allows the teacher to greet all students as they
enter the classroom for the first time. The teacher establishes a positive classroom environment
through a number of co-operative activities. An essential part of class building is the process of
having students get to know each other and to feel comfortable in their classroom environment.
Getting-to-know-you activities should take five to ten minutes each. The teacher introduces students
to the course content, structure, assessment and evaluation for the course. The course outline should

Unit 1 - Page 3 • Visual Arts - Open


provide a course description including the units of study and evaluation categories:
knowledge/understanding, thinking/inquiry, communication, creation/application. The term work is
weighted at 70% and the summative evaluation is weighted at 30%. This should be communicated
clearly to students in the course outline. An explanation of the resource journal and portfolios is
given. The teacher explains the class routines and safety procedures for the classroom. Expectations
about materials can also be included on the course outline. See Appendix BB.
2. The Assignment: Monogrammed Portfolio and Resource Journal. Students create a monogram of
their first and last initials to identify their portfolio folder and their resource journal. Students in each
section of Grade 10 art make their monogram to fit a specific geometric shape that is unique to that
section. For example, one Grade 10 section might create a monogram within a circle whereas another
section might use a square. This will permit both the teacher and the student to easily distinguish one
class from another. This geometric design requirement encourages students to solve design
challenges. Students create three preparatory sketches in which the letters touch the edges of the
shape, and make effective use of the total area of the shape. In pairs students help each other choose
their strongest monogram design or suggest improvements where appropriate. This activity should be
structured in order that students are required to identify three areas of strength and one area for
improvement in the chosen design. This activity relates to the essential question “How does the artist
develop and improve?” Students complete a finished version of their monogram. They may complete
this final version directly on the portfolio material itself, or on separate paper stock to be attached to
the portfolio as directed by the teacher. Students complete a second version of their monogram for
their resource journal. This second version may be smaller than the first as appropriate to the size of
the resource journal. The smaller monogram functions as part of the name label for the resource
journal. See Appendix CC for the assignment outline and assessment.

Accommodations
• Additional time may be provided to complete tasks.
• Buddy up a stronger student with one who could use encouragement and support.
• See Appendix B.

Assessment/Evaluation Techniques
• See Appendix CC.

Health and Safety


• Only water-based markers should be used.

Resources
Maris Dantzic, Cynthia. Design Dimensions: An Introduction To the Visual Surface. New Jersey:
Prentice-Hall, 1990. ISBN 0-13-199985-0.
Ragans, Mittler. Exploring Art. USA: Glencoe, 1992. ISBN 0-02-662281-5.
Ragans, Rosalind. Arttalk. USA: Glencoe/McGraw-Hill. 1995. ISBN 0-02-640295-5.
Roukes, Nicholas. Art Synectics. Worchester, MA: Davis Publications, 1982. ISBN 0-87192-151-0.
Roukes, Nicholas. Design Synectics: Stimulating Creativity in Design. Worchester, MA: Davis
Publications, 1988. P.52 ISBN 0-87192-198-7.
Wilton Art Appreciation Program: Series 100 CD-ROMs – Elements of Art.

Unit 1 - Page 4 • Visual Arts - Open


Activity 2: Creative Theory
Time: 120 minutes

Description
In this activity students become familiar with terms related to creativity, participate in a co-operative
activity that enhances creative thinking, and create an artwork that challenges individual creative
thinking. The co-operative component of these activities continues to foster a positive classroom
environment. The studio project is assessed by peers and comments recorded in their resource journal.

Strand(s) and Expectations


Strand(s): Theory, Creation, Analysis
Overall Expectations
CRV.01 - produce a work designed around specific objectives and challenges (e.g., composition issues,
subject matter, use of visual language);
CRV.02 - demonstrate the ability to take varied and creative approaches to using materials, tools,
processes, and technologies in studio activities;
CRV.03 - explain the importance of process in relation to the final product.
Specific Expectations
CR1.02 - use tools, materials, processes, and technologies safely and appropriately;
CR2.01 - demonstrate the ability to use an increasing range of tools, materials, processes, and
technologies in producing works of fine art and applied design;
CR3.02 - develop sketchbooks, a portfolio, and/or planers that document their personal process;
CR3.03 - demonstrate the ability to review and evaluate the creative processes they use.

Planning Notes
• Teachers can reference Spencer Kagan’s Co-operative Learning for thinking skills activities.
• Art Synectics and Design Synectics by Nicholas Roukes are also good resources for developing
activities around creative theory.
• The following is a list of terms that are useful when considering creativity:
• Fluency (how many ideas you can come up with)
• Flexibility (how many different kinds of ideas you can come up with)
• Originality (are your ideas your own, or borrowed)
• Elaboration (how detailed are your ideas)

Prior Knowledge Required


• See Unit Overview

Teaching/Learning Strategies
1. Students are organized into co-operative groups of three or five. Each group is given an identical
envelope or bag of small items. Items in each bag could include a combination of the following:
paper clips, elastic bands, styrofoam cups, tongue depressor sticks, brass fasteners, length of string,
tape, paint brush, or straw. Each envelope or bag contains the same items.
2. Each group of students is asked to exercise their creative problem-solving abilities to create a
functional or fantasy kitchen utensil using each of the items found in the bag. Teachers should stress
that in this activity all ideas are valid and no negative critical comments are allowed. Students have a
fifteen-minute time limit. Items may be altered to create the utensil, however, no additional materials
can be added, and no scissors or glue can be used. One group member will be randomly chosen to
explain to the class how their object functions and why someone should buy it.

Unit 1 - Page 5 • Visual Arts - Open


3. Halfway through this activity, each group appoints a scout who has thirty seconds to visit other
groups and report back to their home group. Teachers can time this activity.
4. At the end of this activity the teacher guides students through the vocabulary related to creativity
found on p. 60 of The Ontario Curriculum, Grades 9 and 10, The Arts, 1999 and in Planning Notes.
The teacher writes the definitions on chart paper and displays them in the classroom. Have students
record this vocabulary in the resource journals.
5. Teachers select at least two creative thinking exercises or activities for students. Robin Landa’s
book, Thinking Creatively, offers a number of these exercises such as “Doing the Unexpected - Alter
a well-known symbol such as a flag, a commercial logo, or an emblem to modify its meaning (e.g.,
alter a royal crown to symbolize loss of power). Change the Scale – Take something we usually see
as small and make it big (or vise-versa). Alter Something Familiar – Change the meaning of a
familiar object by adding to or subtracting from it in some unusual way. (e.g., add nails to a blown-up
balloon).”
6. After completing these creative problem-solving activities, students share their solutions with a peer.
Peer evaluation is based on the student’s ability to demonstrate fluency, flexibility, elaboration, and
originality.
7. Subsequently, each student responds to the comments provided by their peer in their resource
journals. These activities relate to the essential question “How does the artist develop and improve?”

Accommodations
• Teachers may wish to create co-operative groups where peer helpers are available to assist those
students with specific learning disabilities.
• Language expectations for Resource Journal entries may modified for those students with language
deficits.
• Additional time may be provided to complete written tasks.
• A note taker may be provided to complete written tasks.
• See Appendix B

Assessment/Evaluation Techniques
• Students assess their peers using verbal feedback. Students respond to the comments in their resource
journal. A modified version of Appendix DD might serve as guide for developing a rubric.

Health and Safety


• No anticipated issues

Resources
Kagan, Spenser. Cooperative Learning. California: Kagan Cooperative Learning, 1993.
ISBN 1-879097-10-9
Roukes, Nicholas. Art Synectics. Massachusetts: Davis Publications, 1984. ISBN 0-87192-151-0
Roukes, Nicholas. Design Synectics. Massachusetts: Davis Publications, 1988.
ISBN 87192-198-7
Wilton Art Appreciation Program: Series 100 CD-ROMs – Artists at Work

Unit 1 - Page 6 • Visual Arts - Open


Activity 3: Transformation
Time: 120 minutes

Description
In this activity students have an opportunity to explore creativity through the interpretation of music.
Students create two images inspired by contrasting pieces of music. They examine the way some artists
use music as a source of inspiration for their work. The essential question, “Where does the inquiring
artist find ideas?” is addressed.

Strand(s) and Expectations


Strand(s): Theory, Creation, Analysis
Overall Expectations
CRV.01 - produce a work designed around specific objectives and challenges (e.g., composition issues,
subject matter, use of visual language);
CRV.02 - demonstrate the ability to take varied and creative approaches to using materials, tools,
processes, and technologies in studio activities;
ANV.01 - apply critical analysis processes to their artwork and works studied;
ANV.02 - identify sensory, formal, expressive, and technical qualities in their own works and others
works.
Specific Expectations
CR1.01 - use various strategies in creating images (e.g., symbolism, interpretation of same idea in both
two and three dimensions);
CR1.02 - use tools, materials, processes, and technologies safely and appropriately;
CR1.03 - use research from various sources (e.g., books, data bases, conversations with local artists) as
part of the creative process;
CR3.01 - use appropriate visual arts vocabulary in describing materials and processes;
CR3.02 - develop sketchbooks, a portfolio, and/or planners that document their personal art process;
CR3.03 - demonstrate the ability to review and evaluate the creative processes they use.

Planning Notes
• Teachers arrange to have a tape or CD player available for this activity.
• Teachers carefully select the music for this activity in advance. Look for two contrasting types of
music. Suggestions might include The Finale of Symphony No. 3, by Saint Saens and Debussey’s La
Mer. Teachers explore available repertoires of instrumental music in order to find the most suitable
contrasting selections.
• Teachers may wish to review some of the shared terminology of art and music such as rhythm and
tone, etc.

Prior Knowledge Required


• See Unit Overview
• Some prior knowledge of music will be helpful.

Teaching/Learning Strategies
1. Students use two strips of white cartridge paper (15 cm by 60 cm) and draw a 2.5 cm margin on all
four sides that results in a 10 cm by 55 cm image area on each piece.
2. Students listen to two contrasting pieces of music, three to five minutes in length, and respond on
separate sheets of paper. Using oil pastels or markers students respond visually to the music that they
hear, noting rhythms, tonal changes, colour, texture, pattern, complexity, pitch, and harmony. Allow
students a few minutes at the end of the music to complete their compositions.

Unit 1 - Page 7 • Visual Arts - Open


3. Student responses are posted and the class discusses the interpretations.
4. The teacher then shows students artworks done by artists who were inspired by a variety of sources.
Teachers provide sources from a variety of cultures. The following is a list of possible artists and
their works which will act a starting point:
• Piet Mondrian, Broadway Boogie Woogie, 1942-43
• Wassily Kandinsky, Improvisation 28, 1911
• Bertram Brooker, Sounds Assembling, 1928
• Romare Beardon, Visual Jazz VHS Video – Collage Work, Family, 1967
• Jack Bush, Harmonies Series
The teacher connects these artworks to the activity that the students have just completed, and
discusses how music was integral to the creation of these works. For example, when discussing
Kandinsky’s work, the teacher draws attention to the fact that he believed music was the best source
for creativity. Other artists in other cultures and contexts have used music as a source for inspiration
as well. Information about Kandinsky and the artists examined can be found in the Resources.
5. Teachers may wish to have students begin a list of inspirational sources in their resource journals.
Students are to create three “Look Pages”. These pages contain images and other sources which
provide creative inspiration for the student. The Look Pages can contain such things as images,
information from the Internet, textures, souvenirs from trips, interesting gifts, labels, tickets, gift
wrap paper. This activity begins to address, however cannot fully answer, the essential question,
“Where does the inquiring artist find ideas?”

Accommodations
• Students with hearing impairments could be given an alternate assignment more reliant on visual or
tactile stimulation.
• See Appendix B.

Assessment/Evaluation Techniques
• Peer discussion

Health and Safety.


• Pastels should be wrapped with paper towel for students with skin allergies.
• Only water-based markers should be used.

Resources
Reid, Dennis. A Concise History of Canadian Painting, 2nd Edition. Toronto: Oxford University Press,
1988. ISBN 0-19-540664-8
Brommer, Gerald F. Discovering Art History, 3rd Edition. Massachusetts: David Publications, 1997.
ISBN 87192-299-1
Elsen, Albert E. Purposes of Art. New York: Holt, Hartcourt, Brace and Co., 1981. ISBN 0-03-049766-3
Roukes, Nicholas. Art Synectics. Massachusetts: Davis Publications, 1984. ISBN 0-87192-151-0
Roukes, Nicholas. Design Synectics. Massachusetts: Davis Publications, 1988. ISBN 87192-198-7
Wilton Art Appreciation Program: Series 100 CD-ROMs – Elements of Art.

Unit 1 - Page 8 • Visual Arts - Open


Activity 4: Back to the Drawing Board
Time: 720 minutes

Description
Having explored the potential of line to express or interpret an experience or create a personal visual
symbol in the previous activities, students are given opportunities to discover through studio experiences
that the creation of art is also often dependent on learning to observe and record carefully. These
technical skills serve to help them realize their creative ideas. The drawing exercises in this activity helps
students develop their observational drawing skills using line, shape, and value. The concluding studio
project adds the dimension of creativity. This final studio project challenges the students to use both their
technical skills and creative ideas.

Strand(s) and Expectations


Strand(s): Theory, Creation, Analysis
Overall Expectations
CRV.01 - produce a work designed around specific objectives and challenges (e.g., composition issues,
subject matter, use of visual language);
CRV.02 - demonstrate the ability to take varied and creative approaches to using materials, tools,
processes, and technologies in studio activities;
CRV.03 - explain the importance of process in relation to the final product.
Specific Expectations
TH1.02 - explain how compositions are altered by a change in design principles (e.g., contrast of lines
versus contrast of colour);
TH3.01 - explain how they have incorporated into their studio assignments characteristic materials and
expressive qualities of artworks studied;
CR2.01 - demonstrate the ability to solve artistic problems and make creative choices when completing
artworks that reflect their concerns;
CR2.02 - demonstrate the ability to use an increasing range of tools, materials, processes, and
technologies in producing works of fine art and applied design;
AN1.01 - describe the stages of the design process followed in a particular assignment;
AN2.01 - analyse the formal composition of an example of art work from personal and/or historical
works studied;
AN2.02 - demonstrate an understanding of the use of symbols in creative expression.

Planning Notes
• Teachers may wish to review Betty Edwards’ book, Drawing on the Right Side of the Brain.
• Teachers review contour drawing techniques and value scales.
• The following materials should be provided: newsprint, markers, cartridge paper, and drawing
pencils (2B to 6B).
• Provide samples of various drawing techniques for display.
• The teacher may wish to create a number of still-life compositions using a variety of available
objects which may include: old shoes, tools, bones, bottles, driftwood, musical instruments, gourds,
dried plants and flowers, hats, etc. Students should be encouraged to contribute objects of meaning to
them to these arrangements. Still-life compositions may have to be portable to accommodate other
classes. Controlled lighting source is optional but helpful.

Prior Knowledge Required


• See Unit Overview

Unit 1 - Page 9 • Visual Arts - Open


Teaching/Learning Strategies
a) The Artist Goes Back to the Drawing Board
1. Teach contour drawing techniques. See Appendix EE for contour drawing lessons. Start with
available subjects, such as hands, crumpled paper, and popcorn. Teachers might start with blind
contour and modified blind contour in order to reinforce hand eye co-ordination.
2. Review Tonal (Value) Drawing. This is an exercise designed to increase students’ skills in rendering.
Set up a variety of simple objects at various stations around the room. Students prepare their
cartridge paper by drawing a margin about 2 cm in width from the edges of the paper to define an
image area. Their drawing should touch at least three sides of the defined image area. Review tonal
drawing by demonstrating techniques such as hatching, cross-hatching, stippling, and graded values.
Assign students to a drawing station. Students complete one fully developed tonal (value) drawings
using a 2B, 4B, or 6B pencil.
3. Sustained Still-Life Drawing. The teacher sets up several more complex still-life arrangements
around the classroom. Students execute a sustained still-life drawing in a medium not previously
used in this unit. (Conte, charcoal, pencil, chalk, and coloured pencils are suggested media.) Students
use a simple cardboard viewfinder to isolate a composition within the still-life arrangement. This is a
sustained two- to three-hour drawing done on 30 cm x 45 cm sheet of cartridge paper. It will take
some time for students to collect the items required for the next assignment. Students create a “Look
Page” (a visual resource page) in their resource journals. They collect images of a variety of textures
(e.g., turtle shell, elephant skin, fur, feathers, scales, horns, leaves of plants, etc.) from organic
sources. By starting the collection process early students will have enough time to collect the
numerous resources required for the next activity.
b) Visual Exploration of a Modified Design
4. Not-So-Still Life. Students take their sustained still life and create a new composition in which they
apply their creativity and observational drawing skills. Students overlay their original drawing with
another sheet of 30 cm x 45 cm paper and trace the basic shapes. The teacher announces to the
students that the theme of this work will be to bring “life” to the still life just completed using some
of the design devices. Typical devices include animation, substitution, and metamorphosis. At this
time students use the images collected on their Look Page as reference for the creation of new
textures and surfaces. Teachers should provide specifications for the changes to be made in the
objects drawn. For example, objects could be made to:
• become capable of movement;
• have appropriate surface textures (see Look Page);
• maintain the overall compositional arrangement;
• display a balance of animate and inanimate characteristics.
In addition to bringing the still life objects to “life”, students are challenged to create a centre of
interest by emphasizing an object or an area of the composition. When the drawings are complete,
display the first still life with the “not-so-still life”. Students should give their works a title and print
their names legibly.
The Gallery Tour
5. Students complete a gallery tour of student artworks. While viewing artworks students complete a
Reflection Sheet ( Appendix DD) and an Elements and Principles of Art Checklist (Appendix HH). It
may be necessary to do a review of the elements and principles of art particularly if students did not
take Grade 9 Visual Art.

Accommodations
• Additional time may be provided to complete tasks.
• A checklist for completion may be provided to help students stay on task.

Unit 1 - Page 10 • Visual Arts - Open


• An example may be shown to help students visualize a solution.
• Buddy up a stronger student with one who could use encouragement and support.
• See Appendix B.

Assessment/Evaluation Techniques
• The teacher uses a rubric for evaluating the Sustained Still Life Drawing (see Appendices DD and
FF) and the Not-So-Still Life Drawing (see Appendix GG).

Health and Safety


• Students with respiratory problems should not use charcoal.
• Charcoal and pastels should be wrapped with paper towel for students with skin allergies.
• Only water-based markers should be used.

Resources
Base, Graham. Animalia. Toronto: Irwin Publishing, 1987. ISBN 0-7725-1668-5
Edwards, Betty. Drawing on the Right Side of the Brain. Los Angeles: J.P. Tarcher.1979.
ISBN 0-87477-088-2
Goldstein, Nathan. The Art of Responsive Drawing. ISBN 0135979315
Nicolaidies, Kimon. The Natural Way to Draw. Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1975. ISBN 0-395-20548-4
Roukes, Nicholas. Art Synectics. Massachusetts: Davis Publications, 1984. ISBN 0-87192-151-0
Roukes, Nicholas. Design Synectics. Massachusetts: Davis Publications, 1988.
ISBN 87192-198-7
Wilton Art Appreciation Program: Series 100 CD-ROMs – Artists at Work

Unit 1 - Page 11 • Visual Arts - Open


Unit 2: Place, Time, and Spaces
Time: 25 hours
Unit Developers: Susan Jones, Rhonda Johnson, Susan Pidlubny, Teresa Reeves, Cyrel Troster, Alan
Wilkinson
Development Date: October 1999 and March 2000

Unit Description
In this Grade 10 unit, students discover how place, time and spaces influence art that is produced by a
culture or society. Students explore how the artist’s cultural context, their time and place, influences art.
They study how artists perceive the spaces within which they live and work and how this understanding
of space is reflected in their work. Students will be given the opportunity to compare and contrast two
different artistic approaches in order to discover commonalities and differences based on place, time and
spaces. Activities in this unit include a landscape watercolour painting, a written and visual interpretation
of architecture, and a mixed media composition based on a literary source.
The following chart illustrates how this unit develops the strands outlined in The Ontario Curriculum,
The Arts, Grades 9 and 10, 1999. Students utilize the resource journal throughout the unit by addressing
the three essential questions that relate to the course strands.

Essential Questions
How does art reflect the place, time and spaces from which it was created? Theory
How do tools and materials influence the artistic product? Creation
How does the past influence what the artist does in the present? Analysis

Strand(s) and Expectations


Strand(s): Theory, Creation, Analysis

Overall Expectations
THV.01 - demonstrate an understanding of the design process;
THV.02 - differentiate historical artworks by content, theme, style, techniques, and materials;
THV.03 - explain the social and historical context and the chronology of distinctive artistic styles;
CRV.01 - produce a work designed around specific objectives and challenges (e.g., composition issues,
subject matter, use of visual language);
CRV.02 - demonstrate the ability to take varied and creative approaches to using materials, tools,
processes, and technologies in studio activities;
CRV.03 - explain the importance of process in relation to the final product;
CRV.04 - use concepts of visual literacy in describing their art activities;
ANV.01 - apply critical analysis processes to their art work and works studied;
ANV.02 - identify sensory, formal, expressive, and technical qualities in their own works and works
studied;
ANV.03 - describe interrelationships among art, the consumer, and their community.

Specific Expectations
TH2.01 - describe the characteristics of a historical stylistic movement in Canadian art (e.g., the art of
New France, Canadian Impressionists, Painters Eleven);
TH2.02 - demonstrate an understanding of a mid-section of the Western art history timeline (e.g., the
Middle Ages, etc.);

Unit 2 - Page 1 • Visual Arts - Open


TH3.01 - explain how they have incorporated into their studio assignments characteristic materials and
expressive qualities of artworks studied;
TH3.02 - explain how their personal artworks have been influenced by works they have viewed in
galleries and museums;
TH3.03 - research the history of an art form, craft, or area of design (e.g., stone sculpture, textile, design,
pottery);
TH3.04 - describe similarities and differences between careers in design and fine art;
CR1.02 - use tools, materials, processes and technologies safely and appropriately;
CR1.03 - use research from various sources (e.g., books, databases, conversation with local artists) as
part of the creative process;
CR2.01 - demonstrate the ability to solve artistic problems and make creative choices when completing
artworks that reflect their concerns;
CR2.02 - demonstrate the ability to use an increasing range of tools, materials, processes, and
technologies in producing works of fine art and applied design;
CR2.03 - execute sketches and drawings in an increasing variety of media;
CR3.01 - use appropriate visual arts vocabulary in describing materials and processes;
CR3.02 - develop sketchbooks, a portfolio, and/or planners that document their personal art process;
CR3.03 - demonstrate the ability to review and evaluate the creative processes they use, as well as the
resulting artworks;
AN1.01 - describe the stages of the design process in a particular assignment;
AN1.02 - analyse the formal composition of an example of artwork from personal and/or historical works
studied;
AN1.03 - explain the significant expressive qualities of a work of art with reference to a list of possible
categories (e.g., sensory, formal, expressive, technical);
AN2.01 - explain how the formal organization of visual content (formalism) as well as the imitation of
life (imitationalism) can be used to create and think about works of art;
AN2.02 - demonstrate an understanding of the use of symbols in creative expression;
AN2.03 - describe how a culture shapes its art with reference to historical and contemporary examples
(e.g., Byzantine icons, Chinese landscape, painting in fifteenth-century Europe, pre-Columbian pottery,
Warhol’s soup cans).

Activity Titles (Time + Sequence)


Activity 1 Defining Place, Time, and Spaces 60 minutes
Activity 2 Isolation 180 minutes
Activity 3 Painting Through the Eyes of the Artist 600 minutes
Activity 4 The Artist in the Community: Feeling Our Way Into Architecture 300 minutes
Activity 5 Imaginary Place 360 minutes

Unit Planning Notes


• Find a prominent place in the classroom to post the three essential questions so students can easily
address these questions throughout the unit.
• The resource journal should be used as a useful visual, thinking, and planning instrument.
• Teachers should have available a variety of quality materials for the students’ use.

Unit 2 - Page 2 • Visual Arts - Open


Prior Knowledge Required
• Students are not required to complete Grade 9 Visual Arts as a prerequisite for Grade 10 Visual Arts.
Students should have a prior learning of knowledge from the expectations listed in The Ontario
Curriculum, Grades 1-8, The Arts, 1998 (from The Ontario Curriculum, Grades 1-8, The Arts,
1998).

Activity 1: Defining Place, Time, and Spaces


Time: 60 minutes

Description
In this activity students explore the significance of the place, time, and space from which an artwork was
created. Students examine Medieval artworks and learn about this period. This approach allows students
to identify with the Medieval sense of flat perspective, feudalism, the role of the artisan, and the
centrality of religion in life.

Strand(s) and Expectations


Strand(s): Theory, Analysis
Overall Expectations
THV.02 - differentiate historical artworks by content, theme, style, techniques, and materials;
THV.03 - explain the social and historical context and the chronology of distinctive artistic styles;
ANV.01 - apply critical analysis processes to their artwork and works studied;
ANV.02 - identify sensory, formal, expressive, and technical qualities in their own works and works
studied;
ANV.03 - describe interrelationships among art, the consumer, and their community.
Specific Expectations
TH2.01 - describe the characteristics of a historical stylistic movement in Canadian art (e.g., the art of
New France, Canadian Impressionists, Painters Eleven);
TH2.02 - demonstrate an understanding of a mid-section of the western art history timeline (e.g., the
Middle Ages etc.);
TH3.03 - research the history of an art form, craft, or area of design (e.g., stone sculpture, textile design,
pottery);
CR3.01 - use appropriate visual arts vocabulary in describing materials and processes;
AN1.02 - analyse the formal composition of an example of artwork from personal and/or historical works
studied;
AN2.03 - describe how a culture shapes its art with reference to historical and contemporary examples
(e.g., Byzantine icons, Chinese landscape, painting in fifteenth-century Europe, pre-Columbian pottery,
Warhol’s soup cans).

Planning Notes
• Teachers may want to include readings from an art history textbook to complement this lesson.
• The teacher prepares visual images in advance.

Prior Knowledge Required


• See Unit Overview.

Unit 2 - Page 3 • Visual Arts - Open


Teaching/Learning Strategies
1. Students compare a Medieval painting to a contemporary Canadian painting. For example, students
could compare the Limbourg Brothers’ October from the Tres Riches Heures, 1413-1416 and Jack
Chamber’s Towards London No.1, 1969. Discuss the differences between these works with students.
For example, there are differences in architecture, clothing, tools, and domestic objects. To the
modern Canadian viewer, the Medieval painting may seem interesting, but it may be difficult to
identify with as it was created many years ago. Ask students the following rhetorical question: “Does
this mean we can not learn to bridge these differences and uncover the meaning of the painting?”
Guide students to discover the importance of understanding place, time, and spaces in which the
artwork was created. Understanding place, time, and spaces will allow students to uncover the
meaning of the painting.
2. Show students slides/images of Medieval art that can be used to illustrate important historical facts
about this time period. This will allow students to understand the place, time, and spaces from which
Medieval art was created. The following is a list of artworks and the corresponding features of the
Medieval period that these artworks illustrate.
Slides Historical Facts
Chalice of Abot Suger, c.1140 Discuss the distinction between upper and lower classes during
the Medieval period. Draw attention to the structure of feudal
system and Abott Suger’s position of importance which
allowed him to be influential in the arts.
Notre Dame Le-Grande, Discuss the role of the artist as craftsperson during the
Poitiers, France, c.1162-1271 Medieval period in connection with this work. Discuss how
this is a large building for the time, indicating the importance
of the Church.
October, Tres Riches Heures, Discuss the distinct difference in the way of life between
1413-1416 nobility and the common peasant. This work was created for
Limbourg Brothers, the Duc of Berry and as such it was detailed with expensive
gold leaf. Lapis lazuli, a costly mineral, was ground up to
create the brilliant ultramarine blue colour in this painting.
Battle of Hastings, detail of Point out that the conventions of depicting space were largely
Bayeux Tapestry, c.1073-1083 confined to the overlapping of figures. Linear perspective as
we know it was not articulated for almost another four hundred
years.
Have students record information about these artworks in their notes. Additional readings from an art
history textbook or other source could complement this activity.
3. Students again view October from the Tres Riches Heures, 1413-1416, and complete a resource
journal entry in which they respond to the following: You are now more familiar with the place, time,
and spaces of the Medieval period. Describe what you see in this painting. Describe what your life
would be like if you were one of the people in the picture.
4. Students then go out into the community to look for and identify local architectural forms and styles
in their environment. Students may, for an example, discover Romanesque Revival or Gothic Revival
style architecture in their community. This activity reveals how artists are often influenced by the
past. This reinforces the importance of considering place, time and spaces when an artwork is being
created. Have students answer the following question:
• How does “function” influence the style and form to be used in designing this building?

Unit 2 - Page 4 • Visual Arts - Open


Accommodations
• Provide a note-taker or alternatives to written assignments for those students requiring written
accommodation.
• Provide oral and written notes or instructions.

Assessment/Evaluation Techniques
• The resource journal should be regularly submitted to the teacher for assessment.

Health and Safety


• No anticipated issues

Resources
Brommer, Gerald F. Discovering Art History 3rd edition. Worcester, MA: Davis Publications Inc., 1997.
ISBN 87192-299-1
Burnnett, David, and Mary Schiff. Contemporary Canadian Art. Edmonton AB: Hurtig Publishers 1990
ISBN 0-88830-344-0
Janson, H.W. and Anthony F. Janson. A Basic History of Art. New York: Harry N. Abrams, 1992.
ISBN 0-13-062878-6
Reid, Dennis. Concise History of Canadian Painting. Toronto: Oxford University Press, 1988.
ISBN 0-19-540664-8
History Through Art – The Middle Ages. CD-ROM.
Notre Dame, Cathedral of Amiens. Crystal Productions CD-ROM.

Activity 2: Isolation
Time: 180 minutes

Description
Students discover the results of an artist working in isolation versus working in an environment where an
artist can study with others. Students examine two French Canadian portraits to discover this distinction.
The studio project for this activity provides students with the opportunity to compare the effects of
working on a task in isolation and working collaboratively with their peers. Portraits from other cultures
should used if possible.

Strand(s) and Expectations


Strand(s): Theory, Creation, Analysis
Overall Expectations
THV.02 - differentiate historical artworks by content, theme, style, techniques, and materials;
CRV.01 - produce a work designed around specific objectives and challenges (e.g., composition issues,
subject matter, use of visual language);
CRV.02 - demonstrate the ability to take varied and creative approaches to using materials, tools,
processes, and technologies in studio activities;
CRV.03 - explain the importance of processes in relation to the final product;
ANV.01 - apply critical analysis processes to their artwork and works studied.
Specific Expectations
TH2.01 - describe the characteristics of a historical stylistic movement in Canadian art (e.g., the art of
New France, Canadian Impressionists, Painters Eleven);
CR1.02 - use tools, materials, processes and technologies safely and appropriately;

Unit 2 - Page 5 • Visual Arts - Open


CR2.01 - demonstrate the ability to solve artistic problems and make creative choices when completing
artworks that reflect their concerns;
CR3.03 - demonstrate the ability to review and evaluate the creative processes they use, as well as the
resulting artworks.

Planning Notes
• The teacher assembles two pairs of identical images (preferably Medieval). A grid should be drawn
on all images and the squares should be numbered on the back.
• The painting by Pierre Le Ber may not be available in slide format. The teacher could display a
reproduction from a book in class or choose an appropriate substitution.
• The teacher provides different coloured markers and black fine-tip markers for the second activity.
• White and coloured bond paper is required.

Prior Knowledge
• See Unit Overview.

Teaching/Learning Strategies
1. Students view a reproduction of The Symbol of Saint Mark, from The Echternach Gospels, 690 A.D.
Have students speculate on what animal is depicted (lion). Note which features suggest that the artist
was self-taught and that the artist had never really seen a lion. Assist the students in deciphering the
Latin caption on the image “imago leonis” (image of the lion). Guide the students to an
understanding that this is a self-conscious labelling of the image to ensure its correct indentification.
2 Next, have students view Saint Mark, from the Gospel Book of Archbishop Ebbo of Reims. Students
are invited to imagine the sense of isolation and loneliness experienced by artist/monks at this time in
history. Often Monastic life permitted little, if any, interaction with the outside world and required
these literate monks to spend most of their time engaged in the transcription and illustration of the
Bible.
3. The two Medieval works viewed above, displayed the effects of working untrained and isolated. In
this activity students compare two French Canadian portraits; one that was painted in relative
isolation by an untrained artist and the other painted by a popular trained artist living in Quebec City.
The following are two possibilities: Pierre Le Ber, Marguerite Bourgeoys, 1700, and Antoine
Plammondon, Sister Saint-Alphonse, 1841. Students note the differences between the two artworks.
Through a teacher-guided examination of these works students are encouraged to observe/discover
the following differences:
Antoine Plammondon, Sister SaintAlphonse, Pierre Le Ber, Marguerite Bourgeioys,
1841 1700
1. Displays influence of European painting 1. Displays much of the naïve style/folk
style (Neoclassicism). art style.
2. The characteristics of the face and hands 2. The anatomy of the figure and the
reflect extensive formal training in proportion of the face reveal a limited
anatomy understanding of the human figure.
3. All areas of the composition are integrated 3. There are isolated areas of flat colour.
and there are a full range of values.
4. Subject is carefully lit from behind 4. Little depth – subject is not
establishing a clear sense of space between differentiated from the background.
the figure and the background.

Unit 2 - Page 6 • Visual Arts - Open


5. The composition is pyramidal with both 5. The composition is frontal and
the sitter and the chair arranged at a variety symmetrical.
of angles.
4. Isolation: This exercise and the one that follows it will provide students with the opportunity to
compare the experiences of working in isolation and in co-operation with others. The teacher draws a
grid over two identical images, preferably Medieval. The grid should consist of approximately 20-30
squares. On the back of each square is a number which corresponds to a master copy of the same
picture that is also gridded and numbered identically. Each student is given one of the squares and a
piece of paper that is proportional to the grid square. Students are asked to reproduce their square.
The teacher gives students a time limit of twenty minutes. Students could draw the squares in
different coloured markers and/or students could be given different coloured paper. This may cause
students to think that they are working on different projects, but this type of confusion is in keeping
with the experience of working in isolation. No other instructions are given. Upon completion of
their individual square the teacher reveals that it is a part of a larger picture and shows the whole
image. Students assemble the drawing according to the number on the backs of the squares. They
discuss difficulties they had with this activity. Students are invited to inventory the causes of the
difficulties that they encountered. Their observations could include: lack of instructions, different
colours of markers, detracting from unity, and lines that do not match up between squares. Students
can also propose solutions to these problems.
5. Together: This activity will provide students with the opportunity to work collaboratively with others
and experience the benefits of communication and co-operation. To achieve this, students repeat the
same activity with a different image. All students will be given the following:
• The opportunity to co-ordinate paper colour and marker colour;
• The opportunity to grid their squares in a similar fashion to facilitate alignment of compositional
elements when the image is reassembled
• The opportunity to communicate with peers as they work.
They now have a better understanding the whole process. This version could be completed on larger
paper in fine tip black marker.
6. Teachers may need to clarify for students that this activity is not focussed on the copying process, but
on the issues of collaboration, co-operation, and communication.

Accommodations
• Buddy up a stronger student with one who could use encouragement and support.

Assessment/Evaluation Techniques
• The teacher completes a checklist to verify individual student completion and co-operation for this
activity. Students submit both artworks to be assembled and displayed in the classroom. After the
display is taken down students should file their drawing in their resource journal.

Health and Safety


• Only water-based markers should be used.

Resources
Brommer, Gerald F. Discovering Art History 3rd Edition. Worcester, MA: Davis Publications Inc., 1997.
ISBN 87192-299-1
Janson, H.W. and Anthony F. Janson. A Basic History of Art. New York: Harry N. Abrams, 1992.
ISBN 0-13-062878-6
Janson, H. W. History of Art, New York: Harry N. Abrams Inc., 1986, ISBN 0-13-389388-x

Unit 2 - Page 7 • Visual Arts - Open


Reid, Dennis. Concise History of Canadian Painting. Toronto: Oxford University Press, 1988.
ISBN 0-19-540664-8
One Hundred Treasures from the British Library. CD-ROM.
World of Folk Art: A Multicultural Approach, From the collection of the Museum of International Folk
Art VHS Videos (2)

Activity 3: Painting Through the Eyes of the Artist


Time: 600 minutes

Description
This activity begins with instruction on a two-point perspective architectural drawing. Emphasis is placed
on the role that the artist’s vantage point plays in determining the nature of the drawing. Students study
watercolour technique with emphasis on monochromatic washes and apply this knowledge in the creation
of an ink and monochrome watercolour painting of a building in their community.

Strand(s) and Expectations


Strand(s): Theory, Creation, Analysis
Overall Expectations
THV.02 - differentiate historical artworks by content, theme, style, techniques, and materials;
CRV.01 - produce a work designed around specific objectives and challenges (e.g., composition issues,
subject matter, use of visual language);
CRV.03 - explain the importance of process in relation to the final product;
CRV.04 - use concepts of visual literacy in describing their art activities;
ANV.01 - apply critical analysis processes to their artwork and works studied;
ANV.02 - identify sensory, formal, expressive, and technical qualities in their own works and works
studied.
Specific Expectations
TH2.02 - explain how they have incorporated into their studio assignment characteristics, materials and
expressive qualities of artworks studied;
TH3.02 - explain how their personal artworks have been influenced by works they have viewed in
galleries and museums;
CR1.02 - use tools, materials, processes and technologies safely and appropriately;
CR2.01 - demonstrate the ability to use an increasing range of tools, materials, processes, and
technologies in producing works of fine art and applied design;
CR2.03 - execute sketches and drawings in an increasing variety of media;
CR3.01 - use appropriate visual arts vocabulary in describing materials and processes;
CR3.02 - develop sketchbooks, a portfolio, and/or planners that document their personal art process;
CR3.03 - demonstrate the ability to review and evaluate the creative processes they use, as well as the
resulting artworks;
AN1.01 - describe the stages of the design process in a particular assignment.

Planning Notes
• Teachers consult books, videos, and CD-ROMs for additional information on watercolour
techniques.
• For the discussion on artists and their use of two-point perspective, teachers add local artists work if
available.
• Teachers may want to photograph local buildings of interest for the watercolour assignment.

Unit 2 - Page 8 • Visual Arts - Open


• Watercolour materials (brushes, paper, permanent fine line black markers, and paint) should be
available to ensure student success.
• Teacher may provide landscape photos with appropriate architectural interest.

Prior Knowledge
• See Unit Overview.
• An understanding of linear and aerial perspective

Teaching/Learning Strategies
1. The teacher guides the students through a review lesson on the development of a two-point
perspective drawing step by step starting with simple objects such as a box and progress to more
complex images such as a house. Vanishing points should be placed at the extreme ends of the
horizon line or extended beyond the image area to minimize distortion. The following is suggested
sequence for developing this drawing:
• Establish a horizon line (eye level).
• Place two vanishing points on the horizon line or extend it beyond the image area to minimize
distortion.
• Establish the closest perpendicular line that crosses or intersects the horizon line. Typically this
will be the corner of the box closest to you.
• After placing two vanishing points on the horizon line, one at each end of the paper, draw the
converging lines to the right and left from the perpendicular line to the to the vanishing point. All
lines that proceed from the right of side of the perpendicular line will converge towards the right
vanishing point. All lines from the left of the perpendicular line will converge towards the left
vanishing point.
• This process should be repeated in teaching the drawing of a building. All architectural features
must follow the rules of perspective.
2. Students view images that illustrate the use of two-point perspective. These images should represent
a wide variety of cultural contexts. The following are some suggestions which offer a starting point.
• Cornelieus Krieghoff, Merrymaking, 1860 (Merrymakers spill out of a local Quebec country Inn
into a snowy winter landscape)
• F. Lemoine Fitzgerald, Doc Snyder’s House, 1931 (a view out of his window into a snowy
Winnipeg back yard)
• Richard Estes, Drug Store, 1970 (an urban setting presented with the stark clarity of photo
realism)
• David Milne, The Empty House, c.1932 (an abandoned farm home in winter)
• Antonio Canaletto, The Basin of San Marco, c.1740 (mathematical precision and photo-like
clarity used to show famous urban setting)
• Emily Carr, Blunden Harbour, 1928-30 (a dramatic view of a Skeena River village in northern
BC)
• Nishikawa Sukenobu, Young Woman Printing Ink, 17th -18th century Edo, Ukiyoe school (a
quiet interior of a Japanese home with a woman working – uses isometric perspective)
• Cheik Ledy, Taxi de la Cite, 1991 (a humourous scene of a contemporary African taxi in a
village setting)
Discuss the similarities and differences of the artist’s interpretation of their place, time, and spaces
that were familiar to them. Students complete a resource journal response: “How does your personal
place, time, and spaces influence your art?”

Unit 2 - Page 9 • Visual Arts - Open


3. Students apply their knowledge of perspective to the creation of a monochromatic watercolour
landscape exercise. The teacher introduces basic watercolour techniques. Students should complete a
page where they practice essential watercolour techniques.
Watercolour Techniques:
• Washes –wet on wet, wet on dry, dry brush (flat and graded)
• Variety of brushstrokes
• Masking (use masking tape)
• Wax Resist (crayons, candles)
Materials:
• Paper (heavy weight paper needed)
• Brushes –rounds, soft bristles, flats, large brushes for backgrounds
• Paint –watercolour paint or equivalent (a paint which is transparent)
• White palette (can use old white china or plastic plates, ceramic tiles)
Suggested monochromatic value exercise.
This lesson is designed to help students develop skills and understanding in the use of intensities and
values. This will help students enhance the illusion of depth in their paintings.
• Divide a small sheet of watercolour paper in half to obtain a piece approximately 20 cm by 12.5
cm. Attach this piece of watercolour paper horizontally, using masking tape, to a drawing board.
Create a column on the right side of the page using masking tape, approximately 3 cm wide.
Divide the column horizontally with masking tape to create four cells for a value scale.
• Have students create a value scale using one colour in the space provided and label the value
scale one to four, one for the lightest and four for the darkest.
• Students create a number one value wash on their palette using the value scale as a guide.
• Wet on Wet Wash: With clear water, students wet the paper surface and with their #1 value wash
apply the wash solution to the wet paper as evenly as possible. Students should apply the wash in
horizontal strokes working from top to bottom and let it dry completely.
• Prepare a #2 value solution on the palette and create a horizon line one third of the way down the
page. Cover the page from the horizon line to the bottom of the page with the rest of the solution
following the above procedure.
• Repeat this process with washes for #3 and #4 value to create middle- and foreground layers
respectively.
4. Students complete a landscape painting with an architectural element in two-point perspective. The
source of this image may be drawn from a local building of interest done on location or from a
photograph. Students complete a preliminary pencil drawing to establish accuracy, perspective, and
compositional balance. Students transfer their drawing to the watercolour paper using pencil and add
achitectural detail to this drawing. They should go over their line drawing with a permanent fine tip
black marker. They mask out objects in middleground and foreground and apply a wax resist to white
areas (e.g., clouds). Using a large brush they apply an initial light wash to the background (e.g., sky).
Remove masking media, the student will develop middleground and foreground values using darker
tones and textural brushstrokes.
5. Students complete a resource journal entry where they reflect on what they have learned about the
way that they create. The following essential questions could guide them in this process:
• How does this painting reflect the place, spaces, and time in which it was created?
• How did the tools and media influence your artistic product?
• How did other artists’ works influence your painting?

Unit 2 - Page 10 • Visual Arts - Open


Accommodations
• Show examples of what is expected in the assignment.
• Regularly review and repeat creation instructions.
• Simplify assignments when necessary.

Assessment/Evaluation Techniques
• Use similar Rubric format as in Appendix GG.

Health and Safety


• Ensure a clean environment by establishing a consistent clean-up routine.

Resources
Barron’s Art Handbook. Perspective and Composition. New York: Barron’s Educational Series, Inc.,
1999. ISBN 078415104-5
Brommer, Gerald. Discovering Art History, 3rd ed.,. Worcester MA: Davis Publications, 1997.
ISBN 0-87192-299-1
Cole, Alison. Perspective. Toronto: Stoddart, 1992. ISBN 0-77372623-3.
Naested, Irene Russell. Art in the Classroom. Toronto: Harcourt Bruce, 1998. ISBN 0774733578.
Reid, Dennis. A Concise History of Canadian Painting, 2nd ed. Toronto: Oxford University Press, 1988.
ISBN 019540663
Striegel, Oliver. Drawing in Perspective. New York: Sterling Publisher, 1998. ISBN 0-8069-42894.
Architecture & Art: Cultural Heritage Sites, set of photographic poster prints, The Getty Educational
Institute for the Arts and the J. Paul Getty Museum, Crystal Productions
History Through Art – The Middle Ages. CD-ROM.
Notre Dame, Cathedral of Amiens. Crystal Productions CD-ROM.

Activity 4: The Artist in the Community: Feeling Our Way Into Architecture
Time: 300 minutes

Description
Students analyse architecture from the past and present from a variety of cultural contexts, write a report
on an architectural example, and create an architectural design based on one of the buildings studied.
This design will become a low relief sculpture or collograph.

Strand(s) and Expectations


Strand(s): Theory, Creation, Analysis
Overall Expectations
THV.01 - demonstrate an understanding of the design process;
THV.02 - differentiate historical artworks by content, theme, style, techniques, and materials;
THV.03 - explain the social and historical context and the chronology of distinctive artistic styles;
CRV.01 - produce a work designed around specific objectives and challenges (e.g., composition issues,
subject matter, use of visual language);
CRV.02 - demonstrate the ability to take varied and creative approaches to using materials, tools,
processes, and technologies in studio activities;

Unit 2 - Page 11 • Visual Arts - Open


CRV.04 - use concepts of visual literacy in describing their activities;
ANV.01 - apply critical analysis processes to their art work and works studied;
ANV.03 - describe interrelationships among art, the consumer, and their community.
Specific Expectations
TH2.02 - demonstrate an understanding of a mid-segment of the Western art history timeline (e.g., the
Middle Ages etc.);
TH3.01 - explain how they have incorporated into their studio assignments characteristic materials and
expressive qualities of artworks studied;
TH3.02 - explain how their personal artworks have been influenced by works they have viewed in
galleries and museums;
TH3.03 - research the history of an art form, craft, or area of design (e.g., stone sculpture, textile, design,
pottery);
TH3.04 - describe similarities and differences between careers in design and fine art;
CR1.02 - use tools, materials, processes and technologies safely and appropriately;
CR1.03 - use research from various sources (e.g., books, databases, conversation with local artists) as
part of the creative process;
CR2.01 - demonstrate the ability to solve artistic problems and make creative choices when completing
artworks that reflect their concerns;
CR3.01 - use appropriate visual arts vocabulary in describing materials and processes;
CR3.02 - develop sketchbooks, a portfolio, and/or planners that document their personal art process;
CR3.03 - demonstrate the ability to review and evaluate the creative processes they use, as well as the
resulting artworks;
AN1.02 - analyse the formal composition of an example of art work from personal and/or historical
works studied;
AN1.03 - explain the significant expressive qualities of a work of art with reference to a list of possible
categories (e.g., sensory, formal, expressive, technical);
AN2.03 - describe how a culture shapes its art with reference to historical and contemporary examples
(e.g., Byzantine icons, Chinese landscape, painting in fifteenth century Europe, pre-Columbian pottery,
Warhol’s soup cans).

Planning Notes
• Examine Resources for information on architecture.
• Try to obtain two slide projectors for the first comparison exercise.
• Teachers may want to bring in a local museum director, urban planner, or architect to take part in
preparing the students for these activities. Careers dealing with architecture can become part of the
lesson.
• For the studio component of the assignment, recycled corrugated cardboard should be accumulated.
• The teacher encourages students to be more careful in their observations of the structure and design
of the buildings in their immediate environment. Take students on a tour of the school using the T-
chart criteria so that they become more familiar with architecture.

Prior Knowledge Required


• See Unit Overview.

Teaching/Learning Strategies
1. The teacher shows students pairs of images and compare and contrast architecture of the past to
contemporary architecture. Use two slide projectors or two sets of visual images.

Unit 2 - Page 12 • Visual Arts - Open


2. Give students a T-chart (see Appendix JJ for a sample) for a comparison and contrast exercise using
the following criteria:
• Structure
• Visual impression – scale
• Use of interior space
• Use of materials
• Decoration – colour
• Rhythm
• Distinctive elements (something unusual or unique in the building)
3. Show the slides or images and have the students look for the criteria listed above and complete the T-
chart accordingly.
4. When viewing the slides, have students look first at structure and then add historical information that
they may not be able to see easily.
5. Teachers may use the following T-chart as a guide to compare and contrast architectural structures.
In the presentation teachers may want to add other local examples. Other non-western examples
could be used such as The Hall of Supreme Harmony, Imperial Palace, (The Forbidden City) in
Beijing from the Ming Dynasty or the Meenakshi Temple in Madurai, India from the 17th century.
Structural Comparison T-Chart
Egyptian – Great Pyramid of Cheops, Giza, Greek – Post and lintel, Parthenon, Greece, 447
2530 B.C. – 432 B.C.
• Stacking technique giving structural • Vertical post support – lintel beams (i.e.,
strength through compression of building flat spanning members) to create interior
materials (solid). space.
Greek – Post and lintel, Parthenon, Greece, 447 Romanesque – St. Sernin, Toulouse, France,
– 432 B.C. 1080 – 1120 A.D.
• Vertical post support – lintel beams (i.e., • Posts support round arches. If the arch is
flat spanning members) to create interior continued in a linear fashion, the barrel
space. vault results and if the arch is rotated on an
axis, it results in a dome.
• Space spanned by the arch being round can
be elongated into a vault.
Romanesque – St. Sernin, Toulouse, France, Gothic – Reims Cathedral, France, 1210 A.D.
1080 – 1120 A.D. • The posts are spanned by compound arches
• Posts support round arches. If the arch is that meet at a point providing extra strength
continued in a linear fashion, the barrel and height.
vault results and if the arch is rotated on an
axis, it results in a dome.
• Space spanned by the arch being round can
be elongated into a vault.
Gothic – Reims Cathedral, France, 1210 A.D. Prefabricated Iron – Crystal Palace by Joseph
• The posts are spanned by compound arches Paxton, London, 1851
that meet at a point providing extra strength • Introduction of structural iron creates the
and height. first non-load bearing walls permitting use
of glass or non-structural wall coverings
known as curtain walls (as a skin-like
enclosure for the building).

Unit 2 - Page 13 • Visual Arts - Open


Prefabricated Iron – Crystal Palace by Joseph International Style – Bauhaus by Walter
Paxton, London, 1851 Gropius, Dresden, Germany, 1928
• Introduction of structural iron creates the • Reinforced concrete piers and floors
first non-load bearing walls permitting use provide wide expanses of open space on all
of glass or non-structural wall coverings floors requiring only an architectural skin
known as curtain walls (as a skin-like on the exterior.
enclosure for the building).
International Style – Bauhaus by Walter International Style – Falling Water (or the
Gropius, Dresden, Germany, 1928 Kaufmann House), by Frank Lloyd Wright,
• Reinforced concrete piers and floors Bear Run, Pennsylvania, USA, 1936.
provide wide expanses of open space on all • Displays architectural structural technique
floors requiring only an architectural skin of cantilevering (a lintel supported at only
on the exterior. one end)
International Style – Falling Water (or the Post-Modern – Museum of Civilization, Ottawa,
Kaufmann House), by Frank Lloyd Wright, by Douglas Cardinal, 1988
Bear Run, Pennsylvania, USA, 1936. • Uses the sensitivity of the First Nation’s
• Displays architectural structural technique People to integrate the natural material of
of cantilevering (a lintel supported at only stone into sculptural shapes inspired by the
one end) landscape.
Post-Modern – Museum of Civilization, Ottawa, Post-Modern – Guggenheim Museum, by Frank
by Douglas Cardinal, 1988 Gehry, Bilbao, Spain, 1998
• Uses the sensitivity of the First Nation’s • This most contemporary building integrates
People to integrate the natural material of the structural steel frame and skin-like
stone into sculptural shapes inspired by the exterior into a free-flowing sculptural form.
landscape.
6. The teacher may include a walking tour of buildings that have architectural significance in the local
community. The students examine these buildings using the same criteria from the T-chart
comparison activity.
7. Students research and write a report in their resource journal on one building in their community, or
from the slide discussion. In this report they analyse the structure of their chosen building and
speculate on any stylistic associations or influences they are able to observe. (See T-chart).
8. Studio Assignment: Students create an architectural design using the characteristics of one of the
buildings studied (theme, elements of style) and create a low relief structure by building up layers of
cardboard on a supportive flat base. This could either stand alone as a relief sculpture or be used as a
collograph type plate to press the forms of the design into a piece of paper using an embossing
technique.
• Gather corrugated cardboard, glue, and scissors.
• Students layer shapes of cardboard to create architectural detail.
• The resulting design should be sealed with white latex paint.
• This design can stand alone as a relief sculpture or can be embossed into paper with the use of a
printing press.
Teachers may also want to invite an architect or town planner into the classroom who can discuss an
arts career that involves collaboration with many other people.

Accommodations
• Provide additional time to complete written tasks/assignments.
• Buddy up a stronger student with one who could use encouragement and support.
• See Appendix B.

Unit 2 - Page 14 • Visual Arts - Open


Assessment/Evaluation Techniques
• A slide test can be used as an assessment tool. Students identify and write about characteristics of
style of a particular building.
• Students should be able to differentiate historical architectural examples by content, theme, style,
techniques, and materials.
• The teacher may design a rubric, in conjunction with the students, which can be used as a peer and/or
self-assessment instrument for the architectural relief assignment. Appendix H could be adapted for
this assessment.
• The written report may be assessed by the teacher using a rubric.
• Teachers may use a checklist to assess students’ planning notes in their resource journals.

Health and Safety


• Teachers need to stress the safe and proper use of sharp cutting tools.
• Different types of adhesives may used. Students should be made aware that white glue should be
used with caution and they are to avoid direct contact with skin or ingestion. Make pair of latex or
non-latex gloves available for students or provide applicators.
• Make students using a glue gun aware of the high temperature of the melting wax and the nozzle of
the gun.

Resources
Beckwith, John. Early Medieval Art. New York: Yale University Press, 1974. ISBN 0300052960
Brommer, Gerald F. Discovering Art History, 3rd Edition. Worcester MA: Davis Publications, 1997.
ISBN 0-87192291
Elsen, Albert E. Purposes of Art. Harcourt Brace & Co., 1981. ISBN 0-03-049766-3
Fleming, William. Arts and Idea, 9th Edition. Orlando: Harcourt & Brace & Co., 1994.
ISBN 0155011049
Horowitz, Frederick A. More Than You See, A Guide to Art, 2nd edition. Orlando: Harcourt, Brace
Jovanovich, 1995. ISBN 015564081x
Howarth, Eva. Crash Course in Architecture. Toronto: Doubleday Canada Ltd. 1990.
ISBN 0-8109-4284-4
Huyghe, Rene Larousse Encyclopedia of Prehistoric and Ancient Art. Toronto: Hamlyn, 1981
Janson, H.W. and Anthony F. Janson. A Basic History of Art, 5th Edition.. New York: Prentice Hall,
1992. ISBN 0-135787742
Lorrez, Albert. Metropolis, Ten Cities, Ten Centuries. New York: Harry N. Abrams, 1996.
ISBN 0-8109-4284-4
Macaulay, David. Cathedral, The Story of its Construction. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company, 1973.
ISBN 0-395-31668-5
Martindale, Andrew. Gothic Art. New York: Douglas and McIntyre, 1967. ISBN 0500200580
Mittler, Gene A. Art in Focus. Woodland Hills, CA: Glencoe McGraw-Hill, 1999. ISBN 0-02-662408-7
Saff, Donald and Deli Sacilotto. Printmaking: History and Process. Holt Rinehart & Winston 1997.
ISBN 0030856639
Strickland, Carol. The Annotated Mona Lisa: A Crash Course in Art History from Prehistoric to Post-
Modern. Kansas City: Andrews and McMeel, 1992. ISBN 0-8362-8005-9
The Visual Dictionary of Buildings. London: Dorling Kindersley Limited, 1992. ISBN 0-7737-2635-7

Unit 2 - Page 15 • Visual Arts - Open


Architecture & Art: Cultural Heritage Sites, Set of photographic poster prints, The Getty Educational
Institute for the Arts and the J. Paul Getty Museum, Crystal Productions
History Through Art – The Middle Ages. CD-ROM.
Notre Dame, Cathedral of Amiens. Crystal Productions CD-ROM.

Activity 5: Imaginary Place


Time: 360 minutes

Description
Place, time, and spaces can be linked to literature. In this mixed-media and collage project, students can
review perspective, colour, texture, and shape. Students work from a written source, such as a place in
literature, a medieval place from a story or poem, or a place described in a book. Students work to create
a visual image from a written literary source with mixed media on mat board.

Strand(s) and Expectations


Strand(s): Creation, Theory, Analysis
Overall Expectations
THV.01 - demonstrate an understanding of the design process;
CRV.01 - produce a work designed around specific objectives and challenges (e.g., composition issues,
subject matter, use of visual language);
CRV.02 - demonstrate the ability to take varied and creative approaches to using materials, tools,
processes, and technologies in studio activities;
CRV.03 - explain the importance of process in relation to the final product;
CRV.04 - use concepts of visual literacy in describing their art activities;
ANV.01 - apply critical analysis processes to their artwork and works studied;
ANV.02 - identify sensory, formal, expressive, and technical qualities in their own works and works
studied.
Specific Expectations
TH3.01 - explain how they have incorporated into their studio assignments characteristic materials and
expressive qualities of artworks studied;
TH3.02 - explain how their personal artworks have been influenced by works they have viewed in
galleries and museums;
CR1.02 - use tools, materials, processes, and technologies safely and appropriately;
CR1.03 - use research from various sources (e.g., books, databases, conversation with local artists) as
part of the creative process;
CR2.01 - demonstrate the ability to solve artistic problems and make creative choices when completing
artworks that reflect their concerns;
CR2.02 - demonstrate the ability to use an increasing range of tools, materials, processes and
technologies in producing works of fine art and applied design;
CR2.03 - execute sketches and drawings in an increasing variety of media;
CR3.02 - develop sketchbooks, a portfolio, and/or planners that document their personal art process;
CR3.03 - demonstrate the ability to review and evaluate the creative processes they use, as well as the
resulting artworks;
AN1.01 - describe the stages of the design process in a particular assignment;
AN1.02 - analyse the formal composition of an example of artwork from personal and/or historical works
studied;
AN2.02 - demonstrate an understanding of the use of symbols in creative expression.

Unit 2 - Page 16 • Visual Arts - Open


Planning Notes
• Teachers consult with their librarian regarding resource materials for this activity. They may want to
plan time in the library to conduct research.
• A variety of materials are required. Mat board pieces can serve as a good base. Students should be
encouraged to collect textured pieces of material, wrapping paper, etc., as they are researching their
subject.
• The independent nature of this project should serve as a lead-in to the final summative project where
students work with complete independence.
• Even through students will be collaborating with peers during the initial, creative-thinking process of
this activity, teachers should also encourage independence.

Prior Knowledge Required


• Students should have a basic knowledge of mixed media techniques and process.

Teaching/Learning Strategies
1. Teachers present the students with the following challenge:
• Select a passage from literature that describes an imaginary or real place.
• Review collage techniques and discuss how to apply these to create a mixed media or collage
composition involving use of two-point perspective, colour, texture, and shape.
2. Teachers may suggest some of the following resources:
• Invisible Cities, by Italo Calvino
• The Dictionary of Imaginary Places, by Alberto Manguel and Gianni Guadalupi
• Art House, by Graham Percy
• Metropolis, by Albert Lorenz.
3. Teachers act as resource guides in this project suggesting techniques, sources, and giving ongoing
critiques.
4. Teachers encourage students to solve creative problems by peer collaboration.
5. Teachers may act as “coaches” giving assessment feedback throughout the process of this
assignment.
6. A wide variety of materials should be available for student use: pen and ink (black and coloured ink),
oil pastel, watercolour, chalk pastel, tempera paint, glue, string, tissue paper, cardboard, mat board,
and found objects.
7. Students should keep an on-going visual and written diary in their resource journal on the
progression of the work in this project. This will help in the assessment process of their project.

Accommodations
• Provide class time for organizing material.
• Provide a checklist for completion of the assignment.
• Simplify techniques where necessary.
• Buddy up a stronger student with one who could use encouragement and support.

Assessment/Evaluation Techniques
• The students and the teacher collaborate on the development of the assessment process. A rubric
format may serve well in this instance. This should be developed after the students have finished
their research, but prior to starting the studio activity.
• This exercise should serve the students in discovering essential criteria for any creative project. It
also reinforces that they are required to meet specific criteria for their final summative project.

Unit 2 - Page 17 • Visual Arts - Open


Health and Safety
• Teachers need to stress the safe and proper use of sharp cutting tools.
• Different types of adhesives may used. Students should be made aware that white glue should be
used with caution and they are to avoid direct contact with skin or ingestion. Make pair of latex or
non-latex gloves available for students or provide applicators.

Resources
Bantock, Nick. Griffen and Sabine: An Extraordinary Correspondence. San Francisco: Chronicle Books,
1991. ISBN 0-87701-788-3
Brommer, Gerald F. Collage Techniques: A Guide for Artists and Illustrators. Watson-Guptill Publishing
1994. ISBN 0823006557
Calvino, Italo. Invisible Cities. Harcourt, Brace & Co.1978. ISBN 0156453800
Lorenz, Albert. Metropolis: Ten Cities, Ten Centuries. New York: Harry N.Abrams. 1996.
ISBN 0-8109-4284-4
Manguel, Alberto and Gianni Guadalupi. The Dictionary of Imaginary Places, Expanded Edition.
Canada: Knopf, 1999. 0676971989
Larbalestier, Simon, The Art and Craft of Collage. San Francisco: Chronical Books, 1995.
ISBN 0811808068
The Visual Dictionary of Buildings. London: Dorling Kindersley Limited, 1992. ISBN 0-7737-2695-7
Percy, Graham. Arthouse. San Francisco: Chronicle Books, 1994. ISBN 0-8118-0497-6

Unit 2 - Page 18 • Visual Arts - Open


Unit 3: The Artist Investigates the Mathematical Measurement of Art
Time: 25 hours

Unit Description
In this unit, students will investigate connections made between the importance of mathematical inquiry
and art in the Renaissance Period. The Ontario Curriculum, Grade 9 and 10, The Arts, 1999 states,
“Links can be made between the arts and other disciplines” (page 4). Any prior learning for Mathematics
that is applicable to this unit, would have occurred for students in Grades 1-8 Mathematics expectations
for geometry. Like the Renaissance artists, students will be encouraged to make “inquiries” about their
art and the processes available to them. They will learn to use mathematical ratios and a system of
proportions to create pleasing and balanced compositions. The three essential questions of this unit will
assist teachers in making mathematical connections to art.
Renaissance artists also drew upon the knowledge of the Greek and Romans. They also used ratios such
as the Golden Section, to create balanced and pleasing compositions. The Golden Section uses the
proportion of 1 to 1.6 to create balance in a composition. This ratio is also found in many objects in
nature, such as human anatomy, shell spirals, and natural spiral forms. Students will learn how to use this
ratio as they create their own painting.
Teachers can adapt the Golden Section painting formula for most students in their classroom. Teachers
will find suggestions for remediation, consolidation, and enrichment activities in this unit. Select the
appropriate activities based on your students’ abilities and needs. Refer to Appendix J to learn how to
construction the Golden Section.
Essential Questions:
How do artists use mathematical principles? Theory
What do artists create from mathematical models? Creation
How does art change through new discoveries? Analysis

Strand(s) and Expectations


Strand(s): Theory, Creation, Analysis
Overall Expectations
THV.01 - demonstrate an understanding of the design process;
THV.02 - differentiate historical artworks by content, theme, style, techniques, and materials;
THV.03 - explain the social and historical context and the chronology of distinctive artistic styles;
CRV.01 - produce a work designed around specific objectives and challenges (e.g., composition issues,
subject matter, use of visual language);
CRV.02 - demonstrate the ability to take varied and creative approaches to using materials, tools,
processes, and technologies in studio activities;
CRV.03 - explain the importance of process in relation to the final product;
CRV.04 - use concepts of visual literacy in describing their art activities;
ANV.01 - apply critical analysis processes to their artwork and works studied;
ANV.02 - identify sensory, formal, expressive, and technical qualities in their own works and works
studied;
Specific Expectations
TH1.01 - explain how compositions are altered by a change in design principles (e.g., contrast of lines
versus contrast of colour);
TH1.02 - describe the steps of the design process (i.e., specifications, research, experimentation,
preliminary sketches, prototypes, revision, presentation, reflection);
TH2.02 - demonstrate an understanding of a mid-segment of the Western art history timeline (e.g., the
Middle Ages);

Unit 3 - Page 1 • Visual Arts - Open


TH2.03 - produce a survey of a particular subject or medium through a period of time, noting stylistic
changes (e.g., posters, photography, typography);
TH3.01 - explain how they have incorporated into their studio assignments characteristic materials and
expressive qualities of artworks studied;
TH3.02 - explain how their personal artworks have been influenced by works they have viewed in
galleries and museums;
CR1.01 - use various strategies in creating images (e.g., symbolism, interpretation of same idea in both
two and three dimensions);
CR1.02 - use tools, materials, processes, and technologies safely and appropriately;
CR1.03 - use research from various sources (e.g., books, databases, conversations with local artists) as
part of the creative process;
CR2.01 - demonstrate the ability to solve artistic problems and make creative choices when completing
artworks that reflect their concerns;
CR2.02 - demonstrate the ability to use an increasing range of tools, materials, processes, and
technologies in producing works of fine art and applied design;
CR2.03 - execute sketches and drawings in an increasing variety of media;
CR2.04 - demonstrate ever-expanding use of technology in producing artworks;
CR3.01 - use appropriate visual arts vocabulary in describing materials and processes;
CR3.02 - develop sketchbooks, a portfolio, and/or planners that document their personal art process;
CR3.03 - demonstrate the ability to review and evaluate the creative processes they use, as well as the
resulting artworks;
AN1.01 - describe the stages of the design process followed in a particular assignment;
AN1.02 - analyse the formal composition of an example of artwork from personal and/or historical works
studied;
AN1.03 - explain the significant expressive qualities of a work of art with reference to a list of possible
categories (e.g., sensory, formal, expressive, technical);
AN1.04 - identify possible meanings of a work by referring to background information and specific
visual indicators;
AN2.02 - demonstrate an understanding of the use of symbols in creative expression;
AN2.03 - describe how a culture shapes its art with reference to historical and contemporary examples
(e.g., Byzantine icons, Chinese landscape, painting in fifteenth-century Europe, pre-Columbian pottery,
Warhol’s soup cans).

Activity Titles (Time + Sequence)


Activity 1 Renaissance Art Consultant 60 minutes
Activity 2 Math, Measurement, and the Golden Section (1380 minutes)
• Activity 2a Math and Measurement 120 minutes
• Activity 2b Figure Drawing 240 minutes
• Activity 2c The Golden Section 120 minutes
• Activity 2d Painting Composition: The Golden Section 900 minutes

Unit Planning Notes


• The resource journal should be used as an important visual, thinking, planning, and drawing
component of this course, and is a resource that will continue to be important throughout the
student’s high school experiences. See Appendix E – Resource Journal Organization.
• Advanced teacher planning and acquisition of quality slides and/or reproductions are suggested as
the variety of images used in lessons has a significant impact on the success of an activity.

Unit 3 - Page 2 • Visual Arts - Open


• Lessons need to be tailored to meet the needs of individual students within a class.
• Teachers could use Appendix X – The Resource Journal to access important material about the
resource journal.
• Find a prominent place in the classroom to post the three essential questions so teachers can easily
address these questions throughout the unit.

Prior Knowledge Required


Students are not required to complete Grade 9 Visual Arts as a prerequisite for Grade 10 Visual Arts;
however, they should have a prior learning of knowledge from the outcomes listed in The Ontario
Curriculum, Grades 1-8, The Arts Visual Arts. Students should be able to:
• apply an understanding of the elements and principles of design to personal, historical, and
contemporary artworks;
• differentiate artworks by period, style, method, and materials;
• demonstrate knowledge of a segment of early Western art history, Canadian art, and examples of the
art of other cultures, nations, and groups;
• demonstrate an understanding of career options in the visual arts;
• use materials and processes to create art objects that express their intent;
• apply the elements and principles of design;
• produce two- and three-dimensional artworks, using a variety of materials, tools, processes, and
technologies;
• apply the creative process (i.e., perception, exploration, experimentation, production, and evaluation)
in their work;
• apply a framework of critical analysis to their own and acknowledged artworks through participation
in a variety of art-viewing strategies;
• explain, through critical analysis, the function (e.g., political, religious, social) of their own artworks
and those of other cultures;
• demonstrate an understanding of connections between art and cultural identity or context.

Activity 1: Renaissance Art Consultant


Time: 120 minutes

Description
Students will take part in a short interactive exercise that will introduce them to the Renaissance time
period. This exercise will give them some of the tools that they will use in their major studio assignments
for this unit. See Appendix H – The Renaissance - Lesson Notes For Slides and Appendix I – A Study of
Natural Space and Perspective – Slide Notes for a list of characteristics for the Renaissance period.

Strand(s) and Expectations


Strand(s): Theory, Creation, Analysis
Overall Expectations
THV.02 - differentiate historical artworks by content, theme, style, techniques, and materials;
THV.03 - explain the social and historical context and the chronology of distinctive artistic styles;
ANV.01 - apply critical analysis processes to their artwork and works studied.
Specific Expectations
TH2.02 - demonstrate an understanding of a mid-segment of the Western art history timeline (e.g., the
Middle Ages);

Unit 3 - Page 3 • Visual Arts - Open


TH2.03 - produce a survey of a particular subject or medium through a period of time, noting stylistic
changes (e.g., posters, photography, typography);
AN1.02 - analyse the formal composition of an example of artwork from personal and/or historical works
studied;
AN1.03 - explain the significant expressive qualities of a work of art with reference to a list of possible
categories (e.g., sensory, formal, expressive, technical);
AN1.04 - identify possible meanings of a work by referring to background information and specific
visual indicators;
AN2.03 - describe how a culture shapes its art with reference to historical and contemporary examples
(e.g., Byzantine icons, Chinese landscape, painting in 15-century Europe, pre-Columbian pottery,
Warhol’s soup cans).

Planning Notes
• Teachers can support student learning with visuals by Renaissance artists. Discussions, displays of
portraits, mythological and religious subject matter, perspective, landscapes, and buildings in
perspective, from a variety of artists provide enrichment for students. Art postcards are a good
resource for the classroom.
• This activity is designed as a brief introduction to the concepts that will be explored more fully in the
following activities.
• Teachers should review their knowledge of Renaissance history, style, and themes (i.e., role of the
church in the arts) to be learned in this activity. See Appendix I – A Study of Natural Space and
Perspective – Slide Notes. Other themes are: realism and naturalism (the use of natural space, correct
mathematical perspective in landscapes and buildings, and the correct use of proportion in figures);
humanism (the dignity of man and the rise of the individual); unity (use of symmetry and balance in
composition); sacred arts versus secular arts.

Prior Knowledge Required


Students must be able to:
• differentiate artworks by period, style, method, and materials;
• apply a framework of critical analysis to their own and acknowledged artworks through participation
in a variety of art-viewing strategies;
• demonstrate group participation skills (co-operative group learning skills).

Teaching/Learning Strategies
1. Preparation for Activity:
• The teacher can divide students into cooperative groups of four or five when they enter the
classroom. Each group will receive approximately five to eight postcards or images of
Renaissance art. (The teacher could provide one general art history textbook per group as a
supplement or substitute for the postcards.) Suggestions for images may include: Uccello,
Masaccio, Piero della Francesca, Leonardo da Vinci, Raphael, Mantegna, Botticelli, Ghiberti,
and Michelangelo (see Appendix I – A Study of Natural and Perspective - Slide Notes for
information on Renaissance artists).
• Explain to students that their group will be put into an imaginary situation with a problem to
solve. Groups will present their solution next class.
• The teacher should take care to present this activity to the students both verbally and visually.
Teachers may also choose to hand out an outline of the activity to each group.
2. The Assignment:
• Each student is a member of an art consultant firm in Florence, Italy, during the Renaissance.
Each group of students represents a different firm and they are bidding for a contract to furnish

Unit 3 - Page 4 • Visual Arts - Open


the home of the Great Cosimo de Medici. (The Medici family were important merchants in the
city of Florence. They commissioned many artists to create artworks which have become famous
today.) The teacher could choose to dress or role-play the part of a Medici family member for
this class.
• The client, Medici, insists that his designers (the students) select the most significant paintings
that will represent the important themes of the Renaissance. Students may use their resource
journals from Unit 2 to research and supplement their presentations.
The themes are:
− realism and naturalism (the ability to show natural space and use of perspective and also
correct anatomy);
− humanism (the dignity of humans and the importance of individual expression);
− unity (balance and symmetry in composition);
− sacred art themes versus secular art themes.
• The client would also like a description of the differences between the new content, style, theme,
techniques, and materials of the Renaissance and the old content, style, theme, techniques and
materials of the Medieval (Gothic and Romanesque) in the presentation. The essential question,
“How does art change through new discoveries?”, can be a focus for discussion and student
research.
3. Homework Assignment: Careers
• Students will research what an art consultant or interior designer does. They will investigate the
training and qualifications required for this profession. This work is to be done in their resource
journal. Students are encouraged to find newspaper and magazine articles or any other visuals
that relate to this profession. The Student Services or Guidance Department has career and
educational training information that students can access.
4. Wrap Up and Critique:
• Group presentations should be limited to five minutes. Students should present their choices with
reasons for their selection. They should mention the characteristics of Renaissance style that are
present in their choices. Teachers can refer to Appendix H – The Renaissance - Lesson Notes For
Slides. A T-chart (see Appendix Z – T-chart for Comparisons) can be used by each group to
record similarities and differences between Renaissance and medieval as they are preparing for
this assignment.
5. Alternate Teaching Activity (This is a simpler categorizing and prioritizing exercise that could
replace the Renaissance art consultant activity in Strategies 1-4.):
• The teacher will gather a number of visual examples from medieval art that show:
− a less natural demonstration of perspective than art of later periods;
− significant use of symbolism (many medieval paintings contained religious symbols that
explained the story of the painting);
− the use of flattened space as opposed to natural recession (often artists would not show depth
in their paintings because it was not the most important feature of the painting);
• Examples might also include the Medieval concept of “fear of empty spaces.” Horror Vacui
causes the artist to fill the whole composition with design elements that are not compatible with
natural space or perspective.
• For comparison, the teacher will provide strong examples of Renaissance paintings and sculpture that
show the progression to a more natural use of space, volume, and recession. These examples may
include: Leonardo da Vinci’s The Last Supper and/or Masaccio’s The Tribute Money. (See Appendix
I – A Study of Natural Space and Perspective - Slide Notes for further information on Renaissance
artists and Resources for books on the Renaissance)
• The teacher can place the students in groups of four or five with sufficient examples for each group.

Unit 3 - Page 5 • Visual Arts - Open


• Students prepare for a short presentation outlining their findings. They are to sort the visual examples
into two distinct groups (Renaissance and medieval) and provide an explanation as to their criteria
for their own particular sorting process.

Assessment/Evaluation Techniques
• The teacher will use a rubric for evaluation of each group’s presentation. See Appendix FF – Group
Assessment Suggestions

Accommodations
• See Appendix B – Modifications to Meet Student Needs

Resources
Beckett, Sister Wendy. Sister Wendy’s Grand Tour – Discovering Europe’s Great Art. New York:
Stewart Tabori and Chang, 1994. ISBN 1-55670-509-3.
Beckett, Sister Wendy. The Story of Painting. Toronto: Little Brown Canada, 1994.
ISBN: 0-316-70264-1
Brommer, Gerald F. Discovering Art History, 3rd edition. Worcester, MA: Davis Publications, 1999.
ISBN 0-87192-299-1.
Cassin, Michael. More Than Meets the Eye. A Closer Look at Paintings in the National Gallery. London,
England: National Gallery Publications, 1987. ISBN 0-947645-03
Elsen, Albert. Purposes of Art. Harcourt Brace & Company, 1995. ISBN 0030116155
Fleming, William. Art and Ideas, 9th edition. Harcourt Brace & Company, 1994. ISBN 0155011049
Janson, Anthony. History of Art. Prentice Hall, 1995. ISBN 0810934213
Kagan, Spencer. Co-Operative Learning. San Juan: Kagan Co-Operative Learning 1993.
ISBN 1-879097-10-9
Kissick, John. Art Context and Criticism 2nd. Boston: McGraw-Hill, 1996. ISBN 0-69726613-3
Murray, Linda. Art of the Renaissance. 1985. ISBN 050020084
Mittler, Gene A. Art in Focus. New York: Macmillan/McGraw-Hill, 1994. ISBN 0-02-662312-9
Strickland, Carol. The Annotated Mona Lisa. Kansas City: Andrews & McMeel, 1992.
ISBN 0-9362-8005-9

Activity 2: Math, Measurement, and the Golden Section


Time: 1380 minutes

Description
Students discover how Renaissance artists applied and used principles of mathematics, measurement,
and, specifically, the Golden Section to achieve balanced compositions. (The Golden Section is a
mathematical ratio that is aesthetically pleasing. It has been used extensively by artists from the ancient
Greek times up to present day.)
Students will look at the geometric patterns and characteristics of the Renaissance. (See Appendix H –
The Renaissance - Lesson Notes for Study and Appendix I – A Study of Natural Space and Perspective-
Slide Notes.) Exercises in writing, figure drawing, composition, and painting will enhance student
understanding of the Renaissance period. (A brief study of the Mannerist style could provide additional
characteristics of the period that differ from traditional Renaissance thinking.)

Unit 3 - Page 6 • Visual Arts - Open


Strand(s) and Expectations
Strand(s): Theory, Creation, Analysis
Overall Expectations
THV.01 - demonstrate an understanding of the design process;
THV.02 - differentiate historical artworks by content, theme, style, techniques, and materials;
THV.03 - explain the social and historical context and the chronology of distinctive artistic styles;
CRV.01 - produce a work designed around specific objectives and challenges (e.g., composition issues,
subject matter, use of visual language);
CRV.02 - demonstrate the ability to take varied and creative approaches to using materials, tools,
processes, and technologies in studio activities;
CRV.03 - explain the importance of process in relation to the final product;
CRV.04 - use concepts of visual literacy in describing their art activities;
ANV.01 - apply critical analysis processes to their artwork and works studied;
ANV.02 - identify sensory, formal, expressive, and technical qualities in their own works and works
studied.
Specific Expectations
TH1.01 - produce a work designed around specific objectives and challenges (e.g., composition issues,
subject matter, use of visual language);
TH1.02 - describe the steps of the design process (i.e., specifications, research, experimentation,
preliminary sketches, prototypes, revision, presentation, reflection);
TH2.02 - demonstrate an understanding of a mid-segment of the Western art history timeline (e.g., the
Middle Ages);
TH3.01 - explain how they have incorporated into their studio assignments characteristic materials and
expressive qualities of artworks studied;
TH3.02 - explain how their personal artworks have been influenced by works they have viewed in
galleries and museums;
CR1.01 - use various strategies in creating images (e.g., symbolism, interpretation of same idea in both
two and three dimensions);
CR1.02 - use tools, materials, processes, and technologies safely and appropriately;
CR1.03 - use research from various sources (e.g., books, databases, conversations with local artists) as
part of the creative process;
CR2.01 - demonstrate the ability to solve artistic problems and make creative choices when completing
artworks that reflect their concerns;
CR2.02 - demonstrate the ability to use an increasing range of tools, materials, processes, and
technologies in producing works of fine art and applied design;
CR2.03 - execute sketches and drawings in an increasing variety of media;
CR3.01 - use appropriate visual arts vocabulary in describing materials and processes;
CR3.02 - develop sketchbooks, a portfolio, and/or planners that document their personal art process;
CR3.03 - demonstrate the ability to review and evaluate the creative processes they use, as well as the
resulting artworks;
AN1.01 - describe the stages of the design process followed in a particular assignment;
AN1.02 - analyse the formal composition of an example of artwork from personal and/or historical works
studied;
AN1.04 - identify possible meanings of a work by referring to background information and specific
visual indicators;
AN2.02 - demonstrate an understanding of the use of symbols in creative expression.

Unit 3 - Page 7 • Visual Arts - Open


Planning Notes
• Teachers need to be comfortable with background information on the Renaissance. See Appendix H
– The Renaissance - Lesson For Slides and Appendix I – A Study of Natural Space and Perspective-
Slide Notes for Renaissance information and a sample lesson notes. See Resources for more
reference books.
• Teachers should use good quality slides or good quality reproductions for the directed teaching
sections. Most art textbooks should provide adequate images if slides or reproductions are not
available.
• The figure drawing activity can be best achieved with student models.
• Materials for figure drawing should include newsprint, and conte crayon or oil pastel. See Appendix
A.
• Materials for the painting based on the Golden Section could include watercolour, tempera, or
acrylic. Surfaces can include mat board in various sizes, watercolour paper, or Mayfair cover stock.
• Teachers can vary the size of the composition based on time available and the needs and skills of the
students.
• For step-by-step instructions to apply the Golden Section rectangle, see Appendix J.
• Review of colour theory (e.g., colour wheel, primary, secondary, complementary, analogous, etc.)
can be minimized if review was already done in Unit 2.
• If information was provided for painting techniques in Unit 2 (e.g., watercolour – use of washes,
glazing, transparencies), it is not necessary to repeat this information in Unit 3. If students are using
tempera or acrylic paints for this assignment the teachers may want to review or introduce colour
mixing, blending, scumbling, and other paint application techniques.
• Teachers are encouraged to take colour slides and photographs of the successful projects. These
serve as important visual examples for the next time this activity is performed.
• Teachers can photocopy Appendices H and I for any special needs students as an additional support.
• Teachers can photocopy Appendix J for students as a reference for constructing the Golden Section
rectangle for the painting assignment.

Prior Knowledge Required


• Use of materials and process to create art objects that express their intent (from The Ontario
Curriculum, Grades 9 and 10, The Arts, 1999)
• Application of the creative process (i.e., perception, exploration, experimentation, production, and
evaluation) in their work (from The Ontario Curriculum, Grades 9 and 10, The Arts, 1999)
• Painting techniques learned in Unit 2
• Colour theory and application learned in Unit 2
• Any necessary measurement and geometric concepts for this activity have been covered in Grades 1-
9, the Mathematics Curriculum.

Unit 3 - Page 8 • Visual Arts - Open


Teaching/Learning Strategies
Activity 2a: Math and Measurement (120 minutes)
• Teachers will use the lesson notes in Appendix H – The Renaissance - Lesson Notes For Slides, and
Appendix I – A Study of Natural Space and Perspective - Slides Notes to introduce the study of
Renaissance artists. In the lesson, the teacher can ask students to look for triangular structure (how
the designs are arranged in triangles) in the images. Also have students look for examples of
perspective and vanishing points in the images. The essential questions “How do artists use
mathematical principles?” and “What do artists create from mathematical models?” can be used as an
anticipatory set for students at the beginning of the lesson. These questions should be prominently
displayed for the lesson. Students will discover that Renaissance artists used mathematical grids,
one- and two-point perspective, the Golden Section, and complex compositional plans. See Appendix
I for information on Renaissance artists.
• As students explore the mathematics of the Renaissance period, they can also explore the answers to
the essential questions though short activities of inquiry. (There are a number of books that offer a
variety of creative thinking and inquiry strategies listed in Resources. See Landa, R., Perkins, D.,
Wiggins, G.E., McTighe, J., Roukes, N., and Schwartz, S. Also see Appendices P, Q, R, S, T, U, and
V.)
• The lesson could end with a brief written assignment. Students will write notes for a tour guide who
is discussing three Renaissance images. The students should include information they discovered
about natural space, triangular structure, and perspective. Points made should be supported with
evidence from the paintings.
Activity 2b: Figure Drawing (240 minutes)
To reinforce the idea of measurement, proportion, study of anatomy, and observation, teachers will
conduct a series of lessons on figure drawing. Teachers could use a model, slides of people, or paintings
and sculptures with people as subject matter for students to sketch from. Exercises (see Appendix A)
could include:
a) gesture drawings (one minute poses) (60 minutes);
b) contour drawings (5- to 10-minute poses) (60 minutes);
c) positive-negative space studies (5-minute poses) (60 minutes);
d) geometric analysis of the figure (5-minute poses) (60 minutes).
• Teachers are encouraged to provide the students with a variety of media for exploration and
experimentation. Paper size should be large (18 x 24 inches) as students are encouraged to work
freely and observe closely.
• Teachers should consult Resources for a variety of books on figure drawing.
• The drawings produced in this activity will be used for the Golden Section painting later in this
unit.
Activity 2c: Golden Section (120 minutes)
A goal of this exercise is to familiarize students with the Golden Section. Teachers can plan the lessons
using a variety of teaching strategies with exercises using student inquiry. (See Appendices P, Q, R, S, T,
U, and V.) All three essential questions for this unit can be included in teacher lessons that are developed
for this unit outline.
• Note: The Golden Section is the mathematical ratio based on the proportion 1 to1.6. The Golden
Rectangle is the geometric shape made with this ratio.
• Teachers will instruct the students how to construct a Golden Rectangle. Demonstrate that the
concern is not only the external ratio (1 to 1.6), but also with internal structure and the relationship to
the whole composition. (See Appendix J.) The appendix should be provided for student reference.

Unit 3 - Page 9 • Visual Arts - Open


• After examining the structure and construction of the Golden Section, teachers should then provide
historical background on the use of the Golden Section in mathematics, nature, and art. Possible
historical examples may include: the Parthenon, Athens; Piero della Francesca – Baptism of Christ
and Resurrection; Georges Seurat – The Parade; Leonardo da Vinci – Devine Proportion of Man;
Edward Hopper – Automat and Office at Night. See Resources for books. Students can begin to attain
the concept by applying the Golden Section ratio to these historic examples. Students could use
plastic overlays on Renaissance images to determine how the Golden Section was used.
• Studies in nature showing spirals in the Golden Section may include sea shells, snails, and certain
proportions of the human body (see Sacred Geometry, by Robert Lawlor, in Resources for further
information). Tactile objects from nature for students to explore, are beneficial in this unit.
Activity 2d: Painting Composition Assignment: The Golden Section (900 minutes)
This activity should be taught in sequence for student success.
1. Subject Matter and Composition: Students structure the under drawings for their paintings.
Students will create an expressive composition using the studies from their figure drawing. This is
done on the painting surface (could be paper or canvas board, or stretched canvas). Students have a
number of options as they create their composition:
Option A
Students section off their painting surface into a series of squares and rectangles according to the
Golden Section. (See Appendix J for the guidelines for the Golden Section.) Each space is then filled
with a different drawing. Students would choose one of the two following variations that the teacher
could suggest for students to approach the drawings in each square or rectangle.
Variation 1: Fill each square or rectangle with a different drawing from the figure drawing lessons.
Variation 2: Choose one strong drawing from the drawing lessons. Prepare two viewfinders. To do
this, cut a small square (approximately 1 cm) out of the centre of one 8 ½ x 11 piece of paper, and,
rectangle (approximately 1×1.6 cm) out of the centre of the second 8 ½ x 11 piece of paper. Look at
the chosen drawing through the viewfinders. Move either of the viewfinders in closer to the eye, and
gradually out further, away from the eye with the arm extended. Choose different views of that
original drawing, as seen through different positions of the viewfinder, to fill drawings into the
different squares and rectangles of their painting surface.
Option B
They may want to incorporate the spiral form in creating their composition. See Appendix J for the
guidelines for the Golden Section.
Students may find that they can create Golden Section compositions without placing square and
rectangle boundary lines on the actual painting surface.
2. Style: Students discover how to use colour and distortion in their paintings – students may want to
add some elements of distortion to the drawings on their painting surface.
a) Use of colour
The use of colour can be expressive. Teachers should discuss the emotional effect of colour use
and selection. Examples of expressive colour are: Picasso’s Blue Period (Old Guitarist); Edvard
Munch – The Scream (1893); Georgia O’Keeffe – The White Trumpet Flower (1932); and Henri
Mattise – The Dance (1909) – The Red Studio (1911).
b) Use of Distortion
In composition planning, teachers may want to discuss distortion. They should show examples of
the distortion of the figure found in the Mannerism time period.
• Mannerism is the time period which immediately followed the Renaissance. It provides a strong
counterpoint to unity and perfection. Mannerist artists distorted and broke every rule that the
Renaissance artists discovered. Examples would be Michelangelo – The Last Judgment – Sistine
Chapel (1534-41); Palestrina and Rondanini Pietas; Parmigianino – Madonna with the Long

Unit 3 - Page 10 • Visual Arts - Open


Neck (c1534), and Jacopo Carucci da Pontormo – Deposition (c.1528); and Bronzino’s Allegory
(1503).
Methodology Finished Painting- Timeline for Painting Composition (2d)
Sketches (30 minutes) • Have students create a series of thumbnail sketches in their resource
(homework) journal or sketchbook. They can work from their figure drawings and
information on the Golden Section.
Composition Selection • Composition selection should be based upon at least four thumbnail
(thumbnail sketches in sketches. Teachers can use self, peer, or teacher critiques to help
resource journal) (60 students choose their best composition. Teachers may want to take
minutes) this opportunity to review principles of design and composition to
reinforce good work from students.
Drawing Study (60 • Students should select their best composition and draw a larger
minutes) (homework) finished study before transferring onto the painting surface.
Preparation of • The surface that the students will paint upon should be
Painting Surface (60 approximately 18 x 24 inches depending on their measurement for
minutes) their Golden Rectangle. Smaller painting surfaces are possible and
teachers will then be required to make the appropriate changes to the
class time allotted for this major art assignment. See Appendix J to
measure for smaller painting surfaces.
Tempera/Acrylic • Teachers should introduce tempera or acrylic painting to their
Painting (60 minutes) students if it has not been taught previously.
• Students should be exposed to the following:
- use of cold and warm colours;
- use of earth tones;
- proper use of brushes (flats not rounds);
- application of paint (thick vs. thin) – building layers;
- impasto and use of textures;
- colour mixing;
- colour modulation (changing the quality of colour by the addition
of hues).
• Some suggestions to facilitate this learning would be rotating
students through stations or using co-operative learning jigsaw
strategies.
Painting Time (600 • Class time given to complete painting assignment.
minutes)
Student Reflection • Students should have the opportunity to reflect in their journals on
(homework) (30 their experiences in this assignment. A focus could be the essential
minutes) questions.
Remediation, Consolidation, Enrichment Golden Section Activity (The following activities could
be developed further by the teacher and replace portions of this unit.)
• Portrait Drawing and Portrait Sculpture:
A lesson on correct proportions of the head and face based on directed observation. Discuss
correct placement of features using a measuring instrument such as a ruler. Draw self-portraits
and portraits of fellow students. Draw profile views. Compare with examples from the
Renaissance (Michelangelo – David (1501-04); Botticelli – Birth of Venus (1482); Giuseppe
Archimboldo (1527-1593); Leonardo da Vinci – Mona Lisa (1503-05).
Projects may include self-portraits in chalk or conte crayon dressed in the costume of a

Unit 3 - Page 11 • Visual Arts - Open


Renaissance painting, portraits in clay (life size or smaller) - three-dimensional or raised profile
relief.
• Special Needs Students:
Have students draw a different image or design in each section of a teacher-designed template.
• Research Projects
Students assume the identity of a Renaissance artist and produce a diary, secret notebook or
series of personal letters. (e.g., Botticelli, Artemisia Gentileschi, Leonardo da Vinci,
Michelangelo, Raphael)
• Clothing. Create a school uniform based on Renaissance style clothing.
• Photography. Recreate a Renaissance painting or sculpture by the use of black and white
photography.
• Household Items. Design cutlery and plates in the Renaissance style.
• Furniture. Design a piece of furniture or household appliance in the Renaissance Style (e.g., a
Bathtub for Botticelli, a staircase for Albrecht Dürer, Renaissance wallpaper for Michelangelo,
tableware for Leonardo, a kitchen for Hieronymous Bosch).
• Tessellation: The Geometry of Imagination – An activity based on transformational geometry
and the mathematical tessellations developed by M.C. Escher.
It will provide students with another example of mathematical applications to visual arts.
Students could explore how shape and movement are used creatively. The precision of geometry
and the creative qualities of art find a connection.

Accommodations
• Students with respiratory problems should avoid using charcoal.
• Ensure that the classroom is properly ventilated with an exhaust fan or window ventilation.

Assessment/Evaluation Techniques
• Informal: Ongoing and frequent assessment through rubrics, feedback sheets, self-evaluation sheets,
and checklists, by the teacher and student, are recommended throughout this unit (e.g., participation
in group discussions, peer evaluations, and critiques). This will keep students accountable and aware
of their overall progress.
• Formal: The final painting assignment will be evaluated by using a rubric. See Appendix G. The
rubric should be given out prior to students starting this project.
• Written work: One-page proposals or assessments of their compositions can reinforce the discussion
on the essential questions.
• Resource Journals: Students should be using their Resource Journals as a reference from previous
units and to collect art history and technical information. Note-keeping in the journal is also a
possibility.

Health and Safety


• Students with respiratory problems should avoid using charcoal.
• Ensure the classroom is properly vented with an exhaust fan or window ventilation.

Resources
Barron’s Art Handbooks: Perspective and Composition. New York: Barron’s Educational Series Inc.,
1999. ISBN 0-7641-5104-5
Beckett, Sister Wendy. The Story of Painting. Toronto: Little Brown Canada, 1994.
ISBN 0-316-70264-1
Brommer, Gerald F. Discovering Art History, 3rd edition. Worcester, MA: Davis Publications, 1999.
ISBN 0-87192-299-1

Unit 3 - Page 12 • Visual Arts - Open


Brommer, Gerald F. Exploring Drawing. Worcester, MA: Davis Publications, 1988.
ISBN 87192-190-X
Brommer, Gerald F. and Nancy Kinne. Exploring Painting. Worcester, MA: Davis Publications, 1988.
ISBN 0-87192-191-X
Cassin, Michael. More Than Meets the Eye: A closer look at paintings in the National Gallery. London:
National Gallery Publications, 1987. ISBN 0 947645 03 9
Elsen, Albert. Purposes of Art. Harcourt Brace & Company, 1995. ISBN 0030116155
Escher, M.C. Twenty-Nine Master Prints. 1983. ISBN 0810922681
Escher, M.C. World of M.C. Escher. ISBN 0451799615
Fleming, William. Art and Ideas, 9th edition. Harcourt Brace & Company, 1994. ISBN 0155011049
Frank, Helen, M. An Invitation to See 125 Paintings from the Museum of Modern Art. New York: The
Museum of Modern Art, 1984. ISBN 0-87070-230-0
Frayling, Helen. The Art Pack. 1992. ISBN 0679414193
Goldstein, Nathan. The Art of Responsive Drawing. ISBN 0135979315
Guerrilla Girls. The Guerrilla Girls’ Bedside Companion to the History of Western Art. New York:
Penguin Books, 1998. ISBN 0-14-025997-X
Janson, Anthony. History of Art. Prentice Hall, 1995. ISBN 0810934213
Janson, H.W. History of Art for Young People. New York: Abrams, 1971.
Kagan, Spencer. Cooperative Learning. California: Kagan Cooperative Learning, 1993.
ISBN 1-879097-10-9
Kissick, John. Art Context and Criticism, Second Edition. Boston: McGraw-Hill, 1996.
ISBN 0-69726613-3
Landa, Robin. Thinking Creatively (New Ways to Unlock Your Visual Imagination). Cincinnati: North
Light Books, 1998. ISBN 0-89134-843-3
Lawlor, Robert. Sacred Geometry. London: Thames and Hudson, 1989. ISBN 0500810303
Lohan, Frank, J. The Drawing Handbook. Chicago: Contemporary Books, 1993. ISBN 0-8092-3786-5
Lucchesi, Bruno. Modelling the Head in Clay. New York: Watson Guptill, 1996. ISBN 0823030997
Lyons, Deborah and Weinberg, Adam D. Edward Hopper and The American Imagination. New York:
W.W. Norton and Company, 1995. ISBN 08-393-31329-8
Mayer, R. and S. Sheehan. The Artist’s Handbook of Materials and Techniques. Toronto: Penguin Books,
1991. ISBN 0670837016
Mittler, Gene A. Art In Focus. McGraw-Hill, 1994. ISBN 0-02-662312-9
Murray, Linda. Art of the Renaissance. 1985. ISBN 050020084
Muhlberger, Richard. What Makes a Raphael a Raphael. New York: Metropolitan Museum of Art, 1993.
ISBN 0-87099-67-1
Nicolaides, Kimon. The Natural Way to Draw. Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1975. ISBN 0-395-20548-4
Percy, Graham. Arthouse. San Francisco, CA: Chronical Books, 1994. ISBN 0-81180497-6
Perkins, D. The Intelligent Eye: Learning to Think by Looking at Art. 1994. ISBN 0892362-74X
Rossol, M. The Artist’s Complete Health and Safety Guide. New York: Allworth Press, 1994.
Roukes, Nicholas. Art Synectics. Massachusetts: Davis Publications, 1984. ISBN 0-87192-151-0
Roukes, Nicholas. Design Synectics. Massachusetts: Davis Publications, 1988. ISBN 87192-198-7
Schneider, Norbert. The Art of the Portrait. Germany: Benedikt Taschen Verlag, 1994. ISBN 382289619
Schwartz, S. and M. Bone. Retelling, Relating, Reflecting: Beyond the 3R’s. 1990.

Unit 3 - Page 13 • Visual Arts - Open


Strickland, Carol. The Annotated Mona Lisa. Kansas City: Andrews & McMeel, 1992.
ISBN 0-8362-8005-9
Stoops, Jack and Jerry Samuelson. Design Dialogue. Massachusetts: Davis Publications, 1983.
ISBN 087192-139-1
Wallar, Wallace. M.C. Escher, Kaleiclocycles. 1985. ISBN 0906212286
Wiggins, G. and J. McTighe. Understanding by Design. Alexandria, VA: Association for Supervision,
1998. ISBN 0871203138
Wiley, John. The Art of Colour. 1974. ISBN 0471289280
CD-ROMs
Microforum. da Vinci’s Machines. 1997.
Eyeware. Escher Interactive. 1996.
Corbus. Leonardo da Vinci. 1996.

Unit 3 - Page 14 • Visual Arts - Open


Unit 4 The Artist Makes A Statement
Time: 20 hours
Unit Developers: Susan Jones, Rhonda Johnson, Susan Pidlubny, Teresa Reeves, Cyrel Troster, Alan
Wilkinson
Development Date: October 1999 and March 2000

Unit Description
The central focus in Unit 4 is on exploring the role of the artist in society. Students apply their fine art
experiences and skills to applied arts such as craft, and commercial art, posters, banner design, and
fashion design. They also produce a functional and wearable art object. Students examine current and
past issues in Canadian and contemporary art. They look at artists who have taken a political stand in
their artistic expression. The three essential questions will help students focus their research for their
designs.

Essential Questions
How does an artist influence the production of art objects? Theory
Do artists need to create a reaction from the viewer through their work? Creation
How does an artist determine what is art and what is not? Analysis

Strand(s) and Expectations


Strand(s): Theory, Creation, Analysis

Overall Expectations
THV.01 - demonstrate an understanding of the design process;
THV.04 - identify the skills required in various visual arts and art-related careers;
CRV.01 - produce a work designed around specific objectives and challenges (e.g., composition issues,
subject matter, use of visual language);
CRV.02 - demonstrate the ability to take varied and creative approaches to using materials, tools,
processes, and technologies in studio activities;
CRV.03 - explain the importance of process in relation to the final product;
CRV.04 - use concepts of visual literacy in describing their art activities;
ANV.01 - apply critical analysis processes to their artwork and works studied;
ANV.02 - identify sensory, formal, expressive, and technical qualities in their own works and works;
ANV.03 - describe interrelationships among art, the consumer, and the community.

Specific Expectations
TH1.01 - explain how compositions are altered by a change in design principles (e.g., contrast of lines
versus contrast of colour;
TH1.02 - explain how compositions are altered by a change in design principles (e.g., contrast of lines
versus contrast of colour);
TH3.02 - explain how their personal artworks have been influenced by works they have viewed in
galleries and museums
TH3.03 - research the history of an art form, craft, or area of design (e.g., stone sculpture, textile design,
pottery);
TH3.04 - describe similarities and differences between careers in design and fine art;
CR1.01 - use various strategies in creating images (e.g., symbolism, interpretation of same idea in both
two and three dimensions);

Unit 4 - Page 1 • Visual Arts - Open


CR1.03 - use research from various sources (e.g., books, data bases, conversations with local artists) as
part of the creative process;
CR2.01 - demonstrate the ability to solve artistic problems and make creative choices when completing
artworks that reflect their concerns;
CR2.02 - demonstrate the ability to use an increasing range of tools, materials, processes, and
technologies in producing works of fine art and applied design;
CR2.03 - execute sketches and drawings in an increasing variety of media;
CR2.04 - demonstrate ever-expanding use of technology in producing artworks;
CR3.01 - use appropriate visual arts vocabulary in describing materials and processes;
CR3.02 - develop sketchbooks, a portfolio, and/or planners that document their personal art process;
CR3.03 - demonstrate the ability to review and evaluate the creative processes they use;
AN1.01 - describe the stages of the design process followed in a particular assignment;
AV1.02 - analyse the formal composition of an example of artwork from personal and/or historical works
studied;
AN1.03 - explain the significant expressive qualities of a work of art with reference to a list of possible
categories (e.g., sensory, formal, expressive, technical);
AN1.04 - identify possible meanings of a work of art by refering to background information and specific
indicators;
AN2.02 - demonstrate an understanding of the use of symbols in creative expression.

Activity Titles (Time + Sequence)


Activity 1 Canadian Identity Through Art? 60 minutes
Activity 2 Banners Make a Statement – Discovering Symbolism 300 minutes
Activity 3 Spread the Message: Using Printmaking for Multiple Images 540 minutes
Activity 4 Wearable Art: I Am My Art 180 minutes
Activity 5 Artists Who Care About the World 120 minutes

Unit Planning Notes


• Display the three essential questions in a prominent place in the classroom so they can be addressed
throughout the unit.
• The resource journal is an important visual, thinking, planning, and drawing component of this
course.
• Students use a wide range of materials in this unit. Teachers plan the storage, distribution and use of
materials carefully.
• Health and Safety considerations should be examined in this unit. Make sure to use water-based inks
and materials in the printmaking activity.
• Teachers find contemporary images needed for many of the activities on the Internet at museum web
sites and in current art magazines.

Prior Knowledge Required


• Students apply knowledge and skills gained from previous units.

Unit 4 - Page 2 • Visual Arts - Open


Activity 1: Canadian Identity Through Art?
Time: 60 minutes

Description
These activities are designed to make the students cognisant of the symbols that people associate with the
identity of a particular group. They become aware of the unique aspects of our Canadian identity and
gain an understanding of both positive and negative aspects of symbolism.

Strand(s) and Expectations


Strand(s): Theory, Creation, Analysis
Overall Expectations
THV.01 - demonstrate an understanding of the design process;
CRV.01 - produce a work designed around specific objectives and challenges (e.g., composition issues,
subject matter, use of visual language);
CRV.04 - use concepts of visual literacy in describing their art activities;
ANV.02 - identify sensory, formal, expressive, and technical qualities in their own works and works of
others;
ANV.03 - describe interrelationships among art, the consumer, and the community.
Specific Expectations
CR1.01 - use various strategies in creating images (e.g., symbolism, interpretation of same idea in both
two and three dimensions);
CR2.01 - demonstrate the ability to solve artistic problems and make creative choices when completing
artworks that reflect their concerns;
CR3.03 - demonstrate the ability to review and evaluate the creative processes they use;
AN1.04 - identify possible meanings of a work of art by referring to background information and specific
indicators;
AN2.02 - demonstrate an understanding of the use of symbols in creative expression.

Planning Notes
• The teacher provides chart paper or large sheets of newsprint and an assortment of markers.
• Teachers may want to inspire or motivate student discussion by wearing apparel that is uniquely
Canadian. For example: a hockey shirt, a touque, a T-shirt with a Canadian flag or symbol, an Emily
Carr image on a T-shirt, etc.
• The teacher prepares questions to pose to students about what defines their sense of Canadian
identity.

Prior Knowledge Required


• See Unit Overview.

Teaching/Learning Strategies
Canadian Identity Through Art?
1. Canadian Identity?
• The teacher arranges students in co-operative groups of three or five and reviews brainstorming
guidelines. (See Unit 1 Planning Notes.)
• Students receive large sheets of chart paper or newsprint and markers. Each student is given an
appropriate co-operative role, such as recorder, encourager, time manager, etc. (See Spenser
Kagan’s Co-operative Learning to facilitate accountability in a group situation.)

Unit 4 - Page 3 • Visual Arts - Open


• Students are asked to generate as many visual symbols as they can that reflect the diversity of
Canada or being Canadian. At this time it would be valuable to establish that a symbol does not
involve words or letters but visually represents an idea. A logo presents a word such as Ford or a
group of letters such as IBM to represent a company or group. Examples of symbols might
include: the maple leaf flag or the beaver.
• Each group takes turns in presenting their symbols.
• As closure to this activity the teacher reviews vocabulary such as: symbol and symbolism, cliché,
identity, patriotism, and stereotypes. The teacher also reviews the negative and positive aspects
of symbolism as well as the contemporary use of symbols to convey messages (i.e., no smoking
symbols, gender symbols, etc.)
2. A team forms an identity by defining itself in a unique way, such as by creating its own name, visual
symbol or logo, cheer, or solution to a problem. In this activity each group creates their own group
symbol based on what it means to be Canadian.
• Leave students in co-operative groups of three or five.
• The groups each work collaboratively to design a team symbol that represents all members of the
group. This symbol must honour the cultural mosaic of the group. To ensure participation, one
member of the group will be chosen at random by the teacher to present their group’s work to the
rest of the class. (See Co-operative Learning for group accountability strategies.)
• Use large chart paper or newsprint and supply each group with a collection of markers.
• After presenting their unique group symbol of identity, students display these symbols in the
classroom.

Accommodations
• Buddy up a stronger student with one who could use encouragement and support.
• Regularly repeat and review creation instructions.
• See Appendix B.

Assessment/Evaluation Techniques
• Teachers may want to assess the learning skills identified in The Ontario Curriculum.

Health/Safety
• Students should use water-based markers.

Resources
Kagan, Spencer. Cooperative Learning. San Juan Capistrano, CA., Kagan Cooperative Learning, 1993.
ISBN 1-879097-10-9

Unit 4 - Page 4 • Visual Arts - Open


Activity 2: Banners Make a Statement – Discovering Symbolism
Time: 300 minutes

Description
Students view Northern Renaissance art to gain an understanding of symbolism and students apply their
understanding of visual symbols to the design of a symbolic narrative banner based on the events they
experienced in a 24-hour period. These banners will be hung around the class.

Strand(s) and Expectations


Strand(s): Theory, Creation, Analysis
Overall Expectations
CRV.01 - Produce a work designed around specific objectives and challenges (e.g., composition issues,
subject matter, use of visual language);
CRV.02 - Demonstrate the ability to take varied and creative approaches to using materials, tools,
processes, and technologies in studio activities;
ANV.01 - Apply critical analysis processes to their artwork and works studied;
ANV.03 - Describe interrelationships among art, the consumer, and the community.
Specific Expectations
TH3.02 - explain how their personal artworks have been influenced by works they have viewed in
galleries and museums;
TH3.03 - research the history of an art form, craft, or area of design (e.g., stone sculpture, textile design,
pottery);
CR1.01 - use various strategies in creating images (e.g., symbolism, interpretation of same idea in both
two and three dimensions);
CR1.03 - use research from various sources (e.g., books, data bases, conversations with local artists) as
part of the creative process;
CR2.01 - demonstrate the ability to solve artistic problems and make creative choices when completing
artworks that reflect their concerns;
CR2.02 - demonstrate the ability to use an increasing range of tools, materials, processes, and
technologies in producing works of fine art and applied design;
CR2.03 - execute sketches and drawings in an increasing variety of media;
CR2.04 - demonstrate ever-expanding use of technology in producing art works;
CR3.01 - use appropriate visual arts vocabulary in describing materials and processes;
CR3.02 - develop sketchbooks, a portfolio, and/or planners that document their personal art process;
AV1.02 - analyse the formal composition of an example of artwork from personal and/or historical works
studied;
AV1.03 - explain the significant expressive qualities of a work of art with reference to a list of possible
categories (e.g., sensory, formal, expressive, technical);
AN2.02 - demonstrate an understanding of the use of symbols in creative expression.

Planning Notes
• Teachers obtain resource materials from art history and design texts. (See Resources.)
• Slides or good visual images are needed to show to student symbolism. Suggestions are listed in
Teaching/Learning Strategies.
• Students should have their resource journals available for note-taking.
• Banners are to be displayed around the room.

Unit 4 - Page 5 • Visual Arts - Open


• Students use standard 45 cm x 60 cm heavy white cartridge paper cut in half horizontally for this
assignment.
• The teacher may choose to use black markers for this activity, or to cut shapes out of black or dark
construction paper.

Prior Knowledge Required


• Elements and principles of art, with emphasis on shape and positive and negative space

Teaching/Learning Strategies
1. Teachers show a slide or image of Jan Van Eyck’s painting, Giovanni Arnolfini and His Bride, in
order to demonstrate how symbols were used in Northern Renaissance Art.
• Students record key information about this painting in their resource journals:
1. Title Giovanni Arnolfini and His Bride
2. Date painted 1434
3. Artist’s name Jan Van Eyck
4. Medium Oil on wood panel
5. Where the painting is presently located: National Gallery, London, England
6. Stylistic Period: Northern Renaissance
• Teachers may also have students do a quick thumb-nail sketch of this painting in their resource
journal as a visual record or reference.
2. Working from the image of this painting, develop a list of the symbols it contains:
• Dog = fidelity (loyalty)
The word fido comes from the Latin word fides, which translates to the word fidelity. Teachers
may want to make a connection to present television and newspaper ads and commercials in
which a dog is a symbol for a telecommunications company. The dog respresents security and
reliability.
• Flame of the Candle = presence of God
• Shoes removed = respect for holy ceremony/ground
• Fruit on window sill/desk = Adam and Eve and fertility
• Bride’s green dress = colour green represents fertility
• Wisk broom = domestic care
• Statuette above the chair in the background of the painting = Margaret, patron Saint of
Childbearing Women
Other interesting facts:
• Convex mirror reflects the two witnesses to the marriage ceremony.
• Groom’s hand gesture represents his taking of an oath before God.
• Bride’s unusual stance and gathering of dress above her stomach represents her desire to bring
children into the marriage.
• The signature above the mirror is that of the artist and also represents a witness’s signature to the
marriage ceremony. This could be interpreted as the first signed marriage certificate.
• This painting is interpreted as a visual contract.
3. Continue to show several more images that contain symbolism. The following is a list of images that
are readily available and cover art history from Northern Renaissance.
• Knight, Death and the Devil, Albrecht Durer, 1513, Northern Renaissance-Engraving
• Hunters in the Snow, Pieter Bruegel, 1565, Northern Renaisance – Painting
• The French Ambassadors, Hans Holbein, 1533, Northern Renaissance – Painting
More contemporary examples of art that uses symbolism might include:
• Various works by Keith Haring using such symbols as the Radiating Baby and the Barking Dog.

Unit 4 - Page 6 • Visual Arts - Open


• Picasso’s Centaur or Bull images
• G. Odutokun, Dialogue with Mona Lisa, 1991
4. Students create a twenty-four hour narrative diary of their own life. They turn everyday activities into
symbolic graphic representations. (The creation of symbols is one way humans organize experience
in order to understand and communicate it.)
• Teachers ask students to keep their resource journals with them for twenty-four hours.
• Students record their everyday (genre) activities and represent them symbolically in clear,
graphic, black and white images. For example, brushing one’s teeth might be represented as a
toothbrush. It is important that students keep a written record of their day in their resource
journal to use as a comparison tool during the assessment of this activity.
• Teachers review with their students the use of positive and negative space and the use of shape
and clarity of message in successful graphic symbols.
• These images will be reproduced in a sequential narrative manner so that others will be able to
decipher the story.
• Students present this narrative symbolic diary on a horizontal banner that will be displayed in the
classroom.
• When the students have completed their banner narrative, have them exchange banners to try to
decipher each other’s stories. Students are to compare this interpretation to what was recorded in
writing.
• As an optional activity, students could create their own business banner in which they imagine
that they own a shop during the Renaissance. They would develop a sign that visually and
symbolically represents the product or service that they offer. This is connected to the Middle
Ages, when craftsmen first formed guilds and strived to become masters of their trade. Each
shingle was unique, telling something about the skill and inventiveness of the artisan whose shop
it marked.
• Another optional activity, is to have students reproduce a copy of Jan Van Eyck’s painting,
Giovanni Arnolfini and His Bride. Have the students replace the original symbols with their own
personal ones. For example, the groom in the painting could be holding a hockey stick and be
wearing a Canadian hockey jersey.

Accommodations
• Regularly review and repeat creation instructions.
• Allow extra time for the completion of the task.
• See Appendix B.

Assessment/Evaluation Techniques
• Teachers lead a guided discussion with their students regarding the merits of a successful symbolic
banner. Some ideas might include:
• Clarity of message – the symbol – Communication and expression of ideas
• Good use of positive and negative space – Creation (Application of knowledge and skills)
• Skillful control of media – Creation (Application)
• Creativity – Thinking/Inquiry (fluency, flexibility, divergent thinking)
• Symbols are representative of twenty-four hours. Theory (Knowledge/Understanding)
• Students record these criteria on a checklist or rubric and use them as a basis for evaluation.
• Students then complete peer evaluations based on the criteria developed by the class.

Health/Safety
• No anticipated issues

Unit 4 - Page 7 • Visual Arts - Open


Resources
Brommer, Gerald F. Discovering Art History, 3rd ed. David Publications, Mass., 1997.
ISBN 0871922991
Dantzic, Cynthia Maris. Design Dimensions, An Introduction to the Visual Surface. New Jersey:
Prentice-Hall, 1990. ISBN 0-13-199985-0
Elsen, Albert E. Purpose of Art. Harcourt, Brace and Co., 1981. ISBN 0030497663
Fleming, William. Art and Ideas, 9th ed. Harcourt Brace and Co., 1994. ISBN 0155011049
Kissick, John. Art Context and Criticism, 2nd ed. Boston, Mass: McGraw Hill, 1996.
ISBN 0697266133
Lucie-Smith, Edward. Art Today. London, England: Phaidon, 1995. ISBN 0-7148-3201-4
Mittler, Gene and Rosalind Ragans. Understanding Art. New York: Glencoe McGraw-Hill, 1999.
ISBN 0-02662359-5
Muhlberger, Richard. What Makes a Breugel a Breugel? Penguin Books Canada. ISBN 067082031
Roukes, Nicholas. Design Synectics. Davis Publications. ISBN 0-87-192-1987
Drawing the Line: A Portrait of Keith Haring. Kuler, VHS Video
Scholastic Art, November, 1992, “Narrative Art”
Scholastic Art, November, 1986, “The Art of Pieter Bruegel, Telling A Story”

Activity 3: Spread the Message: Using Printmaking for Multiple Images


Time: 540 minutes

Description
The power of the image is the catalyst for this assignment. In this activity students are inspired by
contemporary artists who have incorporated visual images and the written word to convey a powerful
message. Printmaking is the art form that students learn. Silkscreen is featured as the type of printmaking
for the major assignment and alternatives are suggested.

Strand(s) and Expectations


Strand(s): Theory, Creation, Analysis
Overall Expectations
THV.01 - demonstrate an understanding of the design process;
CRV.01 - produce a work designed around specific objectives and challenges (e.g., comparison issues,
subject matter, use of visual language);
CRV.02 - demonstrate the ability to take varied and creative approaches to using materials, tools
processes, and technologies in studio activities;
CRV.03 - explain the importance of process in relation to the final product.
Specific Expectations
TH1.01 - explain how compositions are altered by a change in design principles (e.g., contrast of lines
versus contrast of colour);
TH1.02 - describe the steps of the design process;
TH3.02 - explain how their personal artworks have been influenced by works they have viewed in
galleries and museums;
TH3.03 - research the history of an art form, craft, or area of design (e.g., stone sculpture, textile design,
pottery);
CR2.01 - demonstrate the ability to solve artistic problems and make creative choices when completing
artworks that reflect their concerns;

Unit 4 - Page 8 • Visual Arts - Open


CR2.02 - demonstrate the ability to use an increasing range of tools, materials processes and technologies
in producing works of fine art and applied design;
CR2.04 - demonstrate ever-expanding use of technology in producing artworks;
CR3.01 - use appropriate visual arts vocabulary in describing materials and processes;
CR3.02 - develop sketchbooks, a portfolio, and/or planners that document their personal art process;
AN1.02 - analyse the formal composition of an example of artwork from personal and/or historical works
studied;
AN1.03 - explain the significant expressive qualities of a work of art with reference to a list of possible
categories (e.g., sensory, formal, expressive, technical);
AN2.02 - demonstrate an understanding of the use of symbols in creative expression.

Planning Notes
• The teacher looks at magazines and the Internet for contemporary print images to show to the
students (We Don’t Need Another Hero, Barbara Kruger, 1987, Photographic silkscreen/vinyl).
• Conduct research of current designers on the Internet.
• The teacher carefully assess classroom facilities. Multiple prints need large spaces for drying.
Silkscreen frames can be bulky. See resource books for information on studio procedures. Intaglio
printmaking requires an etching printing press.
• Use strong paper or fabric as a printing surface.
• Refer to a printmaking resource book for all tools required for the desired method of printmaking.
• Printmaking inks, squeegees, and silk may be purchased from your local art supply store.
• A visit to a local silkscreen company or commercial printer, where possible, will expand the
students’ experience.

Prior Knowledge Required


• See Unit Overview.

Teaching/Learning Strategies
1. The focus of this activity is the power of the image. Show the students a slide or reproduction of
Mona Lisa, by Leonardo da Vinci, and The Birth of Adam, by Michelangelo. Teachers should show
examples of advertising from magazines, fine art posters, and patterns in T-shirt and fashion design
as well. Explain to the students that over time famous artists and their works have been appropriated
by advertisers to sell merchandise or convey a specific message.
2. A familiar image can draw attention to the product. Contemporary artists have taken this idea and
used it for their own purposes. Artists today use the techniques of advertising, combining image and
words. The results are often quite striking and startling.
3. Show students examples from the following list of artists. Place students in groups of four or five.
Have students discuss the three essential questions of this unit: “How does an artist influence the
production of art objects? Do artists need to create a reaction for the viewer through their work? How
does an artist determine what is art and what is not?
• Barbara Kruger, We Don’t Need Another Hero, 1987, Silkscreen.
• Joyce Weiland, Reason Over Passion, 1968, Fabric Quilt.
• Guerrilla Girls, Relax Senator Helms, The Art World is Your Kind of Place, 1988, Silkscreen.
• Jenny Holzer, Truisms, 1982.
• Andy Warhol, One Hundred Cans, 1962, Oil on canvas.
• Judy Chicago, The Dinner Party, 1974-79, Mixed Media.
• Jaune Quick-to-See Smith, I See Ten Little Indians, 1992, Mixed media, collage on paper.
4. Have students write a response to the discussion in their resource journals.

Unit 4 - Page 9 • Visual Arts - Open


5. Introduce students to one printmaking technique. Select from silkscreen or stencil or intaglio (dry
point, etching or engraving) techniques. The technique chosen will depend upon the materials
available. Designs produced for each of these techniques will have differences. For the purpose of
this activity silkscreen methods are featured.
6. Assignment:
• Students create an image or a message that is important to them. The design will incorporate both
shape and words. Students should draw upon their experience from the banner project to use
dynamic positive/negative spaces and a variety of interesting shapes.
• Students produce three preliminary designs in their resource journals for teacher approval.
• The teacher pairs up students to evaluate each other’s design. These pairs can also serve as a
printmaking partners when assistance is needed in the printmaking process.
• The teacher spends a lot time in critiquing the designs. Once the students have started with the
silkscreen design, modifications are often difficult to accomplish.
To assist students with their design, the teacher may want to show how Inuit fabric artist Jessie
Oonark’s large wool and felt applique hanging Untitled, (early 1970s in the McMichael Canadian Art
Collection) demonstrats how simple shapes can create powerful symbolic messages. The work of
Japanese, African, and other North American fabric artists could provide inspiration for students.
7. Process
• If the students want to produce a design on a T-shirt, teachers should limit the size to
approximately 21 cm x 28 cm. If the student is going to produce a poster size print, the image can
be bigger.
• Address safety issues before starting the process.
• Have students work in pairs.
• Teachers should use water-based methods for producing a stencil or design on the silkscreen.
Water-based drawing fluid works well to create a design on the stretched silkscreen. Screen filler
is applied to the screen and the drawing fluid is washed out with cold water. Tape the screen
appropriately. Print with water-based silkscreen ink onto white cartridge paper or fabric.
• Print an edition of prints on paper. An option can be to print on fabric.
8. Alternative techniques:
• Use a paper or cardboard stencil.
• Use a resist (rice paste, vaseline) to produce an image and then paint around the resist.
9. Other printing processes:
• Intaglio – drypoint etching
Use plastic plates to creates designs that feature texture and value. Do not use words or numbers as
they will print backwards.
10. Resource journal investigation:
• Have students research the role of traditional and new careers in decorative and advertising arts.
Look at fabric and fashion design, web page design, book illustration, and advertising art.
Students produce a report in their resource journal.

Accommodations
• Simplify assignments when necessary.
• Provide class time to organize materials.
• Provide students with clear expectations and rubrics for work and behavior.
• See Appendix B.

Assessment/Evaluation Techniques
• The teacher may want to produce a rubric as an assessment tool for this activity.
• This is a good opportunity to assess learning skills.

Unit 4 - Page 10 • Visual Arts - Open


Health/Safety
• Teachers should take care to use water-based methods for the printmaking process. Students should
not eat or drink in the art room.
• If students are making their own silkscreen frames, care should be taken with the use of hand tools.
• By having students work with a partner, needless accidents can be avoided.

Resources
Blodgett, Jean, et al. The McMichael Canadian Art Collection. Toronto: McGraw-Hill Ryerson Ltd.
1990.
Chieffo, Clifford T. Silk-Screen as a Fine Art. New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold Company. 1967.
ISBN 0-442-21561-4
Naested, Irene Russell. Art in the Classroom. Canada: Harcourt Brace, 1998. ISBN 0-777-3357-8
Nakano, Eisha. Japanese Stencil Dyeing, Paste-Resist Techniques. Weatherhill, New York, 1982.
ISBN 0-8348-0169-8
Proctor, Richard M. and Jennifer F. Lew. Surface Design for Fabric. Seattle and London: University of
Washington Press, 1984. ISBN 0-295-95874-X
Scholastic Art, February, 2000, Vol. 30, No. 4, ISSN 1060-832x
Scholastic Art, April/May, 1999, Vol. 29, No. 6, ISSN 1060-832x

Activity 4: Wearable Art: I Am My Art


Time: 180 minutes

Description
Students recondition and embellish an old piece of clothing in order to create their own personal
wearable art from recycled or reclaimed materials. Students are challenged to use found and used
materials as well as their own designs. Their final product could express a statement about a social or
environmental issue and explore the idea of designer/artist as a powerful expressive force. Students
examine examples of fashion that is art, and use a variety of simple sewing and embellishment
techniques. They also compare and contrast “fine” and “applied” art.

Strand(s) and Expectations


Strand(s): Theory, Creation, Analysis
Overall Expectations
THV.01 - demonstrate an understanding of the design process;
THV.04 - identify the skills required various arts and art-related careers;
CRV.01 - produce a work designed around specific objectives and challenges (e.g., composition issues,
subject matter, use of visual language);
CRV.02 - demonstrate the ability to take varied and creative approaches to using materials, tools,
processes, and technologies in studio activities;
CRV.03 - explain the importance of process in relation to the final product;
ANV.03 - describe interrelationships among art, the consumer, and the community.
Specific Expectations
TH1.01 - explain how compositions are altered by a change in design principles (e.g., contrast of lines
versus contrast of colour);
TH1.02 - describe the steps of the design process;
TH3.04 - describe similarities and differences between careers in design and fine art;

Unit 4 - Page 11 • Visual Arts - Open


CR1.03 - use research from various sources (e.g., books, data bases, conversations with local artists) as
part of the creative process;
CR2.01 - demonstrate the ability to solve artistic problems and make creative choices when completing
that reflect their concerns;
CR3.01 - use appropriate visual arts vocabulary in describing materials and processes;
CR3.02 - develop sketchbooks, a portfolio and/or planners that document their personal art process;
AN1.01 - describe the stages of the design process followed in a particular assignment.

Planning Notes
• The teacher should be sensitive to the economic means of the students. Rework this assignment if it
is difficult for students to bring in a piece of clothing.
• The teacher may want to look at the resource list and search out members of the community who can
act as guest artists to discuss or demonstrate these techniques.

Prior Knowledge Required


• See Unit Overview.

Teaching/Learning Strategies
1. Teachers show students wearable art. Some examples would be Andy Warhol’s Brillo-box outfits
and Keith Haring’s T-shirt designs, buttons, hats, etc. Haring’s art was the direct expression of his
personal ideas and issues, yet his designs were shared with the public by using applied art techniques
like silk screen applied to T-shirts.
2. Students recondition and re-fashion an old piece of clothing. They may silkscreen the image they
produced in the previous activity onto the garment. They can use a variety of simple sewing and
embellishment techniques. They can stitch or sew on buttons, objects, and or use fabric paint to
embellish the garment.
3. Students may use acrylic paint on a small piece of shaped canvas and sew that onto the garment.
4. A written record of the reconditioning process should be made in the student’s resource journal.
5. Part of this activity can be assigned for homework.
6. Students should be able to define the difference between “fine” and “applied” arts.

Accommodations
• Simplify assignments when necessary.
• Allow extra time to complete the task.
• Buddy up a stronger student with one who could use encouragement and support.
• Regularly repeat and review creation instructions.
• See Appendix B.

Assessment/Evaluation Techniques
• Have students do a peer evaluation.

Health and Safety


• Students need to be made aware of proper procedures and techniques involved in sewing.
• Fabric glues may offer an alternative to the use of needles.

Unit 4 - Page 12 • Visual Arts - Open


Resources
Hutchins, Jeane, ed. The Fiberarts Design Book II. Asheville, North Carolina: Lark Books, 1983.
ISBN 0-937274-07-0
Murray, Joan. Canadian Art in the 20th Century. Dundurn Press, 1999. ISBN 155023322
Proctor, Richard M. and Jennifer F. Lew. Surface Design for Fabric. Seattle and London: University of
Washington Press, 1984. ISBN 0-295-95874-X
Recycled, Re-Seen: Folk Art From the Global Scrap Heap, Museum of International Folk Art VHS
Video, Poster Prints, and Guide

Activity 5: Artists Who Care About the World


Time: 120 minutes

Description
This activity is designed to show students that visual artists often make strong statements expressing their
concerns about issues in society and the environment. Students meet in co-operative groups to view
specific images and write a response in their journals.

Strand(s) and Expectations


Strand(s): Creation, Analysis
Overall Expectations
CRV.03 - explain the importance of process in relation to the final product;
ANV.01 - apply critical analysis processes to their artwork and works studied.
Specific Expectations
CR1.03 - use research from various sources (e.g., books, data bases, conversations with local artists) as
part of the creative process;
CR3.01 - use appropriate visual arts vocabulary in describing materials and processes;
AN1.02 - analyse the formal composition of an example from personal and/or historical works studied.

Planning Notes
• The teacher may find information on contemporary artists at art gallery web sites, artist’s web sites
and current magazines.

Prior Knowledge
• See Unit Overview.

Teaching/Learning Strategies
1. The teacher arranges students in co-operative learning groups of three or five. Give each group a
number of reproductions of images done by artists who care about the environment or who have
taken a strong stand on issues. Students discuss the message, the statement about contemporary
society and the specific concern of the artist. Each group makes a brief presentation to the class on
their findings. Examples of artists are: Joyce Weiland, Greg Curnoe, Michael Snow, Andy
Goldsworthy, Sue Coe and Jane Ash Poitras, Keith Haring, Robert Houle.
2. Students may use their resource journals to record the group reactions to the artwork. Put closure to
the unit by revisiting the three essential questions.
3. The teacher may also have the students search the Internet for other examples. They can share their
findings with the class

Unit 4 - Page 13 • Visual Arts - Open


Accommodations
• Allow time for editing/proofreading help from a classmate/ tutor or teacher.
• See Appendix B.

Assessment/Evaluation Techniques
• The teacher can observe learning skills in group planning and presentations.

Health/Safety
• No issues anticipated

Resources
Search Internet for applicable sites.
Look at current art magazines such as Art News and Canadian Art.

Unit 4 - Page 14 • Visual Arts - Open


Unit 5: I Am the Artist: The Window of My Mind
Time: 24 hours

Unit Description
In this unit, students use art production, analysis, and critical thinking to consolidate student learning.
The culminating activity for this unit challenges students, requiring them to apply concepts attained in
the course. It provides them opportunity to express their own ideas about their individual creative
process. In this activity, students must represent the content of the course in a visual manner. This unit is
the summative evaluation of student achievement, based on the expectations and the achievement chart
for this course. The unit represents 30% of the final mark. (See Program Planning and Assessment, The
Ontario Curriculum, Grades 9 and 10, 1999, p. 11.)

Strand(s) and Expectations


The process and the product that students create are both key components to the assessment and
evaluation of this unit. Both the process of creating and the product that is produced should be assessed
using a variety of assessment tools such as checklists, reflective journals, feedback sheets, critical
thinking activities, rubrics, as well as self- and group-evaluation sheets. Student achievement in this unit
is based on the expectations outlined in The Ontario Curriculum, Grades 9 and 10, The Arts, 1999.
The essential questions in this unit focus on individual student expression and personal thought regarding
self-expression. The teacher can provide students with short activities that provoke them to think about
their own individual creative process. Some examples of activities are: the resource journal as a venue
for written personal ideas by students; large graffiti paper placed around the room for students to write
graffiti thoughts based on their ideas about the essential questions during the unit or the course; peer
sharing of individual portfolios with prepared individual answers based on the essential questions and
that support material in the portfolio.
Essential Questions
What makes my art creative and unique? Theory
Am I using the right tools and processes to make my ideas clear to others? Creation
How do I communicate to others though my artwork? Analysis

Strand(s): Theory, Creation, Analysis


The following chart illustrates how the unit develops the strands outlined in The Ontario Curriculum,
Grades 9 and 10, The Arts, 1999.
The Product Strands and Expectations and Achievement Chart Categories
Wearable Symbol of Theory
Honour • THV.01 -demonstrate an understanding of the design process:
• THV.02 -differentiate historical artworks by content, theme, style,
Window of My Mind techniques, and materials;
• THV.03 - identify the skills required in various arts and art-related
Shadow Box Project careers.
Creation
• CRV.01 - produce a work designed around specific objectives and
challenges (e.g., composition issues, subject matter, use of visual
language);
• CRV.02 - demonstrate the ability to take varied and creative approaches
to using materials, tools, processes, and technologies in studio activities;
• CRV.03 - explain the importance of process in relation to the final

Unit 5 - Page 1 • Visual Arts - Open


product.
The Process Strands and Expectations and Achievement Chart Categories
Resource Journal Theory
• Activity 1 – • THV.01 - demonstrate an understanding of the design process;
Reflections • THV.02 - differentiate historical artworks by content, theme, style,
• Activity 2 – techniques, and materials;
Wearable Symbol • THV.03 - explain the social and historical context and the chronology of
of Honour distinctive artistic styles;
preparation work • THV.04 - identify the skills required in various visual arts and art-related
• Activity 3 – careers.
Portfolio Interview Creation
preparation • CRV.01 - produce a work designed around specific objectives and
• Activity 4 – challenges (e.g., composition issues, subject matter, use of visual
Window of My language);
Mind preparation • CRV.02 - demonstrate the ability to take varied and creative approaches
work to using materials, tools, processes, and technologies in studio activities;
• CRV.03 - explain the importance of process in relation to the final
product;
• CRV.04 - use concepts of visual literacy in describing their art activities.
Analysis
• ANV.01 - apply critical analysis processes to their artwork and works
studied;
• ANV.02 - identify sensory, formal, expressive, and technical qualities in
their own works and works studied;
• ANV.03 - describe interrelationships among art, the consumer, and the
community.
Portfolio Presentation Communication: category in the Achievement Chart for The Ontario
Curriculum, Grades 9 and 10, The Arts, 1999

Activity Titles (Time + Sequence)


Activity 1 Reflections on Units 1-4 60 minutes
Activity 2 Wearable Symbol of Honour 300 minutes
Activity 3 Portfolio Interview Preparation 60 minutes
Activity 4 Window of My Mind 1020 minutes

Prior Knowledge Required


• The content of Units 1-4.

Unit 5 - Page 2 • Visual Arts - Open


• Special Note: Unit 5 is the final evaluation instrument for the course and thus addresses all of the
strands and overall expectations. Unit 5 replaces a final examination in this course. Accordingly,
teachers should be aware that there is a fundamental difference between the nature of Unit 5 and that
of the first four Units. While teaching Units 1-4, the teacher continually switches roles between that
of coach and evaluator; one moment the teacher may be performing the coach’s role while assisting
and assessing, and the next moment the teacher may be performing the judge’s role when judging and
evaluating work. Unit 5 is different. Unit 5 requires teachers to perform only the evaluator’s role
without giving feedback to the student process. For student success, the teacher must ensure previous
skills and knowledge have been acquired by the students before the unit begins. This unit provides
opportunity to apply the previous skills and knowledge attained by the students. Students must
demonstrate their level of understanding as to the course expectations. Students are required to
produce work that meets the expectations of the course without assistance or prompting from their
teacher. The only help that students should receive during Unit 5 is that which is related to technical
guidance and has no reference to expectations. An example of where coaching could take place, is in
the technical assembly and instruction of a shadow box or diorama construction in Activity 4:
Window of My Mind where no previous instruction in the Grade 10 course has occurred.

Unit Planning Notes


The teacher should:
• Use the resource journal as a process journal of students’ learning. It had been used in this manner
from Units 1-4. They use it to visualize concepts, produce preliminary drawings, gather imagery and
related research, and re-evaluate ideas within a context. In this unit, the content of the resource
journal becomes the subject matter for the final student product in the various activities.
• Use the portfolio as an assessment tool that contains a collection of work that has been evaluated
such as drawings, landscape painting, acrylic painting, printmaking, T-shirt designs, wearable art,
and design works.
• Ensure that imagery and subject matter from the portfolio works constitute the subject matter for this
culminating evaluation.
• Schedule Library/Resource Centre research time for online Internet investigation as well as the
search for books, periodicals, and vertical files.
• Display the essential questions within the classroom so students can easily reflect and refresh
thoughts developed around these essential questions throughout this unit.

Teaching/Learning Strategies
• Use a variety of teaching strategies to facilitate students through the activities, rather than deliver
content.
• Use directions in activities that will provide students with an understanding of the problem that they
are assigned to solve.
• Consider individual student needs in the planning of lessons. Modify the projects and the evaluation
as necessary. Note suggested accommodations in each activity.
• Through Units 1-4 students have practised critical thinking skills and meta-cognitive thinking skills
in their work and they now must be able to demonstrate these skills.
• Prepare students for the evaluative nature of this culminating project, by informing them that only
technical assistance with materials and supply provision will be provided.
• Cue students to the importance of this culminating activity. Students need to understand that the unit
will provide them with opportunity to draw conclusions to ideas they expressed in the portfolio and
response journal.

Unit 5 - Page 3 • Visual Arts - Open


Assessment and Evaluation
• Units1-4 include 70% of the final mark for this course. Unit 5 makes up 30% of the final evaluation
for this course based on the policy from the Ministry of Education.
• Included in the 30%:
Components Items to be Evaluated
The products created in Unit 5 • Reflections on Units 1-4 (resource journal)
• Wearable Symbol Of Honour
• Window of My Mind
The Process: The Resource Journal • Journal Entries for Unit 5
The Process: The Portfolio Interview • Portfolio Interview Preparation
• Self-reflection about personal growth in the interview
• In Units 1-4, the resource journal has been an ongoing feedback tool for students and teacher; now
the resource journal becomes a catalyst for imagery and subject matter in this unit.
• The Ministry of Education Achievement Chart for the Arts can be adapted as an assessment rubric
for a variety of activities.
• Incorporate self-assessment rubrics throughout this unit.

Resources
A. Smith with F. Hancock. Getting into Art History. Toronto: Barn Press, 1993. ISBN 9696953-0-6
Note: See previous units and activities for Resources. Students may need to revisit resources used in
lessons from the previous units.

Activity 1: Reflections on Units 1-4


Time: 60 minutes

Description
This activity provides students with the opportunity to reflect on the unit titles/themes explored in Units
1-4 and to critically reflect and evaluate their own artistic development in the course. Students represent
and respond to the main concepts explored in this course verbally (through the portfolio interview) and
visually (through the products created) manner. The responses in this activity are built upon and extended
in the portfolio interview and culminating art project.

Planning Notes
• Student work should be selected for this lesson prior to this activity. Students can do this. One piece
of artwork should represent each of the four previous unit title/themes.

Prior Knowledge Required


• The completion of Units 1-4.

Teaching/Learning Strategies
1. Students select four works of art that are representative of each of the four units from the works they
have produced. Display these artworks together.
2. Ask students to identify each piece of artwork with the unit that it represents. Have students discuss
how each artwork represents the ideas explored in their corresponding unit. The teacher could
prepare a summary sheet for students to add to their resource journal as they work through ideas.

Unit 5 - Page 4 • Visual Arts - Open


This activity could be structured visually with pictures and categories (similar to the co-operative
learning structure of mind maps) or a group discussion.
3. Divide a sheet of 8 ½ x 11 inch paper into four equal rectangles and have each box labelled Unit 1-4
consecutively. On the front of this review sheet, have students prepare a list of key words and phrases
related to each of the four units. Students can use their resource journal as a source for these words
and phrases. This activity could be structured as a group activity. Divide the class into groups of four
and have each member choose one of the four units. Students then form expert groups (all of the
“Unit 1”members meet together) and look for key terms and phrases from their unit. Upon
completion, students return to their home group and report. Students complete their review sheet
based on the information provided by their group members.
4. Individually, students turn the review sheet over and translate each set of words into a visual/drawn
symbol, which represents the key ideas of each of the units.
5. Re-examine the artworks and have students determine the technical skills required for producing
each artwork. This should be recorded for later student reference.
6. Next, students do a self-evaluation of their personal growth in the course through each of the four
units. Students view their own work from the four units and answer the three essential questions for
this unit in their Resource Journal. The three essential questions are:
• What makes my art creative and unique? (theory)
• Am I using the processes/materials and tools to make my ideas clear to others? (creation)
• How do I communicate to others through my artwork? (analysis)

Assessment/Evaluation Techniques
• Check for understanding and completion of the review sheets and symbols.
• This activity becomes a part of the portfolio interview, as the information reviewed in this activity is
crucial to the interview.

Accommodations
• The teacher should modify this activity accordingly (e.g., essential questions could be eliminated or
simplified).
• Provide students with a checklist of activities that could represent each unit.
• Allow students with special needs to work with a peer tutor in the completion of the review sheet.
• Collect previous ideas in the resource journal
• Provide a list of activities with a checklist of things they should have learned.

Activity 2: Wearable Symbol of Honour


Time: 300 minutes

Description
Students have just completed a review and reflection of Units 1-4. In Activity 1 students created a
symbol to represent each unit. In this activity students further analyse their artistic development by
determining and representing an artist or individual who is an influence or inspiration for their artistic
journey. Students will represent this artist by creating a wearable item, e.g., a medal of honour, a hat, a
shirt design. The design should represent the student artist and demonstrate his or her artistic style.

Planning Notes
• Teachers need to book Library/Resource Centre time for this activity.
• Students need to collect found objects, such as old buttons, linoleum, an article of clothing, etc., as a
base for the creation of the design in this activity.
• Students need to choose manageable projects for the time allowed.

Unit 5 - Page 5 • Visual Arts - Open


Prior Knowledge Required
• Students should have answered the essential questions in Activity 1. It is important that students
consider their own personal growth in art class prior to the completion of this activity.

Teaching/Learning Strategies
1. Have each student display one artwork that they produced in this course. Give students a list of ten
artists with whose artworks students will be familiar from the content of the course. Possible
examples include Michelangelo, Escher, Giotto, Masaccio, Alex Colville, Joyce Weiland, Emily
Carr. Review characteristics of these artists and their work. Students then complete a “gallery tour”
of the student artworks displayed in the room and identify student artworks which remind them of the
artists in the list. This is a fast-paced and fun activity that has no right or wrong answers.
2. Students view the artworks of artists who have had a profound and lasting impact on civilization such
as Michelangelo or an artist who is/was inspirational because of their originality such as Michael
Snow.
3. Students then choose the artist that has, through their example, influenced their artistic expression
and the way they perceive images.
4. Students research information about the individual or artist of their choice using the
Library/Resource Centre and the Internet. Students should also explain why they have chosen this
artist or individual, and how they have influenced their art.
5. Based on the information gathered, students design a wearable piece that depicts the artist or
represents their artistic style. This design could be painted, be a collage, be drawn, have texture, etc.
6. Students will bring or wear this wearable art project to their portfolio interview as a symbol of their
artistic journey.

Assessment/Evaluation Techniques
• This activity becomes a part of the portfolio interview.

Accommodations
• Accommodate students with special needs when planning the research component of this activity.
Modify the research questions to meet students needs. A simplified reading about an artist and a fill
in the blank sheet could be a sample of a modification.
• Accommodate students with special needs when constructing the wearable art piece. Modify the size
and criteria for this project.

Unit 5 - Page 6 • Visual Arts - Open


Activity 3: Portfolio Interview Preparation
Time: 60 minutes

Description
Students in Grade 10 are usually familiar with portfolios and portfolio interviews as an assessment and
evaluation method. However, students need to understand that this is a component of the 30% final
evaluation. Teachers must clearly define and explain to students within a class and within a Visual Arts
department, a common understanding of the portfolio process. Students need to understand the teacher’s
expectations of students for the portfolio interview. Rubrics, expectations, and procedures need to be
outlined, so students can realize their potential for the interview. The wearable symbol of honour created
in the last activity is brought to the interview, and it becomes a catalyst or motivator for conversation
about a student’s own artistic development. The wearable art piece can become a focus in the portfolio
interview for an individual student. Student answers around the essential questions can help direct
personal discussion with individual students.

Planning Notes
• Prepare a handout package for students that include rubrics, checklists, outlines, and timelines for
portfolio interviews and content.

Prior Knowledge Required


• The contents of Units 1-4

Teaching/Learning Strategies
1. A portfolio interview should be conducted with each student on an individual basis. While students
work on the final activity in this unit, the teacher should take the opportunity to schedule and conduct
individual portfolio interviews with all students in the class. Interviews bring closure to student
learning within a class and allow students a final word about their work, their learning, and their
goals for the future. It gives teachers opportunity to make final evaluation decisions.
2. Students have a resource journal, which contains evidence of their learning. They also have a
portfolio of work that they have completed throughout Units 1-4. Students now need to think about
their accumulated learning and accomplishments. The symbol of honour is brought to the portfolio
interview and becomes a catalyst or motivator for conversation about a student’s own artistic
development. Teachers give students instruction for the interview format and have them prepare. The
content of what students say is up to each individual student. Students need class time and instruction
on how to prepare for this. See Appendices L, N, and O for portfolio interview suggestions and tools
that could be used. Ideally allow 10-15 minutes for each interview.

Assessment/Evaluation Techniques
• Check for understanding via self-evaluation or journal entry.

Accommodations
• Simplify expectations for identified students.
• Accommodate students with special needs when considering interviewing strategies (e.g., make
questions more concrete, limit the number of questions, direct students when necessary.)
• Have a conversation, rather that prepared questions.
• Modify the handout package to meet individual needs.

Unit 5 - Page 7 • Visual Arts - Open


Resources
Handouts for students may be useful for directing student learning (e.g., what a portfolio is, as well as a
checklist for portfolio content or a rubric prepares students accordingly).

Activity 4: Window of My Mind


Time: 1020 minutes

Description
Students create a culminating art project that reflects the ideas presented in each of the four units. The
project consists of four images, each of which represents one of the four units of study. These images are
layered in a shallow shadow box (a frame or box, that allows depth so that what is displayed, can occupy
depth within the frame or box) or diorama (a three-dimensional representation of a scene with a painted
background that merges with features and objects by use of linear perspective). Each diorama or shadow
box must have a foreground, front middleground, rear middleground, and background. The four images
are framed by a cutout image of a window in one of the styles studied in the course: Romanesque,
Gothic, or Renaissance. The box is entitled Window of My Mind and the view through the window
represents what the students have learned in the course.

Planning Notes
The teacher should:
• create a model with or without sketches on it to ensure that students understand the basic design
concept of the project. This could be a sample used as a reference for students. See Appendix AA. A
clear diagram could substitute for the model. The model or diagram should be prepared to start the
unit.
• stress that the model or diagram is a suggested structure only, and that students are invited to vary
and improvise.
• prepare a handout package that includes rubrics, checklists, and project specifications.
• make reference to any rubrics prior to introducing this project. It should be noted that the rubric
evaluates students’ creative and technical responses to the overall scene that is created in the
construction of this project. See Appendix K for a rubric sample.
• provide instruction for the shadow box or diorama to ensure the construction of the box is free from
flaws. For example, students should be provided with constant reminders that the project should be
assembled from the background to the foreground to avoid difficulties with working in the limited
space of a shadow box or diorama.
The creative aspect of this activity is the student’s responsibility, as this is an evaluative project.
Teachers need to be aware that certain technical guidance must be given to ensure that the piece will
have structural viability for this three-dimensional project.

Prior Knowledge Required


Students must complete Activity 1 prior to this project as the ideas reviewed in that activity are the basis
for this assignment.

Teaching/Learning Strategies
Teachers need to give instruction so students can construct the project correctly.
1. In Activity 1 of this unit, students reviewed the key concepts of this course and translated those
words and phrases into symbols. When introducing this culminating project, the teacher should
inform students that these ideas and the symbols will become a three-dimensional project. This

Unit 5 - Page 8 • Visual Arts - Open


project consists of a shadow box that students can look into like a window to view layered visual
representations of the main ideas explored in this course.
2. There are five different layers to this project. The layers fit on top of one another. When all the layers
are placed together, they create an image that appears through a window.
Layer 1 – The first (front) layer is a border that is covered with key words, phrases and thoughts
taken from Units 1-5. Students can see the resource journals for the selection of text from which they
can choose.
Layer 2 – The second layer is a cutout of a Romanesque, Gothic, or Renaissance window frame that
forms a framed opening through which the images are viewed. It will represent the historical content
of the Course.
Layer 3 – The third layer or foreground, is a cut out that fits behind the window. It consists of a
design that represents Unit 2: Place, Time, and Spaces. This layer must be small enough so that the
other layers can be viewed through the window.
Layer 4 – The fourth layer or the middle ground, is a cut-out that is placed behind the third layer. It is
further in the distance and represents the ideas presented in Unit 4: Shaping Our Society.
Layer 5 – The fifth layer or background, represents Unit 4: Shaping our Society, and fills up all the
remaining space available through the window.
3. At this time students will find it useful to view an example of this project. A prototype for this
project could be simulated for students using a photo or picture of a landscape painting. Landscape
was covered earlier in the course. The picture should be cut into the foreground, middle ground, and
background. Set it aside. Prepare five sheets of light cardboard, identical in size to the landscape
photo/painting.
Card 1 - Use the first card and cut out a border that will frame the entire piece.
Card 2 - On the second card, cut out a large opening that represents an arch.
Card 3 - On the third card, the foreground portion of the photo/painting is positioned and
mounted carefully on the card. When the card is placed behind the arch on the second card, the
goal is to position it an a way so that the best view is captured. All the space above the
foreground on this third card is carefully cut off. It is now positioned behind the arch of the
window on card 2.
Cards 4 and 5 - This process is repeated with the remaining middle ground and background
picture portions and cards 4 and 5.
These example pieces can be constructed into a three-dimensional art project by placing them in a
shadow box, in consecutive order, with a small space in between each layer (use thicker card
between the layers – about .5 cm between each layer). Students might wish to have a larger space
between the two last layers to create a greater sense of space. (This could be accomplished by using a
piece of 1.6 cm foam core or other similar material.) A shadow box or diorama can be constructed
from a box, foam core, or cardboard. Instruct students to design their creation on a flat surface and
then separate it into three dimensions. Also point out to students that the viewer will see more
beyond the edges of the foreground, middle ground, and background when the images are arranged in
a shadow box. Students may therefore need to extend some of the images beyond the edges created
on a flat surface. The teacher could do this by showing students the image on flat paper, and the same
image expanded into the three dimensions for a comparison and contrast exercise.
4. To facilitate the completion of this project it will be necessary to specify certain criteria for each
layer and image. Below are examples of specifications for each layer. Teachers may opt to give the
specifications to students all at once or introduce the specifications one layer at a time over a period
of days. These specifications are suggestions only. Teachers are encouraged to adapt this activity to
meet their needs and to allow students creative freedom to design a shadowbox or diorama which
they feel best represents the course. This project can be effective with fewer layers than are
suggested here.

Unit 5 - Page 9 • Visual Arts - Open


Feature Description
Shadow Box The size of the shadow box will be determined by materials used and the
Construction and technical requirements of the layers prepared for inclusion by the student.
Dimensions Teachers should anticipate that with average quality materials such as
corrugated cardboard and 4-ply bristol board that the size would range from
8 x 10 inches to 12 x 18 inches.
The Medium This three-dimensional project could be rendered with any drawing medium,
or printmaking, painting, collage, or relief sculpture (clay, papier mache,
etc.) could also be appropriate. The project becomes more complex with
greater assembly and technical challenges from the medium.
Materials Corrugated cardboard, bristol board, foam core, recycled box board, white
resin glue, scissors, art knives, cutting mattes, assorted wet and dry art media
are possible materials. Teachers and students may wish to use a wide range
of materials such as found objects, fabric and acetate.
The Design Students should design the picture on a flat surface and the design should be
(dealing with the based on the structure of the Golden Section from Unit 3. See Appendix J.
entire picture) The students can separate the layers of foreground, middle ground, and
Unit 1 and 3 background later, however they should be aware that this distinction should
be made at the drawing stage. The students should also realize that each of
the sections from the three different grounds may need to be extended after
they are separated. Each layer will become a cross-section view at different
levels, and when the layers are assembled into the shadow box, the viewer
will see some of the surface behind the previous layer.
Getting Started Students need to plan out their design in a sketch format so that all the
components in the task are present. The resource journal is a good place to
work on ideas, and plans.
The Border (The This first layer will border and surround the entire shadow box. It should
first and front have a large area that is cut out so that the other layered images can be seen.
layer) The border will be covered with words, thoughts, poetry etc. taken from the
resource journal from Units 1-4.
The Window The front layer should be a single or double, vertically oriented window
(Second layer) rendered in the Romanesque, Gothic or Renaissance style. The rendering
should depict window details. Any internal supporting features for the glass
such as mullions or tracery should be eliminated to permit better viewing.
The Third Layer In Unit 2: Place, Time, and Spaces architecture was a prominent feature. In
Unit 2 keeping with this theme students will represent a building from one of the
(Foreground) stylistic periods studied: a castle, cathedral, palazzo, etc. This building could
be drawn in perspective or in elevation view. The façade(s) shown should
display at least one arch or window, appropriate to the period chosen.
The Fourth Layer In Unit 4: Shaping Our Society the central theme was the role of the artist as
Unit 4 (Middle a leader of social awareness. Students will represent this theme by creating a
ground) landscape that has been “shaped” by human activity and ideas. Possibilities
The Fifth Layer include imaginary ideas of futurist, utopian, environmentalist, classical, and
Unit 4 inter-planetary landscapes. A variety of media can be used. This portion of
(Background) the design can be divided into the fourth and fifth layers as middle ground
and background.

Unit 5 - Page 10 • Visual Arts - Open


5. As part of the evaluation for this culminating project students should have the opportunity to explain
their artwork in written form. The following are possible questions to assist students in analysing and
explaining their three-dimensional art project.
a) Explain the importance of process and planning in determining your final product.
b) Explain how you have incorporated into this project materials and expressive qualities of
artworks studied.
c) How have you overcome design and construction challenges in the creation of this art object?
d) How have you used materials, tools, and processes creatively in this studio activity?
e) What sources have you used in your research for this project?
f) What role did your first drawings play in the final product?
g) How does your Window of My Mind demonstrate unity?
h) In what way does the unique combination of features in your composition suggest new meanings
or ideas?

Assessment/Evaluation Techniques
• This activity is a major component for this evaluation unit worth 30% of the final evaluation.
• Teachers should create rubrics for the process of students creating and for the product of what they
have created.

Health and Safety


• Teachers need to stress the safe and proper use of sharp cutting tools.
• Different types of adhesives may be used. Students should be made aware that white glue should be
used with caution, avoiding direct contact with skin or ingestion. A pair of latex or non-latex gloves
should be available for students and/or applicators used.
• If using a glue gun, make students aware of the high temperature of the melting wax and the nozzle
of the gun.

Accommodations
• Provide additional time as necessary.
• Distribute checklist for completion of tasks.
• Provide outline for written reflection.
• Show examples of completed segments of project for students who experience difficulty with verbal
instructions.
• Modify project to meet student needs. (This project could become a two-dimensional collage.)
• Reduce the number of layers in the shadow box or diorama surface.

Unit 5 - Page 11 • Visual Arts - Open


Appendix A

Drawing Techniques and Mediums

Create each of these two circles on a separate card. Cut out and fasten the circles with a butterfly
fastener, as illustrated. Turn the dials for combinations of drawing techniques and mediums.

Page i • Visual Arts - Open


Appendix B

Modifications to Meet Student Needs


General Accommodations for All Students
• Provide students with clear expectations and rubrics for work and behaviour.
• Arrange classroom seating to minimize distractions in the class.
• Closely monitor student progress during an activity.
• Create lesson outlines in advance.
• Provide oral and written instructions for assignments and activities.
• Regularly review and repeat creation instructions, theory, and analysis strategies.
• Divide assignments into more manageable tasks and monitor completion.
• Give ample preparation time for tests.
• Provide a written structure for the resource journal, assignments, and homework.
• Encourage the use of an organizer.
• Provide additional class time for organizing material.
• Provide checklists for completion of larger assignments.
• Use co-operative small group learning.
Behavioural Accommodations
• Provide a highly structured environment.
• Assist students to stay on task.
• Set clear, reasonable expectations.
• Follow through with appropriate consequences.
• Prepare a time-out arrangement made in advance with the appropriate help.
• Teach and use conflict resolution strategies.
• Encourage students to find appropriate alternate behaviour.
• Develop student contracts with students.
Writing Accommodations
• Allow time for editing/proofreading help from classmate/tutor/teacher.
• Provide additional time to complete written tasks/assignments/tests.
• Encourage the use of the computer.
• Tape-record lectures.
• Provide a note-taker in lecture classes.
• Provide alternatives to written assignments (video, graphs, mind maps, oral presentations).
• Provide an outline for writing essay answers.

Page ii • Visual Arts - Open


Appendix B (Continued)

Modifications to Meet Student Needs


Reading Accommodations
• Read orally to student.
• Use a peer tutor/helper to help highlight essential information.
• Use underlining, highlighting for key points.
• Provide a guide/outline for reading.
• Use large type face.
Studio Accommodations/Modifications
• Allow larger painting, drawing, surfaces and tools when necessary to accommodate for fine motor
skills difficulties.
• Allow extra working space for students who need it.
• Simplify assignments when necessary.
• Buddy up a stronger student with one who could use encouragement and support.
• Simplify techniques where necessary, e.g., replace linocut blocks; use new meat trays to draw a
pattern into with a pencil rather than carve with cutters, then print as you would lino cuts.
• Simplify a colour wheel; use coloured pencils rather than paint.

Page iii • Visual Arts - Open


Appendix C

Health and Safety in the Classroom

Teaching art requires consideration of the safety of the materials that are used by students in the
classroom. Teachers should inform students about hazards, train students to work safely with materials,
model safe behaviour and enforce safety rules. WHMIS (workplace hazardous materials and information
sheets) provide information data sheets about a product’s hazards and the precautions required for its safe
use in the work environment. The following is a list of safe practices for the art classroom:
• Begin to identify hazardous materials in your inventory by reading product labels. However, the label
may not fully indicate the hazards contained in the material as not all products have been fully
studied.
• Be aware that imported materials may not be subject to the same labelling laws.
• Schools can require material safety data sheets as a condition of purchase.
• Products for which there are no data sheets should not be used. Another alternative should be found.
• Storage of flammable chemicals should conform to province fire regulations.
• Never store hazardous chemicals on the floor or above shoulder height.
• Label containers.
• Dispose of materials properly. Check regulations. Do not pour solvents down drains.
• Use proper protective equipment.
• It is important to have good ventilation in the art room. Ventilation systems should be checked
periodically to ensure they are working properly.

Precautions for Art Room Products


Common Adhesives
White glue that contains PVA (polyvinylacetate or polyvinyl alcohol) is not recommended for children
and is suspected of having carcinogens. Glue sticks have no known hazard. Hot-glue sticks – some fumes
containing small amounts of plasticers. Rubber cement – highly toxic, contains solvents. Many people
are allergic to rubber latex. Wallpaper paste can contain preservatives, pesticides, and fungicides.
Purchase paste made for children. Childproof pastes have no significant hazard. White paste has no
significant hazard.

Page iv • Visual Arts - Open


Appendix C (Continued)

Health and Safety in the Classroom

Precautions for Art Room Products


Drawing and Painting Media
Acrylic paints, water based, composed of synthetic acrylic resins and pigments may contain additives
(e.g., ammonia, small amounts of ammonia and formaldehyde). Exhaust fan or window ventilation is
recommended. Alkyd paint (some house paints) contains resins and pigments – ventilation recommended.
Artist’s oils and oil sticks contain pigments, linseed oil, and usually contain no volatile ingredients. They
are cleaned with solvents though, and solvents are hazardous. Ventilation must be provided. Charcoal has
no significant hazards. Crayons have no significant hazards, however, when melted can produce fumes
that require exhaust ventilation. These fumes are flammable. Drawing inks may contain hazardous dyes
and solvents so avoid contact with skin. Markers may be water or solvent based. Water- based markers
are safest. Solvent-based markers may contain toxic solvents and should be used with ventilation.
Solvent-based markers that contain ethyl alcohol are the safest. Pastels, chalk, and conte – oil pastels are
safest because oils and wax prevent airborne dust. A dust mask and ventilation are recommended with
the others. Pencil and graphite – such small amounts of dust are produced that they are not hazardous.
Tempera paint preservatives are used and ordinary ventilation is sufficient. Watercolours may contain
small amounts of formaldehyde but no exhaust is needed.
Printmaking
Avoid oil-based inks. Use water-based products for cleaning up, avoid solvents. Use ventilation. Inks can
be toxic. Wash hands before eating, applying make-up, etc. Avoid skin contact. Wear protective clothing.
Do not use inks containing lead. Avoid oil-based cleaning for screens. Use mineral oil or vegetable oil as
a substitute. Lino tools require proper instruction to prevent serious injury. Bench hooks are
recommended.
Fibre Arts
Check manufacturing labels on dyes. Do not use mildewed or musty materials. Avoid strain when sitting
at the table.
Tools
Many sharp and pointed tools can be used in an art classroom. Keep knives, cutters, and sharp
instruments away from hands and fingers.
Many hot surfaces may be present in an art room, e.g., kilns. Kilns should be in a cage or enclosed room.
Hot appliances like irons, and electric fry pans, should be used with caution.
Protective goggles should be used with any tools like hammers, saws, chisels, etc.
Correct rubber gloves should be used with anything that might be staining, corrosive, or absorbed in the
skin.

For more information, refer to: Rossol, M. The Artist’s Complete Health & Safety Guide. New York: Allworth Press, 1994.

Page v • Visual Arts - Open


Appendix D

Finding Visual Resources

Pictures, prints, and reproductions are available from many different sources. Considerations when
selecting prints should include that they are inexpensive, accessible, and can be used for many varied
activities within the classroom. Reproductions of artworks by professional artists should be the focus of
this collection. Visuals that demonstrate design within the environment are also important.

Building Your Own Resources


• Library/Resource Centre picture folders
• Artist monographs or books on art (some may be bought on sale at book stores and then cut up)
• Calendars (have staff members and parents save these for you)
• Greeting cards
• Post cards (All galleries and museums sell post-card reproductions in their book/gift shops. Look for
individual cards as well as post-card books which may be less expensive than individual cards.)
• Exhibition catalogues (Look for extra and/or old stock on sale tables at galleries.)
• Art magazines
• General magazines and newspapers
• Illustrations from discarded books
• Reproductions and print collections may be available from galleries and/or school boards.

Page vi • Visual Arts - Open


Appendix E

Resource Journal Organization

The resource journal is an effective device for students to organize, store, and access the materials that
they produce and receive in this course. Extensive references have been made to this tool throughout the
Grade 9 and 10 Course Profiles. A suggested organizational format is outlined below. This format can be
adapted to any type of container and a wide range of organizers can be used to separate materials within
the resource journal such as file folders, dividers, tabs, and envelopes.

Component Sample Content Items


1. Historical Context • Art history handouts
• Notes
2. Reflection • Written response sheets
• Personal thoughts and reflections
3. Drawing/Collection of Ideas • Sketches
• Drawings
• Assignment sheets
• Brainstorming notes
4. Technique • Information sheets on processes and materials
5. Assessment and Evaluation • Rubrics
• Teacher/Peer feedback
• Critique sheets
• Group evaluation sheets
• Self-evaluation sheets
• Test results
• Report card summaries
Teachers can create checklists, conduct personal interviews, and use observation methods to monitor
student progress in the resource journal. Feedback can help students to master organizational skills. The
resource journal can be used to collect important data that reflects student progress based on the
Achievement Chart on pp. 60-61 of The Ontario Curriculum, Grades 9 and 10, The Arts, 1999.

Page vii • Visual Arts - Open


Appendix F

Assessment and Evaluation Strategies

A variety of assessment and evaluation strategies should be used to meet the needs of all students. The
assessment and evaluation tools used should match the approaches used in the curriculum to assess and
evaluate targets set in the expectations. Rubrics for assessment and evaluation are in the policy
documents.
Anecdotal records Teacher log Checklists
Performance charts Demonstrations Presentations
Independent study projects Interviews Feedback sheets
Conferencing Peer evaluation Pencil and paper tests/quizzes
Performance assessments Portfolio content Portfolio interview
Self-evaluation Seminars Written material
Oral presentations Journals Process rubrics
Product rubrics Resource file Worksheets
Critiques Observation checklists Debates

Who Should Assess?


• Self-assessment – personal reflection
• Peer-assessment – peers develop their ability to identify strengths and weaknesses
• Teacher-assessment – formative to identify student strengths; summative for accountability

Page viii • Visual Arts - Open


Appendix G

Rubric for Golden Section Painting

Criteria Level 1 Level 2 Level 3 Level 4


50-59% 60-69% 70-79% 80-100%
Theory - demonstrates - demonstrates some - demonstrates - demonstrates
Composition and limited understanding - considerable excellent
Golden Section understanding e.g., simple shapes that understanding - understanding -
format used outside are non-related shapes or spirals are innovative and
measurements, related to one original use of
only another shapes or spirals
Thinking/Inquiry - uses creative - uses creative - uses creative - uses creative
- four thumbnail thinking skills with thinking skills with thinking skills with thinking skills with
sketches in limited moderate clarity and considerable a high degree of
resource journal effectiveness effectiveness effectiveness effectiveness
- sketches - sketches lack detail - sketches show - sketches are
incomplete or and inquiry variety and inventive and
vague complexity complex
Communication - communicates - communicates and - communicates and - communicates
- expression of and expresses ideas expresses ideas with expresses ideas with and expresses ideas
ideas with limited clarity moderate clarity considerable clarity with a high degree
of clarity
Creation - lacks originality; - some effectiveness - considerable - original ideas are
- application of the limited effectiveness creative and mature
creative process effectiveness and reflect personal
(originality) style

Creation - limited selection - some level of - considerable - high degree of


- exploring and placement of effectiveness with effectiveness with effectiveness
alternative subject selection and selection and - dynamic selection
approaches placement of subject placement of subject and placement of
subject
(composition –
selection and
manipulation of
subject matter)
Communication - limited command - moderate - considerable - extensive
- use of form of painterly command of command of command of
(application of techniques painterly techniques painterly techniques painterly
painting (difficulty with (some difficulty with (demonstrates techniques (highly
brush and paint brush and paint competency) effective)
technique)
control) control)
Communication - limited command - moderate - considerable - extensive
- use of form of appropriate command of colour
command of colour command of colour
(choice and colour choice choice choice (colour choice (colour
expressive use of choice enhances choice is effective
composition) and expressive)
colour)
Note: A student whose achievement is below level 1 (50%) has not met the expectations for this
assignment or activity.

Page ix • Visual Arts - Open


Appendix H

The Renaissance – Lesson Notes for Slides


• Teacher Preparation: The Renaissance is a vast period. Plan to cover one area only in a single lesson.
Previous reading on this area is an absolute must before planning.
• 1400 – 1500 Early Renaissance – centred in Florence
• 1500 – 1530 High Renaissance – centred in Rome
• Essentially, the Renaissance was a new way to think. It began with philosophers and scholars.
Renaissance artists did not think of themselves as artists. They were active as mathematicians and
scientists. They ceased to be known as artisans.
• The revival of classical learning led painters to take themes from pagan mythology, but for the most
part, they continued to use traditional Christian themes of the Middle Ages. Most work was
commissioned by the church or by lay patrons for the church.
• The Renaissance thinkers saw classical antiquity as the era when man had reached the peak of
creative powers. The era came to a sudden end by the end of the barbarian invasions that destroyed
the Roman Empire.
Characteristics of Renaissance Painting
• The skeletal structure below the flesh is of great interest.
• Early Renaissance: clear outline or edges still define form.
• Light and shadow are used to create a three-dimensional form.
• The human figure is derived from Greek and Roman sculpture.
• Little decorative ornament
• Human expression shows insight into human feelings.
• Realistic landscape through linear perspective
• Little interest in ugliness or suffering
• Subject matter usually religious
• Drapery
Making a Plan
There are several possible ways of organizing the material:
1. General Time Periods:
Italian Renaissance:
• Early (mainly Florentine)
• High (Leonardo, Michelangelo, Raphael)
• Venetian
• Architecture
Flemish Renaissance: Van Eyck, Van der Weyden, Master of Flemalle
2. Themes
Within the Italian Early Renaissance there are certain beginnings that may provide good themes:
• Realism – Naturalism (natural space and use of perspective; perfect proportions of anatomy);
• Humanism – a philosophy whose ideal is the universal man, the human being who is well-versed
in the arts, sciences, and humanities. Originally, the humanities were those subjects that formed
the educational curriculum for the Florentines, to prepare young men for an active life of service
in the community. The language studied was Latin, recovered from antiquity. The subjects
included grammar, rhetoric and style, literature, moral philosophy, and history.
• Unity – composition, symmetry, balance.

Page x • Visual Arts - Open


Appendix H (Continued)

The Renaissance – Lesson Notes for Slides

3. Under the High Renaissance you may wish to consider how the area studied under Early Renaissance
reached perfection:
• Leonardo – study of nature, compositional devises (pyramid), humanism, use of classical
influences;
• Michelangelo – anatomy, composition, use of classical influences, Renaissance perfection
becomes Mannerist emotionalism;
• Raphael – idea of perfection, beauty, symmetry.
4. Each of these areas can be covered separately. After determining which section you will cover, you
should do the following:
• Design a lesson plan around one of the concepts with format, questions, and assignments for the
students.
• Select slides and write up specific information on each slide that will be used as background
material.
• If possible, use two projectors to do side-by-side comparisons.

Page xi • Visual Arts - Open


Appendix I

A Study of Natural Space and Perspective – Slide Notes


Early Renaissance
Adoration of the Magi by Gentile da Fabriano, 1360-1427 Florence, Italy
Background to the Piece
• Triptych alter screen divided into three arched spaces
• Figures crowded together “standing over each other’s heads,” because there was a fear of empty
spaces
• Halos not in perspective
• Natural scene in background
• Elegant, elaborate figures
• Illusion of three dimensions in a two-dimensional space
• Artists worked from observation and rules of perspective
• 1425 a treatise was published on the rules of one and two-point perspective
Possible Classroom Approach
Question/answer:
1. Describe the scene. (crowd, procession to Mary and Jesus, gold in costumes, three wise men, elegant
patterns)
2. If you had to describe this composition in one word, what would it be?
3. What things in the painting led you to choose that word?
4. What is not realistic about the painting? (overcrowding, purse of gold, ornamentation)
Knowing what came before is helpful to compare with what is different about what came next. Explain
the general aims of Renaissance painters in relation to perspective and space.

Jacob and Esau by Lorenzo Ghiberti, 1435 Florence, Italy


Background to the Piece
• Panel
• Ghiberti won the 1401 commission to decorate the doors of the Baptistry in Florence
• Old Testament scene
• Was named the Gates Of Paradise by Michelangelo
• Originally sculpted in wax, cast in bronze, and then gilded
• Various levels of relief sculpture
• Foreground figures are almost free-standing
Possible Classroom Approach
• Ask students to arrange themselves in groups of four.
• Look at this slide in comparison to the da Fabriano (previous slide). Answer the following question
in your group: How does Ghiberti use perspective to make the panel more realistic?
• Have students present their findings. (For co-operative learning group work, consult Kagan’s Co-
operative Learning book – see Resources.)

Page xii • Visual Arts - Open


Appendix I (Continued)

A Study of Natural Space and Perspective – Slide Notes

Tribute Money by Masaccio, 1427 Florence, Italy


Background to the Piece
• Part of a fresco series in the Brancocci chapel
• Figures have drapery
• Jesus is the focal point
• Other figures stand behind
• First use of grid for perspective
• All the forms are lit from the same light source
• Drama in faces
• Halos no longer a circle but a disc
• Group of figures set in landscape
Possible Classroom Approach
• Place students in groups of four.
• Ask students to look at Masaccio’s Tribute Money, and answer this question: How does the painter
make a group of figures look spatially simple, and make the figure of Jesus the centre of attention?
Have students present their findings.

Annunciation by Fra Angelico, 1440 Florence, Italy


• Architectural setting that has grouped principles of perspective – problems with relating the figures
to the space (the figures appear too large)
• Natural detail – garden background
• No shadows cast from figures, making them appear flat
• Draperies fall realistically over the body
Possible Classroom Approach
• Compare the Masaccio and Fra Angelico paintings. What works compositionally? – relation of
figures to architecture and figure to figure. What works realistically? – proportion (measurement and
weight of figures).

Middle Renaissance
The Battle of San Romano, Uccello, 1450 National Gallery, London, England
Background to the Piece
• Three-part painting of three main episodes in battle; each panel is now in a different city (London,
Paris, Florence)
• Commissioned by the Medici family to commemorate victory
• Uses geometric one-point perspective
• Horses are like rocking horses
• Horses, spears, dead bodies lie on orthagonals (diagonals moving back towards vanishing points)
• Foreground exaggerated

Page xiii • Visual Arts - Open


Appendix I (Continued)

A Study of Natural Space and Perspective – Slide Notes


Possible Teaching Approach
• Where is the vanishing point in this painting? Have students come up and point out where the
vanishing point is.
• Discuss one-point perspective. Although the perspective in this painting is mathematically correct,
this painting somehow seems unrealistic in light of the advances made by Renaissance artists towards
realism. Discuss.

Resurrection, Piero della Francesca, 1460


Background to the piece
• Stresses fronts – the Christ figure is parallel to the picture plane
• Landscape background
• Detailed trees become smaller but are too clear – they also float in mid-air.
• The tomb becomes the altar
• Use of the Golden Section
Possible Teaching Approach
• Demonstrate with this slide how Piero della Francesca uses the Golden Section in his composition.

High Renaissance
The artists of the High Renaissance were able to progress from the work of the Early Renaissance artists.
Unity was achieved by using pyramid composition to connect central figures. Aerial perspective helped
to place the harsh foliage and rocks with more natural landscape.
The Madonna of the Rocks, Version #1: London, Leonardo da Vinci
Version #2: Paris, Leonardo da Vinci
Background to the Piece
• Leonardo uses the pyramid structure to unite his central figures (compositional structure)
• Point out the use of chiaroscuro (the use of light and dark) as a device to show mass and volume
• Mary, Jesus, St. John, and angel in grotto
• Figures form a pyramid shape
• Each figure links onto one another through gesture or gaze
• Each figure is anatomically correct (volume and mass of the figure)
Possible Teaching Approach
• Ask students if they see any differences between the London and the Paris versions of The Madonna
of the Rocks. (London – harsher, Paris-softer)

Page xiv • Visual Arts - Open


Appendix I (Continued)

A Study of Natural Space and Perspective – Slide Notes

The Last Supper, Leonardo da Vinci, 1495-8 Refectory of Santa Maria della Grazie, Milan
Background to the Piece
• Simple one-point perspective – all the lines lead to the Christ figure
• The painting is divided into groups of three
• Jesus and disciples at the Passover dinner
• Jesus has just told his disciples that they will betray him
• The figures form a mini drama or tableau
Possible Teaching Approach
• Point out the use of one-point perspective with the vanishing point centred at Christ’s head. In
addition, point out that the architecture behind the figures is drawn using simple one-point
perspective. Have students trace the one-point perspective lines.
Point out how Leonardo uses groups of three to divide up his long table with Jesus and twelve
disciples.

School of Athens, 1508, Raphael, (fresco), Stanza della Segnatura, Rome


Background to the Piece
• Composition designed to accommodate two main figures
• Considered perspective in this work
Possible Teaching Approach
• Explain how Raphael designed his composition to accommodate the two main characters and the
larger group of mathematicians, scientists, and philosophers.
• Examine how Raphael used the rules of perspective in his composition.

With these slides, focus on the three essential questions when presenting information:
1. How do artists use mathematical principles? (theory)
2. What do artists create from mathematical models? (creation)
3. How does art change through new discoveries? (analysis)

Page xv • Visual Arts - Open


Appendix J

The Golden Section (Rectangle)

The golden section comes from ancient Greece. It is a way to compose images based on mathematics.
Artists use it to find compositional harmony and perfect balance. The golden section was used during the
Italian Renaissance.
How to Make a Golden Rectangle
A golden rectangle can be constructed using a compass
and straightedge. To accomplish this construction, follow
the steps given. The figure shows the appropriate
lettering of the vertices.
1. Construct a square AEFD.
2. Bisect DF; label the midpoint M.
3. Extend DF.
4. With centre M and radius ME, draw an arc
intersecting DF at C.
5. Construct a perpendicular to DC at C.
6. Extend AE to intersect the perpendicular at B.

Make a Model
Cut a sheet of paper to measure 25 cm by 15.5 cm. This
rectangle closely approximates a golden rectangle. Fold
over one corner of the rectangle as shown. Then cut off
the square from the rectangle. The remaining rectangle
has the same properties as the original rectangle; hence it
is also a golden rectangle.

You can continue to generate golden rectangles by


repeating this process. Each successive square has sides
approximately 0.61803… times the length of the sides of
the preceding squares.

Place the squares together to form the original golden


rectangle as in the figure shown. This representation of
the golden rectangle is often referred to as “the rectangle
with the whirling squares.”

Spirals
The golden section can also form a spiral. By dividing
the canvas into divisions and subdivisions using the
golden section, create a spiral by multiplying each
measurement obtained successively by 0.618. The curves
pass through the golden point of each measurement,
covering the total surface area on which the painting will
be done.

Page xvi • Visual Arts - Open


Appendix K

I Am the Artist- Culminating Task Rubric

Categories Level 1 Level 2 Level 3 Level 4


50-59% 60-69% 70-79% 80-100%
Creation - flawed - workable - coherent - strong,
• Structural integrity of project structures structures structures inventive
structures
• Accuracy of cutting on - limited accuracy - acceptable - accurate cutting - high degree of
layered features in cutting accuracy in accuracy in
cutting cutting
• Planning - incomplete - functional - capable - detailed
planning planning planning research and
planning
• Combination of materials and - awkward - workable - successful - fresh
images combination of combination of combinations of combinations of
materials and materials and images and materials
images images materials
Analysis - insubstantial - plausible - able synthesis - imaginative
• Synthesis of the five layers synthesis of the synthesis of of layers synthesis of
into a unified composition image layers layers layers
Imagery and symbols - weak use of - loosely - appropriate use - ingenious use of
imagery and associated of symbols and symbols and
symbols imagery imagery imagery
Originality - imitative work - derivative work - unique work - inventive and
original work
Insight of written analysis - insufficient - suitable analysis - clear analysis of - insightful
analysis of of composition composition analysis of
composition composition
Theory/Reflection - restricted - operative - sound - superior
• Knowledge of architectural architectural knowledge of knowledge of knowledge of
style knowledge architecture architectural architectural
styles styles
• Understanding of creativity - insufficient - partial - good - significant
term understanding of understanding of understanding of understanding of
creativity creativity creativity creativity
• Knowledge of Golden Section - insubstantial - incomplete - sufficient - strong
knowledge of the knowledge of the knowledge of the knowledge of the
Golden Section Golden Section Golden Section Golden Section
Communication - restricted use of - functional use - competent use - fluent use of
• Use of artistic language – artistic language of artistic of artistic artistic language
principles and elements of language language
design
Note: A student whose achievement is below level 1 (50%) has not met the expectations for this
assignment or activity.

Page xvii • Visual Arts - Open


Appendix L

Portfolio Reflections for Students (Part 1)

1. Choose an artwork you completed earlier in the year and compare it with one that you have done
recently.
a) How has your artwork improved?
2. How would your wearable symbol of honour piece apply to the following essential questions:
a) Am I using the right tools to make my ideas clear to others?
b) What makes my art creative and unique?
c) How do I speak to others through my art?
3. Choose your favourite artwork and describe steps you used in the process of designing it. How did
these process steps contribute to your success?
4. Compare one of your artworks with a work from one of the time periods studied in this course.
Explain how your work is either similar to or different from the historical work.
5. Explain how one of your artworks answered a design challenge or problem in this course.
6. Show how one of your artworks uses a varied and creative approach in its realization.
7. Select the artwork in your portfolio that you think most effectively exhibits a sense of balance.
Describe the features that contribute to this sense of balance.
8. Select the artwork in your portfolio that you think most effectively expresses a feeling or message.
Explain how you have used the elements and principles of design to achieve this expressive effect.

Page xviii • Visual Arts - Open


Appendix M

Student Portfolio

The student portfolio will provide opportunity for students to:


• realize their learning;
• communicate ideas;
• express ideas;
• share their learning;
• set goals;
• organize their work;
• organize their thought process;
• draw closure to a unit, course, etc.

Portfolio Structures
Celebration Portfolio
Structure A
• used as a keepsake
• a personal collection of favorite works and academic certificates
• to show positive examples of learning experiences
• allows students to make the evaluations based on what is “special”
• allows students to become cognizant of their strengths and interests
Time Sequence Portfolio
Structure B1: The Growth Portfolio
• collection of work over time to demonstrate change in proficiency
• guidelines for selection developed by teacher and/or students
• guidelines dictate indicators for a particular proficiency or skill, e.g., contour-line drawing
• evaluation criteria needs to be constant over time
• feedback from teacher must be ongoing
• students are provided with substantial motivation to grow
Structure B2: The Project Portfolio
• over time, a student shows the completion of stages to a larger assignment.
• guidelines for the selection are in place, based on expectations from the curriculum documents.
• guidelines dictate that student provides evidence of completing all the necessary steps.
• guidelines define what quality work is (a four level rubric designed for this would be an example of
guidelines that indicate various degrees of quality (see pages 60 and 61 in The Ontario Curriculum,
Grades 9 and 10, The Arts, 1999).
• Guidelines should be given to students before work begins and can be used as a feedback tool over
time.

Page xix • Visual Arts - Open


Appendix M (Continued)

Student Portfolio

• Evaluation can be based on three sets of performance criteria:


1. achievement of the set of expectations;
2. stages completed within given timelines;
3. quality of work at each stage (refer to Levels of Achievement Chart).
• Time span can vary and may range from days to an entire year.
Structure C: Status Report Portfolio
• Pre-established standards of performance are to be developed by teacher and/or students related to
expectations found in the curriculum documents (a four level rubric designed for this would be an
example of guidelines that indicate various degrees of quality (see pages 60 and 61 in The Ontario
Curriculum, Grades 9 and 10, The Arts, 1999).
• Rubrics can be used as feedback tools throughout the development of the portfolio.
• Process rubrics (showing the development of the portfolio content) and performance rubrics
(showing the final portfolio product and presentation) could be developed.
• Content is determined by achievement target guidelines.
• Students must determine that they have achieved certain levels of proficiency – student self-
evaluations can be developed to assist students.
• Students assemble evidence of completing requirements for a particular course.
• Guidelines for the selection of portfolio content is to be highly structured.
• Portfolio content is to be driven by specific academic requirements.
• Portfolio content is to provide evidence of student mastery.
• Portfolio content demonstrates completion of prerequisites for the next unit or course.

Portfolio Evaluation Criteria


Developmental Level
Look for such things as student’s ability to represent figures and objects.
Look for degree of detail, accuracy of proportion, and spatial relationships.
Look at the content of the resource file.
Perception
Look for student’s ability to observe and interpret their surroundings.
Look for organized essays and composed pictures.
Look at the content of the resource file.
Expressiveness
Look for clarity of ideas, both visually and verbally.
Look for variety of resources and techniques.
Look at the content of the resource file.

Page xx • Visual Arts - Open


Appendix M (Continued)

Student Portfolio

Inventiveness
Look for imaginative, novel, or original solutions to problems.
Look for degree of elaboration on ideas and images – the number of dimensions and degree of
complexity.
Look for initiative in finding additional information and tasks.
Look at the content of the resource file.
Critical Thinking
Look for reference to internal and external evidence for interpretations of pictorial meanings (including
the ability to describe and use sensory and formal properties).
Look for ability to assess the value of information.
Look for reflection on and evaluation of one’s own artwork and that of others.
Group- and self-evaluation tools can be developed and included in the resource file.
Historical Understanding
Look for awareness of other artists, countries, and times; other styles, themes, subjects, and formats.
Aesthetic Appreciation
Look for ability to address “big questions.”
Look for inductive and deductive reasoning.
Development of self-evaluation tools would be beneficial, and can be included in the resource file.
Technical Quality
Look for adeptness with materials, tools, and techniques of presentation.

Page xxi • Visual Arts - Open


Appendix N

Portfolios – A Teacher Checklist


How will the portfolio be used?
❏ Is it feasible to pass on the entire content of the portfolio with the student, or a selection of pieces,
from grade to grade?
❏ Should it be sent home to parents at the conclusion of the year?
❏ Will it contain work from one subject area/domain or all of them?
❏ Is it going to be used as a school-wide or board-wide accountability piece to compare students with
peers, using pre-established criteria?
❏ Will the student use the portfolio for self-evaluation?
❏ Is the portfolio going to be assessed as a part of the final grade?
How should the pieces be selected?
❏ Should some works that are still in progress be included?
❏ Should only complete pieces be considered?
❏ Should students choose only their best work?
❏ Should the student alone be the arbiter of what should be included? The teacher? Both? Others?
❏ How can the selection task be shared? Should peer comments about the portfolio be included?
What are the evaluation options?
❏ Student work is assessed throughout the course and the final portfolio is evaluated for organization.
❏ One mark is given for the entire portfolio based on the student’s choices of the included body of
work. Pre-determined criteria must be in place.
❏ A few pieces from the course are collected in one portfolio to represent one student’s body of work
for the course. Criteria for the content should be in place as a guideline for students.
❏ A senior portfolio can be used for post-secondary or job interviews.
How can the portfolio be organized?
❏ a creative cover page that reflects the personality or interests of the student
❏ table of contents that includes the items and page numbers of the works contained
❏ the content of the portfolio organized to follow the table of contents
❏ a written journal entry about each piece explaining why it was selected and the student’s feelings
❏ a feedback sheet from parents to teachers to the students including comments, feedback, and
encouragement
What are the options for conducting portfolio conferences?
❏ student/teacher interview
❏ student/teacher – peer interview
❏ student/co-operative learning base groups share, a closed group
❏ student/parent interview
❏ cross-grade interview with students in another grade
❏ student/parent/teacher interview
❏ portfolio exhibitions
❏ pen-pal/net buddy sharing with scanned images

Page xxii • Visual Arts - Open


Appendix O

Portfolio Reflections for Students (Part 2)

Choose a piece of art you completed earlier in the year and compare it with one that you have done
recently.
• How has your artwork improved?
• How do you solve problems now in your artwork, compared with how you solved them earlier in the
year?

Choose one item that you are most proud of and tell why.

Which is your best piece of artwork? What makes it the best?

Which piece of work would you most likely have framed? Why?

About which aspects of art do you want to learn more about?

What are the two most important things that you have learned? How does your artwork show this?

With which piece do you feel you could still do more work? What would you do to finish the piece?

What goals have you set for yourself?


• Artistic?
• Personal?
• Educational?

Page xxiii • Visual Arts - Open


Appendix P

Looking at Art – Critical Thinking


Strategies to Organize Looking at Art...
Often students need gentle prompting when being asked to respond to works of art. Frequently key words
or phrases will be enough to instigate a comment or observation.
Retelling, Relating, Reflecting
Retell
Tell what you see by pointing out the different parts of the work – shapes, colours, lines, textures, people,
buildings, etc. Identify these items with words or phrases.
• I notice...
• In this artwork...
• The thing that catches my attention is...
Relate
Get them to talk about how the art work connects to their own experiences, stories, feelings, people they
know.
• It makes me think of...
• This painting makes me feel...
• This compares to...
Reflect
Ask questions about the work. Think about other possibilities or extensions. Make insights, inferences,
predictions. Evaluate.
• I wonder how... ?
• Why did the artist... ?
• What would happen if... ?
based on Susan Swartz and Maxine Bone, Retelling, Relating, Reflecting: Beyond the 3 R’s. (1990)

Learning to Think by Looking at Art


Slow Looking Down...
Ask students to look for three to five minutes (depending on the age and maturity level). Let your eyes
lead you through the artwork. Let questions emerge. Let what you know, inform your looking. Tell
yourself when you notice interesting or puzzling things. As the flow stops, look away for a few seconds
and then look back with fresh eyes.
Looking For...
Expand your perceptions. What’s going on here? Look for surprises – big ones and smaller ones. Does
the artist have a message? What kind of movement do you see? Where and when does it take place?
What cultural connections do you see? What positive space and negative space do you see? How has the
artist used colour and line? Which things are big and which are small in scale? What looks like it would
be difficult or challenging to paint, draw, sculpt, etc.?
Focussing In...
Look more deeply. Go back to find something that puzzles you. What is most interesting? What if you
changed a colour, material, or removed an object? How does the artist make some parts of the work
support other parts? Try to find a dominant part of a composition supported by evidence and conclusions
about the work.
based on David N. Perkins, The Intelligent Eye: Learning to Think by Looking at Art. (1994)

Page xxiv • Visual Arts - Open


Appendix Q

Looking at Art: Critical Thinking - 2


Visual Response Format – Viewing Art
Ministry of Education Resource Guide
Initial Response
• What are five words that you intuitively think of when you look at a specific art work?
Analysis
• Have students examine the work.
• What did the artist do to make you respond this way?
• What did you see in the work that made you think of that word? Colour? Texture? Image?
• How did the artist make you think this way? Culture? Time? Context? Composition? Content?
Symbols? Images? Elements of Art?
• What did the artist leave out of the work to make you respond as you do?
• What are the important decisions that the artist may have made in creating this work?
• What else contributes?
• What information can be gathered from the work itself? Media? Subject? Style? Symbols? Colours?
• What questions arise from looking at this work?
Information
• Provide a brief biography of the artist.
• Give some comparisons of artists with different or similar styles, themes, subject matter, or ideas.
• Have students research relevant information, or related works.
Personalization
• How does the work change you?
• What do you bring to the work that another viewer may not?
• What is most important, the subject or the artist’s view of the subject?
• Why might this work have been made?
• How does this relate to work that you have done?
• Has your response changed due to looking more closely at the work?
• What more would you like to know or understand about the work?
Extensions
• Extend the historical, theoretical, and appreciative components for the classroom into practical studio
activities.
• See Annie Smith’s book entitled Getting into Art History.

Page xxv • Visual Arts - Open


Appendix R

Looking at Art: Critical Thinking Activities


Ping Pong
Present students with two sets of paired images. Try to secure a variety of art forms, e.g., paintings,
sculpture, architecture, photographs. Select images which have some similarity in terms of subject
matter, design, or theme. (Later, they can be completely unrelated for a challenge.) Use between six and
seven pairs. Explain the procedures simply: ask students to decide which image is PING and which is
PONG. Do not define these terms. Allow students to define their own criteria for these two nonsensical
words. Keep repeating the word throughout the exercise. They can record answers on a sheet of paper
divided into two columns, one for PING and one for PONG. Follow up by reviewing the images and
discussing the many reasons why particular students made certain choices. The responses will be varied.
Encourage elaboration of responses and prompt incomplete statements. Their answers must be based on
their direct observation of the paired images. Keep in mind the criteria for selecting “pingness” and
“pongness” do not have to be the same throughout the exercise. A different criterion might be used for
each pair.
Finally, debrief by asking them the purpose of these exercises. Answer – Each person can have a
different interpretation and everyone will be right, as long as visual support comes from the images
before them.
Picture Round Robin
Have enough reproductions (e.g., postcards) for each student in your class. Place them on the desks
throughout the room (make sure that any factual information is covered up). Beside each image place a
piece of paper. Students should write number 1 at the top of the margin. Ask students a question about
their image (see questions below). Give students a minute or so to write their answer on the paper. Stress
careful observation. Once everyone is done, have the students fold their paper back so that their answer is
no longer visible and move to the next image. Repeat the process until all questions are answered and
everyone has moved around the room. Timing and numbers of questions will depend on the students.
Students return to their starting point and read the accumulated statements about their image. Complete a
full description of that image using the compiled information or create a poem using some or all of the
words and phrases. Have the students do further research about this image. Devise other questions that
could be asked. Have the students paint a picture or do a drawing as a response to this image and its
generated ideas.
The Questions
1. Write down one word that describes the feeling that this image creates in you.
2. Write down four descriptive words about this picture.
3. What is the dominant or most important colour?
4. What thing stands out or is most important in this picture?
5. What is least important?
6. Which of the art elements is strongest in this image: line, shape, colour, value, or texture?
7. Does it tell a story? If it does, explain the action in two or three short sentences.
8. If you could place yourself in this picture describe where you would be.
9. If you were the artist, what might you like to change about this work of art?
10. Finish this sentence: This picture reminds me of...
11. What might happen after the image that you are looking at?
12. Give this image a title of your choice.

Page xxvi • Visual Arts - Open


Appendix R (Continued)

Looking at Art: Critical Thinking Activities


Pictures That Come to Life
Students in small groups select an image or slide reproduction. They talk about the image in order to
determine what is happening and what it is all about. What are the relationships among the people,
animals, or objects? What is the mood? Have the students use some of the art inquiry questions to
instigate discussion. (A narrative, history, or genre subject will work best)
Next, the group improvises dialogue for the people represented in the work of art. They can essentially
write a brief script. This improvisation can also be tape-recorded. Refine the dialogue and role that each
student will play. The group can choose suitable background music or sound effects to accompany their
dialogue. In a final presentation, the image can be displayed prominently on an easel or projected onto a
screen or wall. The picture will appear to come to life right before your eyes.
In the Mood
Print words that represent various feelings and emotions, e.g., thrilling, sad, angry, jealous, joyful, on
recipe cards. Allow students to select postcards or large reproductions and ask them to attach an emotion
card to each reproduction. Ask the following questions as you and the class examine people’s choices:
• Why does this image/object suggest that particular emotion or feeling?
• Why do different people see different emotions in the same image?
• How do these emotions contribute to the meaning of the image?
Matchmakers
In pairs, students are given a card with a word printed on it. The word can be an adjective, noun, verb, or
adverb. Ask each pair to find a work of art that they believe somehow matches their word. Discuss the
choices. Alter this by having them choose a work of art that is opposite to their word. This could become
a library research strategy.
Sound Tracking
A small group selects a painting, print, sculpture, or installation. Use realistic or stylized sounds to
accompany the actions depicted in the chosen artwork. Try this with realistic and abstract art works.
Script and record a dialogue to fit the artwork. If available, instruments could be used, or created to
underscore the mood and setting. Perform the score. See the scores of R. Murray Shafer for inspiration.

Find other ideas in: Smith, Annie with Francena Hancock. Getting into Art History. Toronto: Barn Press,
1993. ISBN 96969953-0-6

Page xxvii • Visual Arts - Open


Appendix S

Looking at Art: Critical Thinking (Feldman)


Strategies to Organize Looking at Art...
The following methods and approaches are presented in order to help students during their interactions
with works of art. Many of these approaches will assist with looking and thinking, actions that are
inextricably linked and ultimately lead to understanding.
Feldman’s Method of Critical Inquiry
Describe
“What do I see?” (Taking an inventory of the visual evidence in the artwork.) At this stage, students
should be asked for initial reactions to the work of art in question. These will be personalized and
generally, but not exclusively, superficial and subjective. Have them identify essential information such
as title, medium, artist’s name, subject matter, date of creation, size, and location. At this point,
encourage students to objectively describe all visual information before them. They should stick to visual
“facts” and avoid expressing opinions or making conjectures suggested by symbols or clues. The evident
art elements (colour, line, shape, etc.) should be noted. Qualifying words can also be used to more
accurately describe what is seen, e.g., “The artist has painted fluffy, fat clouds.,” or “A figure in the back
is thin, stooped, and heavy-headed.” This final task will allow students to develop their use of adjectives.
Interpret
“What is happening?” and “What is the artist trying to say?” (Discovering the purpose or meaning of the
artwork.) This is probably the most important part of the critical inquiry process, but also the most
creative and thought-provoking part for the students. They should be challenged to find meaning in the
work through observations and analysis, but sometimes other relevant information is necessary in order
to make an informed interpretation. Students can be encouraged to do research in order to find out about
the artist or the times when the work was originally created. This provides a context for the artwork, and
simulates the kind of inquiry that art historians practise. Interpretations should be rich and meaningful, as
much as possible. Interpretations are not really “right” or “wrong,” but can be more or less insightful,
apt, interesting, informative, and reasonable
Analyse
“How is the work organized?” (Discovering relationships among the separate parts of the artwork.)
Analysis is a continuation of description, but instead of talking about separate parts, the focus shifts to
the way the parts work together. Here students should consider how the artist has made use of the
principles of design. A good way to begin analysis is to direct students’ attention to the pervasive or
dominant qualities of the work. These are the large, overall feeling qualities, mood, and characteristics.
Judge/Evaluate
“What do I think of the work?” [Judging the quality or success of the work.] Students are asked to make a
judgement about value or significance. These judgements should be based on the accumulated
information from previous stages of critical inquiry, namely description, analysis, and interpretation.
Sometimes other reasons for decisions need to be introduced in order to help students ground their
judgements in specific criteria. Imitation of appearances, or pleasing organization of form, or vivid
expression of emotions, or ideas can all be considered as valid criteria for making evaluations.

Page xxviii • Visual Arts - Open


Appendix T

Looking at Art: Twenty Questions of Art Criticism – The Language of Art


Description (Taking an inventory of the visual evidence in the artwork)
1. Write down three questions that immediately come into your mind as you look at this artwork.
(Afterwards, think about how you would go about finding answers to these questions.)
2. Give the full name and nationality of the artist. What is the title of the work?
Give the date the work was made or completed. What are its dimensions? In which museum or
gallery can this work be found? (Where should you look for this specific information?)
3. What medium and/or technique is used by this artist?
4. Can you identify the subject matter of this artwork? (still life, landscape, figure, portrait, genre,
narrative/history, abstraction, fantasy, allegory/symbolism) Now, accurately describe what you see in
the subject matter using specific language. Write about “the facts” that you observe directly. No
opinions.
5. Which elements of design are most important in this artwork? (line, shape/form, texture, colour,
value) Describe where these are located and how they appear. (Use descriptive words/adjectives.)
Analysis (Discovering relationships among the separate parts of the artwork)
6. What appears to be the focal point or area of emphasis in this artwork? How is it made so important?
Is contrast present?
7. Can you find a place where the artist/designer has used some type of rhythm in this artwork?
8. How has the artist/designer created a sense of balance in this work? What parts of the work
contribute to this balance? Is this an example of symmetrical or asymmetrical balance?
9. How has the artist/designer used colour to create unity in this work? Remember your colour theory.
Interpretation (Discovering the purpose or meaning of the artwork.)
10. What specific emotions or feeling does this work arouse in the viewer?
11. What is the subject matter? Does it represent something else? What is this work “about”?
12. How does the title of this work add to its meaning?
13. Why was this artwork created? What purpose does it serve?
14. Who was/is the intended audience? Was it created for a particular group or individual?
15. Does this work appear to belong to a particular period in history or a specific art style?
16. Does this artwork “speak” to you?
Evaluation (Judging the quality or relative value of the artwork)
17. What do you admire about this artwork? What are your reasons? (Look back at some of the things
that you have already said.)
18. Do you think this artist has been successful in communicating something to the viewer? Why or why
not?
19. Which of the following statements best fits your reason for evaluating this artwork as you have?
• It is accurate and honest in the way it imitates real life.
• It encourages strong emotions or feelings in the viewer.
• It is visually well organized and has an exciting design.
• It says something about my own society, beliefs, or concerns.
• It presents the beauty and visual appeal of the subject.
20. How would you rate this particular artwork? Other reasons? Poor Mediocre Good Exceptional

Page xxix • Visual Arts - Open


Appendix U

14 Questions for Looking at an Object

1. Overall appearance: Examine the object from various angles. How do I react to it?
2. Form: Record measurements, weights and proportions. Is there evidence of any repair or alteration?
3. Ornament: For any ornamentation, ask: Why is it there? Does it appear to accomplish its purpose?
Is the overall effect the better for its presence?
4. Colour: Does it appear to be original, or has it been changed over time?
5. Analysis of materials: Gather and assess information about the individual materials, e.g., wood,
metal, fabric. Use any instruments needed, for example, magnifying glass, camera, microscope, ruler.
What is the object made of?
6. Techniques: What techniques were used to construct the object? Inspect the object for clues.
7. Trade practices: Do any brand names, symbols, dates, or identifying marks exist on the object? Do
these help to date or give a location for the object?
8. Function: Why was the object made? What were the limiting conditions imposed by materials,
techniques, and skills? What was the intent of the maker? Can the object have adequately performed
the use for which it was designed? Does the evidence of wear occur where one would expect if the
object had been used as designed?
9. Style: Does the object have characteristics of a certain period, movement in art, technology, or
society?
10. Date: When was the object made? Appearance, form, and knowledge of its evaluation, ornament,
and style all play important parts in arriving at an approximate date. Look for any stamps, clues,
signatures, or marks.
11. Attribution: Who made this object? How do you know? Are you sure? In the case of an author’s
signature, ask, “What proof is there that this name or initials are authentic?” Can you ascribe the
work to a known artist on the basis of style only?
12. History: What do you know about the ownership of this object? Is there any information about the
object that is documented through sales records, exhibition catalogues, or family history?
13. Condition: Is there evidence of natural aging and wear such as colouration, patina, cracking, etc.
Have repairs been made?
14. Appraisal or evaluation: What is the value of the object? What criteria will this object be valued
by?

Page xxx • Visual Arts - Open


Appendix V

Mind Mapping - A Guideline for Teachers

Teachers:
• establish ground rules for group dialogue;
• establish roles for each group member;
• model group discussion that encourages students to give reasons;
• allow students to respond to ideas and opinions of others;;
• allow students to summarize ideas;
• inform students of the assessment criteria for a group activity;
• devise a method for students to self-evaluate their group contribution;
• devise a method for group evaluation processes;
• prepare a follow-up to assess student’s knowledge.
Group discussion will:
• bring out ideas that emerge unexpectedly;
• encourage students to follow a set criteria for discussion;
• encourage students to express ideas;
• encourage students to respect the opinions of others;
• encourage students to participate and communicate.

Page xxxi • Visual Arts - Open


Appendix W

Thinking About Thinking - Metacognition

Categories Level 1 Level 2 Level 3 Level 4


50-59% 60-69% 70-79% 80-100%
Think - rarely ask - occasionally ask - usually ask - consistently ask
yourself what is yourself what is yourself what is yourself what is
my aim, why am I my aim, why am I my aim, why am I my aim, why am I
doing this, how doing this, how doing this, how doing this, how
will I do it, when will I do it, when will I do it, when will I do it, when
will I do it? will I do it? will I do it? will I do it?
(sequence) (sequence) (sequence) (sequence)
Monitor - rarely check - occasionally - usually check - consistently
what you are check what you what you are check what you
doing; continually are doing; doing; continually are doing;
ask yourself what, continually ask ask yourself what, continually ask
why, and how yourself what, why, and how yourself what,
why, and how why, and how
Check - rarely check - occasionally - usually check - consistently
your work to check your work your work to check your work
determine what to determine what determine what to determine what
you were you were you were you were
supposed to do, supposed to do, supposed to do, supposed to do,
why you were why you were why you were why you were
supposed to do it, supposed to do it, supposed to do it, supposed to do it,
how you are how you are how you are how you are
supposed to do it, supposed to do it, supposed to do it, supposed to do it,
and whether you and whether you and whether you and whether you
have done what have done what have done what have done what
you set out to do you set out to do you set out to do you set out to do
Evaluate - rarely evaluate - occasionally - usually evaluate - consistently
your work to see evaluate your your work to see evaluate your
if you understand work to see if you if you understand work to see if you
what you have understand what what you have understand what
done, if you need you have done, if done, if you need you have done, if
more practice, and you need more more practice, and you need more
if you achieved practice, and if if you achieved practice, and if
your goal you achieved your your goal you achieved your
goal goal
Note: A student whose achievement is below level 1 (50%) has not met the expectations for this
assignment or activity.

Page xxxii • Visual Arts - Open


Appendix X

The Resource Journal

The resource journal should:


• relate to student assignments;
• support development of art assignments and techniques;
• show conceptual stages for portfolio;
• show progress in critical thinking/problem solving (collection, selection, refinement);
• show reflection around aesthetical issues;
• show research of artists;
• reflect feedback about art criticism;
• be portable, durable, storable.
The resource journal may include:
• preparatory sketches;
• working and finished drawings;
• anecdotal thoughts by artist and others;
• visual resources;
• self-evaluation work;
• assessment sheets;
• experimentation with mediums;
• articles with rationale.
The resource journal may look like:
• accordion folder;
• scrapbook/journal;
• binder;
• artist-generated container.
Assessing the journal:
• Does the journal demonstrate sufficient research into the selected subject focus?
• Does the research allow a resolution to artistic problems?
• Have new problems been addressed?
• Does the art work demonstrate an emerging pattern?
• Rubrics and checklists and assessment tools can be developed by the teacher and students.
• Regular feedback must be given to students.
• Self-evaluation and goal setting must be ongoing.

Page xxxiii • Visual Arts - Open


Appendix Y

Indicators for Resource Journal Entries

Criteria Indicators
Undeveloped Partial Competent Powerful
Level 1 Level 2 Level 3 Level 4
50-59% 60-69% 70-79% 80-100%
Content - no evidence of - expresses - responses - evidence of
thoughtful personal supported by higher order
reflection – tells preferences only – specific examples thinking – student
only what no explanation and personal makes
happened or what offered reflections connections
s/he did between personal
reflections and
specific examples
Self-evaluation - journal notes - clearly identifies - aware of - has developed a
show limited strengths and personal needs repertoire of
insight into own needs as a learner, and strengths as a strategies for
strengths and but does not learner and is solving own
needs as a learner attempt to solve beginning to difficulties as
own problems develop strategies learner and sets
for solving own own goals for
problems improvement and
future learning
Work habits - requires constant - occasionally - independently - takes own
prompting to needs to complete completes the initiative to use
complete journal log; most entries required number journal as a way
entries are completed on of entries and of exploring own
time submits journal on learning and
time completes more
than the required
number of entries
Note: A student whose achievement is below level 1 (50%) has not met the expectations for this
assignment or activity.

Page xxxiv • Visual Arts - Open


Appendix Z

T-chart for Comparisons

The comparison you are using…

SIMILAR DIFFERENT
Slide A Slide B
Historical period: Historical period:

Page xxxv • Visual Arts - Open


Appendix AA

The Shadowbox

1. Each layer of the shadowbox is cut out so that the next layer behind it can be seen. The drawing of
the building (layer three) and the landscape image (layer four) should be visible through the window
cutout.
2. The diagram indicates how each layer is arranged and attached. The layers can be attached either by
cardboard spacer blocks or boxboard U-joints. The dimensions for this project may vary depending
on the materials available and the students’ needs. A frame/edge could be attached to the sides of this
project to disguise the visible joints and structure.

Page xxxvi • Visual Arts - Open


Appendix BB

Course Evaluation
See The Ontario Curriculum, Grades 9 and 10, The Arts, pp. 60-61 for a detailed breakdown of the four
levels of achievement

Course Units Percentage Categories


Unit 1: The Artist’s Point of View 70% • Theory (Knowledge/Understanding)
Unit 2: The Artist Deals with Place, Time • Thinking/ Inquiry
and Spaces • Communication
Unit 3: The Artist Investigates Math and • Creation (Application)
the Measurement of Art
Unit 4: The Artist Makes a Statement
Unit 5: I am the Artist: The Window of My 30% Summative Evaluation
Mind • Theory (Knowledge/Understanding)
• Thinking/Inquiry
• Communication
• Creation (Application)
100%

Page xxxvii • Visual Arts - Open


Appendix CC

Example of Student Handout/Student Assessment Rubric for Monogram Portfolio


Assignment

Monogram Portfolio Assignment Sheet


• Using your first and last initials, produce a monogram (a combination of two letters designed to
function as one symbol) that is designed within a specific shape.
• Prepare at least three different designs.
• Think/pair/share you ideas (suggest improvements) with a partner and decide on a final design.
• Improve your design and transfer it on the final paper, considering the criteria described below.
Assessment Criteria Rubric
• Teachers can use this template to set up their own rubric to assess this assignment.
• See The Ontario Curriculum, Grades 9 and 10, The Arts for the language to be used for each of the
four different levels

Criteria Level 1 Level 2 Level 3 Level 4


(50-59%) (60-69%) (70-79%) (80-100%)
Theory (Knowledge/Understanding)
- demonstrates an understanding of line,
shape, positive and negative space
Thinking / Inquiry
- demonstrates an understanding of the
design process (three preliminary
drawings, partner consultation,
improvement in selected design)
Communication
- monogram is accurate and effectively
communicates the identity of the
student.
Creation/Application
- the idea for the monogram is original
- good control over the media (marker)
Note: A student whose achievement is below level 1 (50%) has not met the expectations for this
assignment or activity.

Page xxxviii • Visual Arts - Open


Appendix DD

Reflection Sheet

Complete the following questions:

1. How would you explain the development of your ideas for your “Not-So-Still Life”?

2. Did the ideas come quickly or gradually? Explain.

3. How did listening to others during the class brainstorming session help in the development of your
ideas?

4. How did the ideas grow?

5. What connections or relationships among the items did you use?

6. Did you find that some of your ideas did not work? Why?

7. How did you make use of your Look Page Resources? Be specific.

8. Why is your “Not-So-Still Life” a successful work of art? Explain.

Page xxxix • Visual Arts - Open


Appendix EE

Contour Drawing Lessons (Blind and Modified Contour Drawing skills)

Contour Drawing means drawing the edge of an object as a way of co-ordinating one’s sense of touch
and sight. Contour drawings are line drawings that are developed form by form, or detail by detail, to
arrive at the completed form. As the eye follows the contours of the object, the hand draws the line,
trying to ‘feel’ the edge of the object visually. Suggest that students look at one point of the object, then
place their pencil on the paper, at the place corresponding to the place their eyes are resting on the object.
As they move their eye slowly along the contour of the object they should move their pencil on the paper
at the same time. A true contour line is one slow, continuous line.
Media
• White cartridge, fine line marker or pen, drawing boards, masking tape
• Still life material
Objectives
• To strengthen observational skills
• To extend concentration time
• To introduce the specific techniques of blind contour drawings and modified contour drawings
• To introduce the idea that drawing involves seeing as well as the hand motion of putting pencil to
paper
• To develop a sensitive use of line

1. Blind Contour Drawing - Thumb


Teaching/Learning Strategies
• Give out supplies, i.e., paper, pencils, or fine line markers and drawing boards.
• Securely affix paper to drawing board with masking tape.
• Explain by demonstrating on the board or on a piece of large chart paper a blind contour drawing
of your thumb.
Explanation to students while demonstrating:
• This drawing style was developed by Nicolaides who wrote a book/course on art. This technique
is also demonstrated in Betty Edward’s book, Drawing on the Right Side of the Brain.
Demonstrate drawing a blind contour of your thumb – emphasize slow, continuous line and show
what an edge is.
• When you draw, you do not look at the paper; you only look at the object because the object
contains all of the information.
• Imagine the marker/pencil is touching the edge of the object
• Concentrate on the edges of the object – both outside and inside. (There is to be silence when
drawing.)
Now have students do the same for one minute. After this first drawing, students walk around to see
everyone else’s work
• Ask which, not whose, drawings are most successful and why? (Look for sensitive use of line
and detail, not realism.)
• Ask what are the areas for improvement? (i.e., drawing slower by more careful observation)

Page xl • Visual Arts - Open


Appendix EE (Continued)

2. Blind Contour Drawing – Fingers, then Whole Hand


• Follow the same procedure as above.
• The teacher circulates and provides one-to-one tutoring. Check that students are drawing slowly
and are not looking at paper or using fast sketch lines.

3. Modified Blind Contour Drawing


A modified blind contour drawing allows students to change direction of their line or judge distance.
This contour drawing allows the student to stop and look at the paper periodically to check direction
and proportion. When they resume drawing, they look back at the object and continue drawing. It is
important to stress that observation is still the key and they should only draw what they see and not
what they think they see.
• Have students complete a few modified contour drawings prior to moving on to a full still-life
drawing

Assessment
When assessing blind and modified blind contour drawings, teachers should consider the following:
• line sensitivity (careful observation of even minor details in the outside or inside edge);
• continuous line (student should not lift their drawing utensil – the line should be uninterrupted);
• modified blind contour drawings should be more accurate, with inner and outer edges in proportion
to the original;
• Look for lines that “double back” to pick up small details.

Page xli • Visual Arts - Open


Appendix FF

Rubric: Still Life Drawing

Categories Level 1 Level 2 Level 3 Level 4


(50-59%) (60-69%) (70-79%) (80-100%)
Theory - demonstrates - demonstrates - demonstrates - demonstrates
- understanding of limited some considerable thorough and
elements and understanding understanding understanding insightful
principles understanding
Creation
- application of knowledge and skills:
a) accuracy of - limited - some level of - good level of - high level of
drawing resemblance to accuracy achieved accuracy achieved accuracy
original
- limited scale and - scale and - scale and - scale and
proportion proportion are proportion are proportion are
accuracy uneven good highly accurate
b) value range - limited value - satisfactory - good value range - excellent value
range achieved value range range
c) control of - limited level of - some level of - good level of - excellent level
media control control control of control
d) composition - limited - satisfactory - good - excellent
composition composition composition composition
- limited - some - objects are well - strong
achievement of achievement of balanced and compositional
unity, balance unified
unity and balance balance and unity
- good movement - movement used
throughout the effectively
composition
*Categories Thinking/Inquiry and Communication should be covered on the “Not-So-Still Life” Rubric

Note: A student whose achievement is below level 1 (50%) has not met the expectations for this
assignment or activity.

Page xlii • Visual Arts - Open


Appendix GG

Rubric: Not-So-Still Life Drawing

Categories Level 1 Level 2 Level 3 Level 4


(50-59%) (60-69%) (70-79%) (80-100%)
Theory - demonstrates - demonstrates - demonstrates - demonstrates
- understanding of limited some considerable thorough and
elements and principles understanding understanding understanding insightful
understanding
Thinking/ Inquiry - uses creative - uses creative - uses creative - uses creative
- creative thinking skills thinking skills thinking skills with thinking skills with thinking skills with a
(fluency, flexibility, with limited moderate considerable high degree of
divergent thinking) effectiveness effectiveness effectiveness effectiveness
- making connections - makes - makes - makes connections - makes connections
(between the arts and connections connections with with considerable with a high degree of
personal experience, with limited moderate effectiveness effectiveness
etc.) effectiveness effectiveness
- transformation from - limited success - moderate success - successful - very successful
first still life shapes to with with transformation transformation
second composition transformation transformation
Communication - communicates - communicates - communicates with - communicates with
- communicates and with limited with moderate considerable clarity a high degree of
expression of ideas clarity clarity clarity
- use of artistic - uses artist - uses artistic - uses artistic - uses artistic
language and symbols language and language and language and language and
symbols with symbols with some symbols with symbols with a high
limited accuracy accuracy and considerable degree of accuracy
and effectiveness accuracy and and effectiveness
effectiveness effectiveness
Creation - limited - some level of - good level of - high level of
- application of resemblance to accuracy achieved accuracy achieved accuracy
knowledge and skills: original - scale and - scale and proportion - scale and
a) accuracy of drawing - limited scale proportion are are good proportion are highly
and proportion uneven accurate
accuracy
b) value range - limited value - satisfactory value - good value range - excellent value
range achieved range range
c) control of media - limited level of - some level of - good level of - excellent level of
control control control control
d) composition - limited - satisfactory - good composition - excellent
composition composition - objects are well composition
- limited - some balanced and unified - strong
achievement of achievement of - good movement compositional
unity, balance unity and balance throughout the balance and unity
composition - movement used
effectively
Note: A student whose achievement is below level 1 (50%) has not met the expectations for this
assignment or activity.

Page xliii • Visual Arts - Open


Appendix HH

Elements and Principles of Art Checklist

Elements of Art Where How


Colour

Value

Line

Shape/Form

Space

Texture

Principles of Art Where How


Balance
- formal
- informal
- radial
Variety

Emphasis

Proportion/Scale

Rhythm/Movment

Unity

Page xliv • Visual Arts - Open