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UK JANUARY - FEBRUARY 2008

I N D O O R G A R D E N I N G

FREE

WHY USE SUGARY


SUPPLEMENTS?

AQUAPONICS
WHERE ONE PLUS ONE
EQUALS THREE
NUTRIENT SOLUTIONS: Part 2
Their Formulations and Uses
CONTENTS
This is already occurring in a number of countries, such as
Scotland, New Zealand, Norway, and Australia, where farming
salmon in sea cages has become a major industry and where
shellfish such as green mussels (New Zealand) and Rock Oys-
ters (Australia) improve the efficiency of the industry.
In Australia there is also a significant freshwater fish farming

JANUARY / FEBRUARY 2008


industry producing eels, Barramundi, and Murray cod, but all
of these land-based systems have two major problems — lim-
ited water supply and the disposal of fish feces.
I first became aware of aquaponics when I gave a seminar on
aeroponics at the University of Western Australia. Two of the
people who a�ended the symposium were from Curtin Univer-
sity — a postgraduate student from Cyprus and his supervisor.
They took me to see the student’s research, which was growing
a crop of NFT hydroponic le�uce together with the produc-
tion of Barramundi fish. The system was quite simple in that
in one large tank the barramundi were fed with fish food and
the resulting solution was used as the nutrient solution for the

FEATURES
hydroponic le�uce, which was then re-circulated back to the
barramundi tank. Unfortunately, the student had to return to
Cyprus and his PhD was never completed.
My next involvement with aquaponics was at the South Pacific
Soilless Conference, which was held at Massey University in
2003. Among the papers was one from a Charlie Schultz from
the University of the Virgin Islands in the West Indies. In his
paper he described how he grew crops of basil in an aquaponic
system with Tilapia fish.
In 2005 I a�ended a hydroponics meeting in Singapore, in
which a whole day was set aside for discussions on aquapon-
ics. Leading the discussion was Professor Jim Rakocy from
the Virgin Islands, along with his colleague Charlie Schultz,
whom I had first met at Massey some two years earlier. They
Aquaponic cucumbers and egg plants (Canada)

AQUAPONICS
were ably supported by a Canadian researcher, Nick Savidov,
>
14 > AQUAPONICS: WHERE ONE PLUS ONE ASK ERIK
Do you have a question for Erik? Forward it to info@maximumyield.com with
from Alberta. the words “Ask Erik” in the subject line, and your answer will be printed in an
upcoming edition.

EQUALS THREE
Where One Plus One Equals Three by Dr. Mike Nichols Hello Erik,

What are the pros and cons of using LED grow


In the beginning man was a hunter-gatherer, killing wild animals lights vs. other types of grow lamps?
and harvesting wild plants for food. This nomadic life slowly

14 > by Dr. Mike Nichols


Thanks for your help.
changed when wild food resources declined and man became Dave Miller
a farmer. Rumor has it that the wives became frustrated with
Hello Dave,
continually moving the dishwasher from cave to cave! LED lights last much longer than HID lamps and their lumen to
Man is still primarily a hunter-gatherer in relation to food from wa� ratio efficiency is considerably higher. Although LEDs are a

22 > NUTRIENT SOLUTIONS: PART 2


Light Emi�ing Diode (LED) technologies look to be NASA’s first
very efficient source of light, they tend to lack the sheer intensity
the sea, but this can not continue indefinitely, as modern technol-
Massey University, Palmerston North, New Zealand ogy alone will ensure that the world’s fish resources decline at
choice in grow room construction. LED lights are an extremely
efficient light source, and the spectra can be tailored for plant
that metal halide and HPS lighting systems offer. The individual
LED bulbs are very small and are banked together to produce
growth functions, so no energy is used to produce wavelengths
an increasing rate; fishing will becomes less and less efficient and higher lighting intensities. However, the distance at which they
that the plants will not require. In fact, plants grown under LEDs
a�ractive. The answer clearly lies in the hunter-gatherer of the sea can look more black, as no green light is being reflected. Green-
emit light at higher intensities is not very far.
In my opinion LED lamps would be very well suited for pro-
being replaced by the farmer of the sea — aquaculture. Barramundi fish in Australia

Their Formulations and Uses


light wavelengths are typically not absorbed by the plants, but
duction of low growing crops such as greens, herbs, and dwarf
reflected. For aesthetic purposes, LEDs can be tailored to allow
vegetable varieties. Because LED lighting can be tailored to very
plants to receive light wavelengths similar to the sun’s spectrum.
specific spectral outputs, they could be used to supplement con-
But this means energy is being used to create wavelengths that
ventional HID-lit gardens to produce crops of higher quality. They
the plants do not require.
can also be used to maintain a vegetative lighting cycle while the
HID lamps are running 12/12 to conserve power and allow the use
of “flip-flop” relay systems in the vegetative growth phase.
LED lamps would be extremely well suited for the propagation

by Dr. J. Benton Jones Jr. of seeds and cu�ings. They emit li�le heat and provide gentle
and even lighting, all within the exact light wavelengths the
plants require. Small-scale closet-style grow chambers could be
improved with LED lighting.
At present LED lighting is more expensive than conventional
HID lighting systems. But the lack of heat they emit means that
exhausting or air-conditioning grow room air will be minimized.
The LED lamps operate only a few degrees above ambient tem-
peratures. They can also be mounted at any angle so that all parts
of the plants can receive light.

30 > WHY USE SUGARY SUPPLEMENTS?


A colleague has a friend who finished a crop exclusively us-
ing LED lighting. Reportedly the quality of the smaller stature
plants was extremely good and the plants appeared exceptionally

NUTRIENT SOLUTIONS
CROP REQUIREMENTS healthy while growing. The yield was modest.

Part 2: Crop requirements justify some of the variation in commonly


recommended nutrient solution formulas. Not all of the es-
Any growers who have tried this or any other new technology
should feel free to drop me a line here at Maximum Yield to share
their experiences and opinions.
sential elements are significant, but some crops have specific

Their Formulations and Uses by Matt LeBannister


requirements with respect to the major elements N, Mg and P Cheers, Erik Biksa
and the micronutrients Cu, Fe, Mo, and Zn. In addition, crop
requirements change with each stage of plant development, 10 MAXIMUM YIELD UK January / February 2008
from the vegetative to the fruiting stages, which would justify
by Dr. J. Benton Jones Jr. modifying a particular nutrient solution formulation and its
use.

CHELATES
It is well known that the chelate EDTA (ethylenediamine
tetraacetic acid) is toxic to plants, even though FeEDTA is a
commonly used form of Fe included in many nutrient solution
formulas. In the past, iron (ferrous) sulfate (FeSO4.7H2O), iron
(ferric) sulfate, Fe(SO4), iron (ferric) chloride (FeCl36H2O), and
iron ammonium sulphate (FeSO4(NH4) 2SO4.6H2O) have been
used with varying success as reliable, plant-available sources
of Fe in a nutrient solution.
Recently, Rengel (2002) found that the inclusion of EDTA (at
100 ppm) in the nutrient solution decreased the growth of young
wheat plants. Iron was found to accumulate in the roots of the
wheat plants when FeEDTA was in the nutrient solution
compared to when an EDTA-free nutrient solution was
used. In addition, the uptake and transport of both Cu
and Zn from roots to plant tops was
significantly reduced when EDTA
was present in the nutrient
solution.
The chelate DTPA (dieth-
ylenetriamine pentaacetic
acid), thought not
to be toxic to

concentration in the nutrient solution. Root membranes selectively plants, is replacing FeEDTA as a chelated source
control the passage of ions from the surrounding nutrient solution (FeDTPA) for Fe. As was observed by Rengel (2002),
into the root cells, with the transported ions passing into the xylem DPTA may act like the chelate EDTA, restricting the
In Part 1 I discussed the fact that nutrient solution formulas for upward movement into the upper portion of the plant. uptake and translocation of Cu and Zn, something
Nitrate (NO3-) and potassium (K+) are present in most nutrient

30 >
vary a great deal and that problems can arise if a given solution that needs to be investigated when FeDTPA is in the nutrient

22 >
is used incorrectly or the ratios of various elements are not ideal. solutions in fairly high concentrations and move readily from the solution formulation. This may partially explain why low Cu
In this Part 2 I address the many factors that must be considered nutrient solution into the plant root. All the other ions in solu- and particularly low Zn concentrations have been observed
in creating a nutrient solution. tion are selectivity absorbed. An element must be in solution as in assayed leaf tissue when evaluating the nutrient element
an ion in order to be absorbed, although there is evidence that status of tomato plants. Other commonly chelated forms of
PLANT ROOT INFLUENCE small molecules can be transported through root membranes. the micronutrients Cu, Mn, and Zn, should not be put into a
The absorption of ions from the nutrient solution into the plant The size (surface area) of the root and its physical characteristics nutrient solution formulation.
root is a complex physiological process influenced by temperature, will influence ion absorption, although these are less a factor in
aeration, root respiration rate, rate of plant transpiration, and ion soilless media than in soil.

by Ma� LeBannister
max facts DEPARTMENTS
6 > AROUND THE WORLD WITH 4 > FROM THE EDITOR
HYDROPONICS
> Hydroponics Comes to 10 > ASK ERIK
Moldova Courtesy of
Northwestern College 12 > PRODUCT SPOTLIGHT
> 12th Annual SolFest Draws
10,000 People
> 200 Greenhouses Exported 35 > MAXIMUM YIELD
WHY USE SUGARY from Spain to Iraq DISTRIBUTORS
SUPPLEMENTS? PEOPLE FEED THEIR PLANTS SUGARS all the time without
knowing it and not always understanding why. You give your
sweetheart a bouquet of roses for Valentine’s Day and before
8 > QUICK FACTS 38 > CHECK YOUR GROWING IQ
30 > > Hydroponics 101: Part 2
they are put into the vase, sugar is added to the water to extend
their bloom. Some “old school” gardeners will add molasses to
their nutrient solution during the flowering period. Actually,
just by adding fulvic acid, and humic acid, to your nutrient mix
you are giving your plants the building blocks for sugars.
> Fun with Aerobic
USA

Composting

MAXIMUM YIELD UK January / February 2008 3


FROM THE EDITOR
THE NEW YEAR HAS STARTED OFF WITH A BANG at Maximum
Yield and we’re excited to be your number one choice when it comes
to indoor gardening. We had a great year of growth for the indoor
gardening industry in 2007, and 2008 promises to hold even more
growth potential.

Speaking of growth potential, the articles packed into this issue of


Maximum Yield will really help you reach your crop’s maximum yield.
Dr. James Benton Jones Jr. finishes his two-part series on nutrient
solutions, which will help you find the exact formula you need to make
>> JAKE BRZOVIC your plants thrive. Nutrient solutions are one of the most difficult
aspects of indoor gardening to truly master, but this article should put
a lot of your questions about them to rest.

At the same time, Ma� Lebannister has a fantastic article on using sugar
supplements to achieve a be�er taste in your fruits and vegetables and
to help your plants look even more amazing. If you haven’t been using
a sugar supplement during your growing cycle, you might be missing
out on a vital component.

There are many different industry innovations coming in 2008 and


you can be sure that Maximum Yield is going to look a�er ge�ing you
all the latest information, about growing as well as groundbreaking
technologies. Make sure you visit us on the web at www.maximumyield.
com and keep track of everything we’re doing!

I know you’re going to love this issue of Maximum Yield, and I welcome
any comments or questions you might have at jake@maximumyield.
com.

PRESIDENT Jim Jesson UK DISTRIBUTION USA DISTRIBUTION


Ikon International Bloomington Wholesale
PUBLISHER / EDITOR
Growth Technology Hydrofarm
Jake Brzovic
I N D O O R G A R D E N I N G General Hydroponics
BUSINESS MANAGER CANADIAN DISTRIBUTION National Garden Wholesale /
VOLUME 7 – NUMBER 5 Linda Jesson Allies Wholesale Garden Supply Sunlight Supply
JANUARY / FEBRUARY 2008 Brite-Lite Group Tradewinds
CREDIT MANAGER
Debbie Kyle Biofloral
Maximum Yield is published bi-monthly by Eddis Wholesale AUSTRALIAN DISTRIBUTION
Maximum Yield Publications Inc. ADVERTISING SALES Hydrotek Futchatec
2339A Delinea Place, 250.729.2677 Quality Wholesale Hydraspher
Nanaimo, BC V9T 5L9 linda@maximumyield.com SupplyNet
Phone: 250.729.2677; Fax 250.729.2687. lisa@maximumyield.com FRANCE DISTRIBUTION Growth Technology
No part of this magazine may be reproduced GHE
without permission from the publisher. PRODUCTION & DESIGN
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pentti@maximumyield.com
The views expressed by columnists are a
Alice Joe
personal opinion and do not necessarily reflect alice@maximumyield.com
those of Maximum Yield or the Editor.
ads@ads.maximumyield.com
Publication Agreement Number 40739092

4 MAXIMUM YIELD UK January / February 2008


MAXFACTS HYDROPONICS NEWS, TIPS AND TRIVIA
<...AROUND THE WORLD WITH HYDROPONICS .................................................>
Hydroponics Comes to Moldova Courtesy of
Northwestern College
A group of students and faculty from Northwestern College
has returned to Iowa a�er a trip to the European country of
Moldova to set up a small aquaponics project. Using a 250-gal.
(950-L) water tank, the team installed the self-sustaining system
at a home in the developing nation. Aquaponics, of course, is
derived from hydroponics. It combines raising fish and growing
vegetables, using the fish to clean the water and recirculate it.
The system sustains around 100 carp at a time, and will be used
to grow tomatoes. The project will not only help the family but
the entire community.
Research and experiments took four years, but Northwestern
College has now created a kit that can be installed in many more
places. Northwestern sells the inexpensive kits to relief agencies
around the world and hopes that families who receive the kit can
replicate it once they understand how it works.
(Source: Radio Iowa)

12th Annual SolFest Draws


10,000 People
The 12th Annual SolFest was a huge
success, drawing more than 10,000 through
the gates of the Solar Living Institute in
Hopland, CA. Sponsored in part by the
likes of General Hydroponics and Toyota,
SolFest is a showcase of alternative energy
and “green” products.
Located in Mendocino County, the 12- 200 Greenhouses Exported from Spain to Iraq
acre (~5 ha) living area is open year-round The Murcia region in southwestern Spain is well known for its variety of fresh fruits
and features eco-friendly amendments and vegetables — in huge amounts and in every size desired. Greens growing in that
such as a mini-farm, bike-powered energy area are known for having the best colours and shapes and for having a great taste.
generators, electric-car charging stations The Murcian farmers have been specialists in growing fruits and vegetables for decades,
and more solar panels in one spot than and because of the high importance of the agro sector in that area, are also known for
you’ve seen in your life. their development and use of the latest technologies.
Independent media journalist Amy Now the government in Kurdistan has seen its chance to grow vegetables and fruits
Goodman was one of the featured speakers. using the Murcian model and is buying 200 plastic greenhouses and other agricultural
For more information on SolFest, visit supplies from the Murcia region, which will be donated to local farmers.
www.solfest.org. An agreement was signed by Murcia and Kurdistan last year for a pilot project to
modernize Kurdistan’s agro sector. The aim of the Kurdish government is to help
local farmers obtain a higher yield. Experience in Murcia showed that tomato farmers
could increase their average yield per square meter from half a kilo (~1 lb.) obtained by
conventional methods to up to nine kilos (~20 lb.) using the new methods.
(Source: Kurdistan National Assembly)

Hydro Most garden pests can be controlled by natural means,

Quote
eliminating the need for pesticides or chemical use.
- Peggy Bradley

6 MAXIMUM YIELD UK January / February 2008 MAXIMUM YIELD UK January / February 2008 7
> MAX FACTS
<...QUICK FACTS .................................................................................>
fi�ings might need to be taken apart • Positives. This is a great system for
Hydroponics 101 – Pt 2 and flushed in hot water, or a shot of extremely healthy roots. Since your
Last issue we looked at the basic NFT compressed air through the system plant’s roots are not encumbered by
system. This month we’re taking a look might be needed to unclog it. soil or a nutrient bath, they breathe
at the more intricate aeroponic method of • Difficulty of Setup (9 out of 10). deeply and show their appreciation by
growing. Check out www.maximumyield.com This is the granddaddy of all home growing well.
for last issue’s instalment of Hydroponics construction. It takes a li�le work and • Negatives. There are three downfalls to
101. precision to successfully set up your this system: price, complicated setup,
Aeroponic Garden. misters, and keeping your psi high and price. It will cost you more than any
The name itself explains what it is. In enough to deliver your nutrients equally of your other options to set up, but you
most gardens the plant roots are supported and efficiently could take some fine- do get what you pay for. Pre-fabricated
in a soil or nutrient bath. In an aeroponic tuning. This one rates a nine on the meter systems can control cost and will
garden, however, the roots are suspended unless you happen to have a NASA work just as well as pu�ing something
in air. Aeroponic cultivation provides technician in your back pocket! together yourself.
the most optimized environment for the
exchange of CO2, oxygen, water, and
nutrients.
• Price. Price can vary greatly. One new
product for the kitchen costs only
around $150, with no work required,
whereas a custom system can be up to
three times as much.
• Space. Allow about 4 x 8 �. (120 x 240 cm)
of space for a 20-plant system.
• Maintenance. Keep an eye on pH and
nutrient levels, as for most soilless
gardening. Misters are the standard
form of delivery for your nutrient and
are prone to clogging, so the small

Fun with Aerobic Composting


Compost. It’s a popular word these days, thrown around in many • With initial construction of your compost, build it in layers of like
different areas of indoor and outdoor gardening. Pre�y much materials. One layer of weeds, grass clippings, etc., followed by
anything that can be broken down organically makes good compost a layer of kitchen scraps, and so on. Soak each layer with water.
material — kitchen scraps, glass clippings, and even newspaper. • Add a smaller layer of activator (manure) on top.
So we figured it was about time we discussed one form of • You don’t need to cover the top but you can use thick newspaper
composting that you can do in your back yard — aerobic or a heavy material to contain it.
composting. This is an open-composting method, either in a pile or • If you cannot turn your compost, cover it with a black plastic
bin that does not have a lid. This allows the natural elements — the bag and weigh it down. You’ll have a rich organic compost soon
air, sun, and rain — to do their work. With the help of constant enough.
turning (about every week), you will have a successful compost • Make sure your compost is directly on the ground, not on concrete
in six weeks or less. or any other man-made substance.
While the composting process will generally happen by itself, here This is just a quick checklist; you should be able to start your
are a few tips that will help maximize your composting efforts: aerobic composting with li�le help or guidance. Just use a li�le
• The higher the compost the be�er. Height will help the compost common sense and get your hands dirty. It’s the most enjoyable
retain heat. way to learn!

8 MAXIMUM YIELD UK January / February 2008 MAXIMUM YIELD UK January / February 2008 9
> ASK ERIK
Do you have a question for Erik? Forward it to info@maximumyield.com with
the words “Ask Erik” in the subject line, and your answer will be printed in an
upcoming edition.

Hello Erik,

What are the pros and cons of using LED grow


lights vs. other types of grow lamps?

Thanks for your help.


Dave Miller

Hello Dave,
LED lights last much longer than HID lamps and their lumen to
wa� ratio efficiency is considerably higher. Although LEDs are a
Light Emi�ing Diode (LED) technologies look to be NASA’s first
very efficient source of light, they tend to lack the sheer intensity
choice in grow room construction. LED lights are an extremely
that metal halide and HPS lighting systems offer. The individual
efficient light source, and the spectra can be tailored for plant
LED bulbs are very small and are banked together to produce
growth functions, so no energy is used to produce wavelengths
higher lighting intensities. However, the distance at which they
that the plants will not require. In fact, plants grown under LEDs
emit light at higher intensities is not very far.
can look more black, as no green light is being reflected. Green-
In my opinion LED lamps would be very well suited for pro-
light wavelengths are typically not absorbed by the plants, but
duction of low growing crops such as greens, herbs, and dwarf
reflected. For aesthetic purposes, LEDs can be tailored to allow
vegetable varieties. Because LED lighting can be tailored to very
plants to receive light wavelengths similar to the sun’s spectrum.
specific spectral outputs, they could be used to supplement con-
But this means energy is being used to create wavelengths that
ventional HID-lit gardens to produce crops of higher quality. They
the plants do not require.
can also be used to maintain a vegetative lighting cycle while the
HID lamps are running 12/12 to conserve power and allow the use
of “flip-flop” relay systems in the vegetative growth phase.
LED lamps would be extremely well suited for the propagation
of seeds and cu�ings. They emit li�le heat and provide gentle
and even lighting, all within the exact light wavelengths the
plants require. Small-scale closet-style grow chambers could be
improved with LED lighting.
At present LED lighting is more expensive than conventional
HID lighting systems. But the lack of heat they emit means that
exhausting or air-conditioning grow room air will be minimized.
The LED lamps operate only a few degrees above ambient tem-
peratures. They can also be mounted at any angle so that all parts
of the plants can receive light.
A colleague has a friend who finished a crop exclusively us-
ing LED lighting. Reportedly the quality of the smaller stature
plants was extremely good and the plants appeared exceptionally
healthy while growing. The yield was modest.
Any growers who have tried this or any other new technology
should feel free to drop me a line here at Maximum Yield to share
their experiences and opinions.

Cheers, Erik Biksa

10 MAXIMUM YIELD UK January / February 2008


>> Product Spotlight
ask for these exciting new products at your favourite indoor gardening store.

EARTH JUICE PROCOIR READY-TO-PLANT


COCOCOIR FORMULA
Earth Juice© PROCOIR cococoir is now available in a ready-to-plant formula. No need to mix
in perlite or pumice; the PROCOIR Ready-to-Plant is blended for performance with the preferred
aeration to moisture retention ratio for most plants.
Designed to be user friendly, it breaks apart easily by hand. The small, space-saving 2-cu.-�.
bale will make up to 4–5 cu. �. of ready-to-plant cococoir. Works great with both liquid and dry
fertilizers and is the perfect companion for Earth Juice, Sugar Peak, Sweet & Heavy, and Rainbow
Mix lines of fertilizers.
For more information contact your local indoor gardening retailer.

NATIONAL GARDEN WHOLESALE AND


ORGANIC AIR ARE MAKING LIFE EASIER
Discover the Freshmaker filtration line from National Garden airflow by using opposing dual-
Wholesale. Organic Air ’s Freshmaker Charcoal Fibre and cone technology. Greenhouse HEPA
Greenhouse HEPA filters enable single-pass filtration of strong Filters reduce more than 90 per cent
odours at very high CFMs. Each solid filter is extremely light and of all moulds, insects, and bacteria
easy to a�ach, and it requires no assembly. that enter your garden space through
The Organic Air Charcoal Fibre Filters consist of three layers of the intake fan. These filters are available in 4-, 6-, 8-, 10- and 12-
highly active charcoal fibre with millions of active micro-pores in. sizes.
to a�ract and capture odours. These highly efficient filters can be Also available in 4- and 6-in. sizes is the Organic Air Charcoal
used at the start or at the end of any exhaust line. The Charcoal Fibre Scrubber. This lightweight, single layer recirculation
Fibre Filters come with an inverted nose cone and vertical pleats scrubber is ideal for small garden areas.
for maximum coverage. This product is available in 4-, 6-, 8-, 10-, Create an easier garden atmosphere with Organic Air Filters
and 12-in. (~10-, 15-, 20-, 25-, and 30-cm) sizes. today!
The Organic Air Greenhouse HEPA Filters are made up of a tight For more information on Organic Air Filters contact your local
synthetic HEPA weave. This unique design produces maximum indoor gardeing retailer.

Ask for these


exciting new
products at your
BLOOMBASTIC FROM ATAMI favorite indoor
Atami is proud to release Bloombastic to the European market. gardening retail
A revolutionary nutritional supplement, Bloombastic has optimal shop.
levels of bio materials and bio stimulants which are scientifically
formulated to provide your plants with all the necessary elements Do you want to be in be
for increased sugar and bloom production. Bloomblastic is
formulated to give you heavier flowers by using it in the final included in the
phase of blooming and ripening. You can use Bloombastic on all Product
substrates and in combination with all irrigation systems.
For more information visit your local indoor gardening spotlight?
retailer. Contact Linda Jesson at
1.250.729-2677
or linda@maximumyield.com

12 MAXIMUM YIELD UK January / February 2008


This is already occurring in a number of countries, such as
Scotland, New Zealand, Norway, and Australia, where farming
salmon in sea cages has become a major industry and where
shellfish such as green mussels (New Zealand) and Rock Oysters
(Australia) improve the efficiency of the industry.
In Australia there is also a significant freshwater fish farming
industry producing eels, Barramundi, and Murray cod, but all
of these land-based systems have two major problems — limited
water supply and the disposal of fish feces.
I first became aware of aquaponics when I gave a seminar on
aeroponics at the University of Western Australia. Two of the
people who a�ended the symposium were from Curtin Univer-
sity — a postgraduate student from Cyprus and his supervisor.
They took me to see the student’s research, which was growing a
crop of NFT hydroponic le�uce together with the production of
Barramundi fish. The system was quite simple in that in one large
tank the barramundi were fed with fish food and the resulting
solution was used as the nutrient solution for the hydroponic let-
tuce, which was then re-circulated back to the barramundi tank.
Unfortunately, the student had to return to Cyprus and his PhD
was never completed.
My next involvement with aquaponics was at the South Pacific
Soilless Conference, which was held at Massey University in
2003. Among the papers was one from a Charlie Schultz from the
University of the Virgin Islands in the West Indies. In his paper
he described how he grew crops of basil in an aquaponic system
with Tilapia fish.
In 2005 I a�ended a hydroponics meeting in Singapore, in which
a whole day was set aside for discussions on aquaponics. Leading
the discussion was Professor Jim Rakocy from the Virgin Islands,
along with his colleague Charlie Schultz, whom I had first met at
Massey some two years earlier. They were ably supported by a
Aquaponic cucumbers and egg plants (Canada) Canadian researcher, Nick Savidov, from Alberta.

AQUAPONICS
In the Virgin Islands Shultz and Rakocy have developed over a
15-year period a very efficient technology for growing fish and
plants in the same solution. They have found that the system re-
quires a number of fish tanks in order to ensure a regular supply
of nutrients for the hydroponic system. The problem is that the
food supply to the tank containing the younger, smaller fish is
much less than that for the more mature, larger fish, and therefore
less waste nutrient is produced for the crop. If, however, the fish
in the different tanks are a mixture of different ages, then the

Where One Plus One Equals Three


larger fish consume more feed, and produce more waste nutrient.
Therefore, by having a number of different tanks containing fish
of different ages a near constant supply of nutrients is available
to the crop.
In the beginning man was a hunter-gatherer, killing wild animals The hydroponic system used in the Virgin Islands uses the
and harvesting wild plants for food. This nomadic life slowly deep-flow method, and the solution is aerated regularly along
changed when wild food resources declined and man became the growing tanks. A similar system is used in Alberta, where the
a farmer. Rumor has it that the wives became frustrated with crops are grown under glass.
continually moving the dishwasher from cave to cave! The fish waste has to have the solids removed before it reaches
by Dr. Mike Nichols Man is still primarily a hunter-gatherer in relation to food from
the sea, but this can not continue indefinitely, as modern technol-
the hydroponic tanks, and this is easily achieved. The only pos-
sible problem with the system is that the fish prefer to live in a
Massey University, Palmerston North, New Zealand ogy alone will ensure that the world’s fish resources decline at pH of about 7.0, and this can pose a few problems for hydroponic
an increasing rate; fishing will becomes less and less efficient and culture, because the trace element iron tends to become less avail-
a�ractive. The answer clearly lies in the hunter-gatherer of the sea able at high pH. This can be overcome by feeding the fish with an
being replaced by the farmer of the sea — aquaculture. iron chelate, which provides iron to plants at high pH.

14 MAXIMUM YIELD UK January / February 2008 MAXIMUM YIELD UK January / February 2008 15
>AQUAPONICS Where One Plus One Equals Three
Worldwide there has been a steady move away from deep-flow would be a good starting point, but another possibility might be
hydroponic systems, but this system, with aeration undertaken to develop commercial trout farms. I appreciate the sport-fishing
throughout the deep channel by means of specialized aeration industry’s objection to this, but the risk of any trout diseases enter-
“stones,” means that the plant’s root system has access to a large ing the wild when using a closed recirculating hydroponic system
quantity of water and a large buffer of nutrients. This could result is minimal. If we wish to consider risk management, there are a
in a considerable change in hydroponic crop strategy, because number of trout anglers drowned every year — perhaps angling
there is no doubt that the small buffering available when using itself is too dangerous!
NFT or rock wool means any loss of electric power can result in a Of course, we have no information on whether we can, in fact,
total crop loss, unless there is a heavy investment in backup gen- produce trout or eels in a recirculating hydroponic system, but I
erators. This is unnecessary with a deep-flow system; the only loss doubt whether we would be allowed to import either Barramundi
would be in aeration, and the crop could stand a period without or Tilapia fry into New Zealand from a quarantine viewpoint.
aeration. If considered necessary, a small standby generator could I have just returned from contributing to workshops on aquapon-
be incorporated into the system. ics in Brisbane, Sydney, and Melbourne, organized by journalist
The nutrient solution is, in fact, very dilute, but because it is Geoff Wilson. Speakers included Jim Rakocy; Nick Savidov; Aus-
present in a large volume, the plant roots are able to extract all they tralia’s first PhD in aquaponics, Wilson Lennard; Geoff Wilson,
need. Results in Canada suggest that a�er a few years yields can and me.
be even higher than conventionally grown hydroponic crops! The first workshop was held at the Bribie Island Aquaculture
There is also the potential to sell the crop as a certified organic Centre just north of Brisbane. During the visit we took the op-
crop, because it is produced entirely from natural manure (fish portunity to visit the Research Centre, which is salt water-based,
waste). The system involves no control of root pathogens, as these and also the fresh water-based, commercial EcoFish International,
are controlled biologically by the broad spectrum of antagonistic near Caboolture, which produces both Barramundi and Murray
micro-organisms that develop in the natural environment. cod. High fish-stocking rates are possible at Ecofish because pure
In Australia, Wilson Lennard at RMIT University, Melbourne, has oxygen (rather than air) is provided to the tanks. The main problem
developed an aquaponic system to grow Murray cod in tandem is the disposal of fish waste. The near-solid feces are relatively easy
with a recirculating hydroponic system growing basil. What kind to remove, but the nutrient-rich solution cannot be recirculated
of fish should we grow in aquaponics in New Zealand? With the back to the fish tanks until most of the ammonia has been con-
recent development of a means to breed young eels in the labora- verted to nitrate, and most of the nutrients removed. Currently
tory (and an assured market for mature eels overseas), clearly this this is being done with a large lagoon filled with aquatic plants,
but with plans to triple fish production, an alternative strategy will
be necessary. Aquaponics would appear to be an ideal solution.
The hydroponics component of aquaponics will not only provide
a second income stream, but will also remover a major source of
environmental pollution.
Our next visit was to the NSW Fisheries Research Station at Port
Stephens, just south of Coffs Harbour. A most impressive opera-
tion, but once again concentrating solely on salt-water aquaculture.
We had also arranged to visit Taylor Made fish farms near Port
Stephens, but at the last moment the invitation was withdrawn
because the company had recently received heavy investment
from the USA. It is understood, however, that Taylor Made does
not use a recirculating system for their aquaponics, but the nutrient
rich solution from the fish tanks is supplemented with additional

Le�uce with fish tanks in background

16 MAXIMUM YIELD UK January / February 2008


>AQUAPONICS Where One Plus One Equals Three
fertilizer before being circulated through an NFT system growing
le�uce, and then run to waste.
A brief visit the following day was made to the National Green-
house Research Institute at Gosford, where we discussed with the
staff the possibility of incorporating some aquaponics into their
research programs. The day concluded with a meal in a restaurant
in Sydney, where we chose the live Barramundi from the tank. Fresh
fish is the key to the future!
Next day was the second workshop held at the most impressive
Sydney Fish Markets and the following day found us driving to-
wards Melbourne. Our next stop was the very impressive eel farm
at Euroa, where eels are produced for fresh export to Asia. Appar-
ently they ship with minimal losses by air freight, provided that
they have a small quantity of water in a high-oxygen environment
in a sealed polythene bag. Once again, this operation has a major
problem with waste disposal, and an increasing environmental
awareness by local government will ensure that improvements in
waste disposal occur in the future.
The following day we visited the small-scale operation of Min- Baby eels in Australia
namurra Aquaponics, owned by Wilson Lennard and his business this was still in its very early days, but the potential for incorporat-
partner, Warren Watkins, and finally the Barramundi and Murray ing hydroponics into fresh water aquaculture would appear to be
cod operation of Mainstream Aquaculture, situated in an industrial huge. Not only is there a further income stream from the operation,
park near Weribee, in southwest Melbourne. At Mainstream the cost but also the problems of waste disposal are significantly reduced
of waste disposal through the city treatment plant is a considerable and, thus, the environmental impact from point source pollution
burden on the company, and the potential for incorporating a hy- is minimized. In fact, the real problem is not the solid waste (fish
droponics component to the system looks extremely a�ractive. feces), which can be removed with relative ease and composted as
The only true aquaponics system we saw was at Minnamurra, and manure, but the nutrient-rich solution, which is the environmental
hazard.
In Canada, the Virgin Islands, and Australia, the income stream
from the hydroponics has been greater than that from the fish.
However, hydroponics income stream will depend very much on
the choice of crop, and many of the “staple” greenhouse crops, such
as tomatoes, cucumbers, peppers, and le�uce, will not produce the
income that some of the more exotic crops are capable of producing.
Basil, for example has been the most profitable crop in Canada, the
Virgin Islands, and Australia, but there is clearly a limited market
for basil or for any of the high-value herbs.
In addition, the staple hydroponic crops are not as suited to deep-
flow hydroponic systems as many of the leafy vegetables. There
is doubt whether they will grow well and, more to the point, the
management may be more difficult with a deep-flow system, and
converting a deep-flow aquaponics system to a recirculating coir-
based system using drippers will require good filtration, along with
some basic research.

Dr Nichols retired from teaching


horticulture at Massey University
at Christmas 2006, but has retained
the title of “Honorary Research
Associate”.
He was elected and Honorary
Member of the International Society
for Horticultural Science in August
2006.
He consults world-wide on a range of
horticultural topics both for industry
and for international organizations
such as the United Nations.

18 MAXIMUM YIELD UK January / February 2008 MAXIMUM YIELD UK January / February 2008 19
NUTRIENT SOLUTIONS
CROP REQUIREMENTS

Part 2: Crop requirements justify some of the variation in commonly


recommended nutrient solution formulas. Not all of the es-
sential elements are significant, but some crops have specific

Their Formulations and Uses


requirements with respect to the major elements N, Mg and
P and the micronutrients Cu, Fe, Mo, and Zn. In addition,
crop requirements change with each stage of plant develop-
ment, from the vegetative to the fruiting stages, which would

by Dr. J. Benton Jones Jr. justify modifying a particular nutrient solution formulation
and its use.

CHELATES
It is well known that the chelate EDTA (ethylenediamine
tetraacetic acid) is toxic to plants, even though FeEDTA is a
commonly used form of Fe included in many nutrient solution
formulas. In the past, iron (ferrous) sulfate (FeSO4.7H2O), iron
(ferric) sulfate, Fe(SO4), iron (ferric) chloride (FeCl36H2O), and
iron ammonium sulphate (FeSO4(NH4) 2SO4.6H2O) have been
used with varying success as reliable, plant-available sources
of Fe in a nutrient solution.
Recently, Rengel (2002) found that the inclusion of EDTA
(at 100 ppm) in the nutrient solution decreased the growth of
young wheat plants. Iron was found to accumulate in the roots
of the wheat plants when FeEDTA was in the nutrient solu-
tion compared to when an EDTA-free nutrient solution
was used. In addition, the uptake and transport of
both Cu and Zn from roots to plant
tops was significantly reduced
when EDTA was present in
the nutrient solution.
The chelate DTPA (dieth-
ylenetriamine pentaacetic
acid), thought not to be
toxic to plants, is
replacing FeEDTA
as a chelated source
(FeDTPA) for Fe. As
was observed by Ren-
gel (2002), DPTA
may act like the

concentration in the nutrient solution. Root membranes selectively chelate EDTA, restricting the uptake and transloca-
control the passage of ions from the surrounding nutrient solution tion of Cu and Zn, something that needs to be in-
into the root cells, with the transported ions passing into the xylem vestigated when FeDTPA is in the nutrient solution
In Part 1 I discussed the fact that nutrient solution formulas for upward movement into the upper portion of the plant. formulation. This may partially explain why low Cu
vary a great deal and that problems can arise if a given solution Nitrate (NO3-) and potassium (K+) are present in most nutrient and particularly low Zn concentrations have been observed
is used incorrectly or the ratios of various elements are not ideal. solutions in fairly high concentrations and move readily from the in assayed leaf tissue when evaluating the nutrient element
In this Part 2, I address the many factors that must be considered nutrient solution into the plant root. All the other ions in solution status of tomato plants. Other commonly chelated forms of
in creating a nutrient solution. are selectivity absorbed. An element must be in solution as an the micronutrients Cu, Mn, and Zn, should not be put into a
ion in order to be absorbed, although there is evidence that small nutrient solution formulation.
PLANT ROOT INFLUENCE molecules can be transported through root membranes. The size
The absorption of ions from the nutrient solution into the plant (surface area) of the root and its physical characteristics will in- BENEFICIAL ELEMENTS
root is a complex physiological process influenced by temperature, fluence ion absorption, although these are less a factor in soilless Considerable has been wri�en about those elements identified
aeration, root respiration rate, rate of plant transpiration, and ion media than in soil. as “beneficial” to plants (Asher, 1991; Morgan, 2000) but not
Continued on page 26

22 MAXIMUM YIELD UK January / February 2008 MAXIMUM YIELD UK January / February 2008 23
24 MAXIMUM YIELD UK January / February 2008 MAXIMUM YIELD UK January / February 2008 25
Continued from page 23 Since many of these so-called “beneficial blossom-end rot (BER). Therefore, it is rec-
meeting the requirements for essentiality elements” are commonly found as “con- ommended that NH4 not be included in the
established by Arnon and Stout (1939). taminates” in some of the major source rea- nutrient solution during the tomato plant’s
Some people have found that these ele- gents, such as calcium nitrate, potassium fruiting period.
ments enhance plant growth under certain nitrate, magnesium sulfate, etc., depending The question is should NH4 be included in a
circumstances (Morgan, 2000). The early on their origin, there wouldn’t be any need nutrient formulation, and if so, at what concen-
hydroponics researchers devised the “A-Z to purposely add a mix of trace elements tration or ratio? I recommend that at least five
Micronutrient Solution” to ensure that po- to ensure their presence. This would also to 10 percent of the total N formulation be in
tentially influencing trace elements would suggest that selecting high-purity reagents the NH4 form, even for tomatoes.
be included in the nutrient solution (Jones, might not be the best choice. In addition,
2005). Some people have suggested that the the rooting medium itself may contain trace PH AND ELECTRICAL
elements essential for animals — arsenic levels of some of these elements. CONDUCTIVITY (EC)
(As), chromium (Cr), cobalt (Co), fluorine It’s essential that the pH of the nutrient solu-
(F), iodine (I), nickel (Ni), selenium (Se), NITRATE AND AMMONIUM tion and rooting medium be acidic, the opti-
and vanadium (V) — but not for plants There is considerable research that in- mum range being between 5.0 and 6.0. How-
would be good candidates for inclusion in a dicates that the form of N supplied to ever, it isn’t necessary to adjust the pH unless
nutrient solution. The two elements where the plant can have a significant effect on the nutrient solution and/or rooting medium
essentiality has been suggested are Ni (Be- growth. becomes alkaline, that is, if the pH is greater
langer et al., 1995) and silicon (Si) (Brown A mixture of ammonium (NH4)- and ni- than 7.0. Plants can grow quite well at pH lev-
et al., 1987; Takahashi et al, 1990; Morgan, trate (NO3)-N frequently results in be�er els of less than 5.0; therefore, no adjustment is
2000), with Si being the element that some plant growth if that concentration ratio generally needed under acidic conditions.
people recommend for inclusion in a nutri- does not exceed 25 to 75, as compared to The electrical conductivity (EC) of a nutrient ELEMENTAL PRECIPITATION
ent solution as silicic acid (H4SiO4), at 100 when NO3 is the only N source. For some solution or the accumulated ions in the root- For most formulated nutrient solutions that
ppm. Two other suitable sources of Si are crops, such as tomatoes, NH4 in the nutri- ing medium is an important parameter. As the come with a use component, the amount of
either potassium or sodium silicate. ent solution can increase the incidence of EC increases, the ability of plant roots to take nutrient elements being applied far exceeds
up water and the nutrient elements decreases. that required by the plant. With time there is an
Hydroponics growers are advised to monitor accumulation of unused nutrient elements that
the runoff from the rooting medium or the initially increases the “salinity” (measured by
solution in the medium for its EC and to leach the EC of the retained nutrient solution in the
when it exceeds a certain level. An increasing rooting medium), followed by an accumulation
EC indicates that the elemental concentration of the co-precipitates calcium phosphate and
of the nutrient solution is too high. calcium sulfate. When using a recommended
nutrient solution, gravel rooting medium, and
flood-and-drain hydroponic growing system,
a “grayish-white sludge” accumulates with
time, which can be easily observed by insert-
ing ones hand into the gravel bed. Included in
this precipitate are the micronutrients Cu, Fe,
Mn, and Zn.
This same precipitation phenomenon will oc-
cur in all rooting media (gravel, sand, perlite,
rockwool, or coir, etc.) when a full-strength
nutrient solution is repeatedly applied. Its
initial formation creates the “seed” that keeps
the precipitation process going with each ad-
dition of nutrient solution. The other driving
force that enhances precipitation in the rooting
medium is the rate of water removal that occurs
when plant transpiration rates are high, which
concentrates the retained nutrient solution. The
precipitate cannot be leached from the rooting
medium, and its accumulation will begin to sig-
nificantly influence the nutrient element con-
tent of the plant. The immediate area around
the root is strongly acidic, capable of dissolving
precipitate in contact with the root, releasing
elements that will then be absorbed.

26 MAXIMUM YIELD UK January / February 2008 MAXIMUM YIELD UK January / February 2008 27
>NUTRIENT SOLUTIONS PART 2: Their Formulations and Uses
Several years ago I consulted with four greenhouse-tomato This meant that during more than half of their growth cycle the Zealand Department of Scientific and Industrial Research,
growers who were all growing in perlite-filled BATO buckets with plants were being significantly influenced nutritionally by what Wellington, New Zealand, pp. 13–28.
the nutrient solution being applied periodically by means of drip had accumulated in the perlite rather than what was being applied Asher, C.J. and D.J. Edwards (1978b) Relevance of Dilute
irrigation. At the end of the growing season, I assayed the perlite in the nutrient solution. If reused, the perlite would start with a Solutions Culture Studies to Problems of Low Fertility
using a soil test-type analysis method, and found that the perlite high nutrient element charge that would significantly affect the Tropical Soils. IN: Mineral Nutrition of Legumes in Tropi-
contained sufficient nutrient elements to be identified as a “very nutrition of the crop. cal and Subtropical Soils. C.S. Andrew and E.J. Kamprath
fertile” soil. What had begun as an inert, nutrient-free rooting One procedure that can slow the precipitation process is to apply (Eds.). Commonwealth Scientific & Industrial Research
medium (perlite) was now a high-nutrient medium containing one to two aliquots of full-strength nutrient solution in one day’s Organization, Melbourne, Australia, pp. 131–152.
substantial quantities of Ca, Mg, P, S, Cu, Fe, Mn, and Zn, at levels cycle. For example, when using the drip irrigation procedure make Barry, C. (1996) Nutrients; The Handbook of Hydroponic
greater than what was needed to meet the crop’s requirements. one nutrient solution application at sunrise and another in mid- Nutrient Solutions. Casper Publications Pty Ltd., New
day, and then only water when needed to maintain fully turgid South Wales, Australia.
plants. The developer of the Nutrient Film Technique (NFT) made Belanger et al. (1995)
a similar recommendation: expose the plant roots periodically to potential’ that is dictated by the above-ground Brown et al. (1987)
a full-strength nutrient solution and then apply water and/or a part of the plant.” He further states, “This is Cooper, A. (1996) The ABC of NFT Nutrient Film Tech-
dilute nutrient solution to satisfy the water needs of the plants an extremely important concept and may well nique. Casper Publications, Narrabeen, Australia.
(Cooper, 1996). affect the entire conceptual model for uptake Johnson, B. (2007) Research Aims to Aid Hydro Growers
Another scheme is to apply only what is specifically needed, at of a wide range of nutrients.” Using current Recirculating Water. The Growing Edge 18(6):20–21.
each stage of plant growth, in terms of the amount and balance nutrient solution formulations that are nutrient Jones Jr., J. Benton (2005) Hydroponics: A Practical
of nutrient elements; thought this would probably work, it would element concentrated, I would agree. Using Guide for the Soilless Grower. CRC Press, Boca Raton,
be difficult to implement. dilute nutrient solution formulations, a switch FL.
Although accumulation by precipitation in the rooting medium occurs from root-responsive to root-controlled. Morgan, L. (2000) Beneficial Elements for Hydroponics.
provides a potential source of some essential elements for plant Plants grow best when the nutrient element The Growing Edge 11(3):41–51.
utilization over time, precipitation can also reduce the immediate concentration is constant at low, balanced Rengel, Z. (2002) Chelator EDTA in Nutrient So-
availability of some elements being supplied by the nutrient solu- elemental concentrations as recommended lution Decreases Growth of Wheat. J. Plant Nutri.
tion, particularly the micronutrients Cu, Fe, and Zn, which may and as found to be so by Asher and Edwards 25(8):1709–1725.
explain why low levels of these elements occur in some plants at (1978a, 1978b). Takahashi et al. (1990)
various stages of growth. As you can see, there is much to be done when
it comes to nutrient solutions and their use
CONCLUSION — no one has the complete answer yet.
One marvels that plants are able to grow fairly well in a wide
range of nutrient solution formulations and uses, probably a REFERENCES
testament to the stable physiological character of plants and their Arnon, D.I. and P.R. Stout (1939). The Essentiality of
roots. In a just-published Growing Edge article, Johnson (2007) Certain Elements in Minute Quantity for Plants with Spe-
writes, “Researchers have found that the roots do not drive the cial Reference to Copper. Plant Physiology 14:371–375.
process (nutrient element uptake), but instead respond to it.” Asher, C.J. (1991) Beneficial Elements, Functional
Johnson (2007) quotes Meiner Lieth, Professor of Plant Sciences Nutrients, and Possible New Essential Elements. IN:
at the University of California, Davis: “Our research suggests that Micronutrients in Agriculture. J.J. Mortvedt (Ed.). SSSA
the roots are not drivers of this, rather they respond to a ‘growth Book Series, Number 4, Soil Science Society of America,
Madison, WI, pp. 703–723.
Asher, C.J. and D.J. Edwards (1978a) Critical External

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28 MAXIMUM YIELD UK January / February 2008 MAXIMUM YIELD UK January / February 2008 29
by Ma� LeBannister Photosynthesis comes from the Greek word “photo,” meaning
light, and “synthesis,” meaning to put together.

Most growers do not even know that there directly from inorganic compounds using
is a meter, called a Brix meter, that is used photons, the energy from light. They do this
to measure the level of sugars in the leaves using a process called photosynthesis. Photo-
of plants. It is generally understood that the synthesis comes from the Greek word “photo,”
higher the level of sugars within a plant’s tis- meaning light, and “synthesis,” meaning
sue, the healthier the plant is and the be�er to put together. The inorganic compounds
the yield will be. are carbon dioxide (CO2) and water (H2O),
Knowing this, the question should not be, and the energy source is sunlight. The end
“Why add a carbohydrate supplement to my products include glucose, a simple sugar, and
nutrient solution?” but simply, “Why haven’t oxygen (O2).
I added one already?”
To understand why you should give your The actual equation looks like this:
plants one of the sugary supplements on 6CO2 + 12H2O + photons C6H2O6 + 6O2 + 6H2O
the market, you should become a li�le more (gas) (liquid) (aqueous) (gas) (liquid)
familiar with the way plants produce and use
sugars. Then, through a process called carbon fixation,
Almost all plants use sugars as their main ATP (adenosine triphosphate),AND? a high-
source of fuel. They transport these sugars energy molecule CO2 (carbon dioxide) are
along with water and other elements through- used to create sugars. Some sugars produced,
out their systems, either for food or to create such as glucose, are simple sugars or monosac-
amino acids for biosynthesis to fuel cellular charides. They are easily broken down by the
respiration. Maple trees are a great example plant and are generally used for energy. Other
of how plants use sugars. Their sugary sap is sugars produced, such as cellulose, are com-
famous at breakfast tables worldwide, but that plex sugars or polysaccharides. Polysaccha-
sap is really the food the maple tree has begun rides consist of a chain of two or more sugars
to store to survive the winter to come. and are usually used for lipid and amino acid
Most plants are photoautotrophs, which biosynthesis. Polysaccharides are also used as
means that they synthesize their own food a fuel in cellular respiration. Cellulose specifi-

WHY USE SUGARY


SUPPLEMENTS? PEOPLE FEED THEIR PLANTS SUGARS all the time without
knowing it and not always understanding why. You give your
sweetheart a bouquet of roses for Valentine’s Day and before
they are put into the vase, sugar is added to the water to extend
their bloom. Some “old school” gardeners will add molasses to
their nutrient solution during the flowering period. Actually,
just by adding fulvic acid, and humic acid, to your nutrient mix
you are giving your plants the building blocks for sugars.

30 MAXIMUM YIELD UK January


November/ February
/ December2008
2007 MAXIMUM YIELD UK January / February 2008 31
>WHY USE SUGARY SUPPLEMENTS?
cally is used as the building material for all green plants. It is the When choosing the sup-
main component of all green plant cell walls. plement for your plants
Through the examination of the process of photosynthesis, we remember the old saying,
learn just how important the sugars produced through this process “You are what you eat.” The
are. The sugars and starches are vital to the plant. They are es- same goes for your plants.
sential for cellular preparation, to maintain the plants metabolism Look for something organic
and vigor. The sugars are even the building blocks that keep the because organic sugars will
very cells of the plant together. Now it is understood that plants improve flavor and smell
have a great big “sweet tooth” and are specialists at making the better than anything that
sugars they need. inorganic.
So why then should we be feeding them more on top of all this? There are also some sugars
Simply put, flowering plants are burning these carbs trying to that are more important to
make large fruit or vegetables, or big beautiful blooms, faster your plants than others. Xy-
than a marathon runner trying to win a race. Not to mention that lose and arabinose are two
the process of photosynthesis, which produces the sugars, itself of those sugars. Both are
takes a lot of energy. By adding one of the organic carbohydrate sugars naturally produced
supplements to your nutrient solution the carbohydrates that by plants. They are also
have been allocated to the flowering process will be replenished monosaccharides, which
more easily. This will save your plant the energy it would need means they are simple sug-
to create those sugars itself, and your plant can focus more of its ars and, therefore, used
energy on the flowering process. more easily by the plant.
Also, many beneficial bacteria and fungi (aka carbon-fixing Glucose should be the
bacterial fungi) will live on the sugars and will break down the main ingredient of the prod-
sugars for the plant. This, again, allows the plant to use energy uct because it is the main
usually spent breaking down sugars for other processes. The more product of photosynthesis.
beneficial bacteria and fungi, the easier nutrients are absorbed by Glucose is a monosaccha-
the roots. All this leads to improved flowering and overall health ride that is used for energy
of the plants. and for starting cellular
respiration in the plant. The
The name “glucose” comes from the Greek name “glucose” comes from the Greek word “glykys,” which means sweet, with the suffix “ose,”
word “glykys,” which means sweet, with which denotes that it is a carbohydrate. Glucose is critical in the production of proteins and in
lipid metabolism. Glucose is also used as a precursor for the synthesis of several important sub-
the suffix “ose,” which denotes that it is a
stances, such as starch and cellulose. Starch is a way in which plants store energy and cellulose
carbohydrate. makes up most of the structural parts of plants.
Fructose is also a monosaccharide and is a main component of most tree fruit, berries, and
melons. It is the sweetest naturally occurring sugar and is twice as sweet as the disaccharide
sucrose, which consists of glucose and fructose bonded together.
The disaccharide maltose is also an important sugar because enzymes break it down into two
glucose molecules.
All of the above sugars are produced naturally by plants. By adding a supplement containing
these simple and complex sugars to a well-balanced nutrient, a plant will increase the levels of
sugars in the leaves and throughout the plant. This will let the plant use its energy more efficiently,
allowing more energy to be focused on producing large fruit and bigger blooms. These sugars will
also improve the taste of the end product while giving fuel to beneficial bacteria and fungi.
Using sugar supplements with carbon-based fulvic acid and humic acid bring great benefits to
your plants with no downside. Knowing this and how the plants produce and use these sugars
makes using them simply great growing technique.

Ma� LeBannister is thrilled to be the newest writer for


Maximum Yield Magazine. He is 22 years old and for over 2
years has worked at Homegrown Hydroponics. Ma� manages
the retail store at Homegrown’s head office in Toronto and as of
late has been traveling the Trade Show circuit as their resident
expert. “I hope to make a big splash in the indoor gardening
industry through Homegrown and Maximum Yield. You never
know how this business will grow”.

32 MAXIMUM YIELD UK January / February 2008 MAXIMUM YIELD UK January / February 2008 33
Funkmaster Reds Greengrass Indoor Garden

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United Kingdom TA2 8BU
Tel: 01823 275301 Galway Hydroponic Store Bootle, Liverpool
2 Buttermilk Walk, Middle Street United Kingdom L20 1EE
Eden Distribution Ltd. Galway City, Tel: 0151 933 1113
21st Century Garden Aertec Hydroponics Branching Out 152 London Road, Ireland
/Newton Cell Unit 15, Hoe Farm Unit E, The Old Brewery Wokingham, Berkshire Greens Horticulture
Unit A6, Bounds Green Tye Lane, Walberton United Kingdom Unit F, Totterdown Bridge Est.
Durnford Street, United Kingdom RG40 1SU Tel: 00353 915 69988
Industrial Estate, United Kingdom BN18 0LU Ashton Gate, Bristol Tel: 01189890510 Albert Road, St Phillips
Ringway London Tel: 01243 542742 United Kingdom BS3 2AW Garden Of Eden Bristol
United Kingdom N11 2UD Tel: 01179 666996 Elements Hydroponic Centre Unit 4, Zenith Park, United Kingdom BS2 0XH
Ali Bongo 44 Auster Road,
Tel: 0208 3614659 22 St John Madder Market Whaley Road, Tel: 01179 713000
Bridgewater Hydroponics Clifton Moor, York Barugh Green,
3 Counties Hydroponics Norwich, Norfolk 14-16 St John Street United Kingdom YO30 4XA Greensea Hydroponics
Unit 12, Barlow Park, United Kingdom NR2 1DN Barnsley, Yorkshire
Bridgewaer, Somerset Tel: 0190 447 9979 United Kingdom S75 1HT Unit 1G, Gregory Road,
West Pitkerro Industrial Estate, Tel: 01603 760055 United Kingdom TA6 5HS Mildenhall Suffolk
Broughty Ferry, Dundee Tel: 01278 451808 Equinox Hydroponics Tel: 01226 729 560
Alternative Gardening Supplies United Kingdom IP28 7DF
United Kingdom DD5 3RS 115A High Street, Glasgrow (The Hydroponic Co.) Tel: 01638 715350
Ltd. Bright Green Lincoln, Lincolnshire
Tel: 01382 778980 Unit 79 Carlton Ind Estate 15 Parnie Street, Trongate
60 Princess Avenue, United Kingdom LN5 7PR Greenthings Hydroponics Ltd.
3 Counties Hydroponics Barnsley, South Yorkshire Hull Glasgow
Tel: 01522 828520 United Kingdom G1 5RG Unit 1, Adjewhella Chapel,
Unit 19, Robert Cort United Kingdom S71 3HW United Kingdom HU5 3QG Barripper,
Industrial Estate Britten Road, Tel: 01226 700200 Tel: 0148 2341925 Esoteric Hydroponics Ltd. Tel: 0141 552 7522
Camborne, Cornwall
Reading, Berkshire Amazing Garden Supplies 8 Martyr Road, Gloucestershire Hydroponics United Kingdom TR14 0QW
United Kingdom RG2 0AU Bristol Genuine Seedbank Guildford, Surrey
Unit 6, Litchard Industrial Estate 31 West Street, Old Market Unit 4, Hope Mill Lane, Tel: 01209 611870
Tel: 01189 874758 Bridgend, Cardiff United Kingdom GU1 4LF Hope Mill Business Centre
Bristol Tel: 01483 596484 Grotec UK
3 Counties Hydroponics United Kingdom CF31 2AL United Kingdom BS2 0BH Stroud, Gloucestershire
Lane Farm Tel: 01656 663030 United Kingdom GL5 2SE 393 Manchester Old Road,
Tel: 0117 9351701 Essential Hydro Rochdale, Lancs
Warpsgrove Lane, Anglia Hydroponics George Stephenson Business Tel: 01453 887481
Chagrove, Oxford Britelite Hydro United Kingdom OL11 3PG
Unit 11d Hill Farm Ind Est. Centre, Comet Row, Killingworth, Green Daze Tel: 01706 750293
United Kingdom OX44 7RW 157 Portland Road South, Newcastle
Boxted Cross, Colchester Norwood, London 10 Wellington Street, Gateshead,
Tel: 01865 890343 United Kingdom CO4 5RD United Kingdom NE12 6DU Newcastle Grotech Basildon
United Kingdom SE25 4UX Tel: 0191 216 1002 Unit 21, Saddlers Hall Farm
A Taste of Amsterdam Tel: 01473 230 635 Tel: 0208 656 1481 United Kingdom NE8 2AJ
437 Millbrook Road West Essex Hydroponics Tel: 0191 478 9107 Bowers Gifford,
Aquaculture Ltd. Budgreen Ltd. Basildon, Essex
Millbrook, Southampton Unit 3, Parkway One Rolts Garden Centre Green Rhino
United Kingdom SO15 0HX Unit 4, Green Lane, United Kingdom SS13 2HD
Parkway Drive, Sheffield Baltic Road Industrial Estate Clacton Road, 6 Church Lane,
Tel: 0238 070 3990 United Kingdom S9 4WU Elmstead Market, Colchester Tel: 01268 799828
Gateshead, Tyne & Wear Coleraine
A-Zee Hydroponica Tel: 08456 445544 United Kingdom NE10 OSB United Kingdom CO7 7DD United Kingdom BT52 1AG Grow Master
Unit 2B 1st Floor Aquatech Tel: 0191 469 7775 Tel: 01206 822 123 Tel: 02870 357877 4 Mount Craig Hall,
Suttons Business Park, Unit 2E, Spa Fields Evergreen Garden Supplies Green Spirit Pencraig, Ross On Wye
New Road Rainham, Essex Industrial Estate New Street City Hydroponics Herefordshire
1-2 Great Shaw Street, 402 Mentore Terrace, 10 Castle Gate,
United Kingdom RM13 8DH Slaithwaite Huddersfield Hackney, London Sheffield United Kingdom HR9 6HD
Tel: 01708 551199 United Kingdom HD7 5BB Preston, Lancs Tel: 01989 770788
United Kingdom PR1 2HH United Kingdom E8 3PN United Kingdom S3 8LE
AV Greenz Tel: 01484 842632 Tel: 0208 985 2091 Tel: 0114 275 3353 Grow Republic
Tel: 01772 204455
Unit 36 Western Business Park Basement Lighting Ltd Evergreen Hydroponics 124 Church Street,
Great Western Close Crofters Bio Gardens Green Stream
Unit 3, The Old Maltings, 18 Park Crescent Place, 12-14 Vivian Road, Blackpool
Winson Green, Birmingham George Street, Unit 3, Radford Court Ind Est. United Kingdom FY1 3PP
United Kingdom B18 4QF Ilkeston Road, Nottingham Brighton, East Sussex Harbourne, Birmingham
Newark, Nottinghamshire United Kingdom BN2 3HF United Kingdom B17 0DS Tel: 01253 621145
Tel: 0121 5516884 United Kingdom NG24 1LU United Kingdom NG7 3DY
Tel: 01159 782345 Tel: 0127 362 3136 Tel: 0121 426 2675 Grow Right Systems
Abergreen Horticulture Ltd Tel: 01636 650189
Eye 1 Der Green World 3A Manden Lane,
Arch 8 Palmerston Road, Big Shop (The) Crop Shop, The Clubmoor,
Aberdeen 22 Church Lane, 92 Trinity Street. 296 Bradford Road, Market Vaults
Gainsborough, Lincolnshire, Batley, West Yorkshire Scarborough Liverpool
United Kingdom AB11 5RE Belfast United Kingdom L13 9AN
Tel: 01224 574737 United Kingdom BT1 4QN United Kingdom DN21 1HS United Kingdom WF17 5PW United Kingdom O11 1EU
Tel: 01427 810726 Tel: 01924 359122 Tel: 0172 337 0900 Tel: 0151 256 5255
Addloes Tel: 0289 023 2113
16A Maple Road, Winton Cyberponics Fastgrow Hydro Gardens Ltd. Greener than Life Grow Rooms
Black Rock Hydroponics 24 Maesaeron, Talsarn
Bournemouth, Dorset Unit 6, Conqueror Ind Est. 3 Seaview, Trelogan 150 Westmount Road, 691 Holderness Road,
United Kingdom BD9 2PN Moorhurst Road, Castleham, Holywell, Flintshire Eltham, London Hull Ceredigion, Wales
Tel: 0120 252 4525 St.Leonards on the Sea, Essex United Kingdom CH8 9BH United Kingdom SE9 1XA United Kingdom HU8 9AN United Kingdom SA48 8QA
United Kingdom TN38 9NA Tel: 0800 0323 140 Tel: 0208 8500906 Tel: 01482 374201 Tel: 01570 471184
Advanced Gardening
Technique Tel: 01424 850088 Discount Hydroponics HOVE Flocap Greenfields Hydroponics Direct Grow Systems Norwich Ltd.
Unit 20, Carlton Business Blinding Lights 320 Portland Road, Unit 16D Coal Hill Lane, Unit 2A, Middlebrook Way, 34-36 St.Augustines Street,
Technology Centre, 10 Bridge Road Cobholm Hove Cape Industrial Estate Holt Road, Cromer, Norfolk Norwich, Norfolk
Carlton, Nottingham Great Yarmouth, Norfolk United Kingdom BN3 5LP Pudsey United Kingdom NR27 9JR United Kingdom NR3 3BZ
United Kingdom NG4 3AA United Kingdom NR31 0HU Tel: 01273 422210 United Kingdom LS28 5NA Tel: 01263 510072 Tel: 01603 614300
Tel: 0115 840 5060 Tel: 01493 665426 Dublin Hydroponics Tel: 01132 363026 Greenfinger Ltd. Growell Hydroponics (Solihull)
Advanced Hydroponics Boston Hydroponics 7 Crow Street, Forizo/Simplegrow Unit 59, 47 Verney Road, Blooms Garden Centre,
Unit 22B, Bridge Estates Little Fen, Church Road, Temple Bar 7 Holborn Square, T Merchant Trading Estate Kenilworth Road,
64 Mabgate, Leeds Freiston, Boston Dublin 2, Ireland Birkenhead, Cheshire Bermondsey, London Solihull, Midlands
United Kingdom LS9 7DZ United Kingdom PE22 0NX United Kingdom United Kingdom CH41 9HQ United Kingdom SE16 3DH United Kingdom B92 0LW
Tel: 0113 244 0433 Tel: 01205 761068 Tel: 00353 167 13779 Tel: 0151 647 2233 Tel: 0207 394 0629 Tel: 845 345 5172

34 MAXIMUM YIELD UK January / February 2008 MAXIMUM YIELD UK January / February 2008 35
>>MAXIMUM YIELD DISTRIBUTORS
Growell Hydroponics (Fulham) Hydro Hobby Ltd. Lothian Hydroponics Oh Yeah! Dr Chronics Sea Of Green Sow & Grow Ltd The Hydroponic Centre
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Fulham, London Coventry United Kingdom EH48 1DY United Kingdom SS1 2LX United Kingdom SN1 3JG United Kingdom CM8 3TH United Kingdom TA1 2QX
United Kingdom SW6 7RE United Kingdom CV4 7AB Tel: 01506 650501 Tel: 01702 469785 Tel: 01793 617046 Tel: 01376 500036 Tel: 01823 336615
Tel: 845 345 5174 Tel: 02476 414161 Maidstone Hydroponics Ltd. One Stop Grow Shop Secret Garden Green with NV Soylent Green Ltd The Hydroponic Corporation
WE THANK ALL OF OUR
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on the Parkwood Ind Est.
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International Home Grow Cabinet 24a Church Lane, Unit AA, Reliance Street, Centre
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6 Newingotn Green Road United Kingdom M40 3AG United Kingdom BN3 2PA Park, 222 London Road Dunstable, Bedford
United Kingdom WV2 4EJ Tel: 01273 777335 United Kingdom NW10 6RE St Albans, Hertfordshire
Islington, London Tel: 01902 711427 Tel: 0161 688 7333 United Kingdom LU5 6BT
Tel: 0208 964 1717 United Kingdom AL1 1PN
United Kingdom N1 4RX Medway Hydroponics Plantlife Tel: 01525 874888
Tel: 0207 0339541 Hydrodragon Ltd. Unit 11, Riverside Way, Seven Summers Ltd. Tel: 017278 37400
113-115 Alfred Street, 7A Cuxton Road, Tropics
Strood Rochester, Kent Ravensthorpe Industrial Estate, 7A St Thomas Road, Starlite Systems
Grozone Electrical Ltd Roath, Cardiff Crabtree Manor Way No 1 Bath Street,
Huntshill Farm, United Kingdom ME2 2BT Dewsbury, Yorkshire. 228 Albert Road, Nottingham
Averley Road
Upminster, Essex
United Kingdom CF24 4UA
Tel: 02920 490333
Tel: 01634 735444 United Kingdom WF13 3LL
Tel: 01924 492298
Belvedere, Kent
United Kingdom DA17 6AG
Plymouth
United Kingdom PL2 1AW United Kingdom NG1 1DF ARE YOU CURRENTLY
Mr B T/A Holland Hydroponics Tel: 0208 310 7777 Tel: 0115 947 5678
United Kingdom RM14 2TG
Tel: 01708 680777
Hydroglo
Top Store, South Road,Tower
Unit 6, Summit Works Progrow (West Lothian)
Unit 6, Nasmyth Square, Shemanic
Tel: 01752 551233
Sunrise Hydroponics Urban Garden Sheffield DISTRIBUTING
Manchester Road, Burnley 210-212 High Street, Unit 40,
Happy Gardens Ltd.
Unit 9, Kelham Bank Ind Est
Hamlets, Dover, Kent
United Kingdom CT17 0BS
United Kingdom BB11 5HG
Tel: 01282 438204
Houston Industrial Estate,
Livingston, West Lothian Perth, Scotland
127 Newcastle Street,
Burslem, Stoke On Trent Staffs Century Street Ind Est MAXIMUM YIELD FROM
United Kingdom PH1 5PA Clement Steet, Sheffield
Kelham Street, Doncaster
United Kingdom DN1 3RE
Tel: 01304 203199
Hydrogro
Mr Beam Hydro
Unit 9a, Norton Common Road
United Kingdom EH54 5GG
Tel: 01506 430830 Tel: 01738 633111
United Kingdom ST6 3QJ
Tel: 01782 813814 United Kingdom S9 5DX
Tel: 01142 443447
YOUR RETAIL STORE?
Silvalight
Tel: 01302 761386 8 Torquay Road,
Kingerswell, Torquay
Norton, Doncaster Progrow Exeter
7 Verney Street, Unit 1 Daddon Moor Business
TTB Hydro Ltd.
53 Kettering Road, Urban Hydroponics If so, pass along your
Head Gardener United Kingdom DN5 9HP Park, Clovelly Road Ind Est.,
Unit 12, Barton Business Park United Kingdom TQ12 5EZ Tel: 01302 708297 Exeter, Devon
Bideford, N Devon
Northampton (Ginty and Perky) Unit 1 Back contact information
Tel: 01803 872 005 United Kingdom EX1 2AW United Kingdom NN1 4AJ Lane, Off St. Georges Road,
Cawdor Street, Eccles, Natural Tel: 01392 276998 United Kingdom EX39 3HN Tel: 01604 454733 Bolton, Lancashire to us here at the
Manchester Hydroholics 1-3 Brookfields, Tel: 01237 478782 United Kingdom BL1 2LD magazine care of:
United Kingdom M30 0QR Unit 4, Austin Fields, Cambridge Quantum Hydro Tayside Hydrotek Tel: 01204 522217
Somerset Hydro
Tel: 0161 707 9860 Kings Lynn, Norfolk United Kingdom CB1 3NW 5 Riverside Drive,
Unit 14, Small Business Centre Unit11, Anfield Row, linda@maximumyield.
Ham, Richmond, Surrey Dundee Warehouse Hydroponics
HFM Pyrotechnics Ltd. United Kingdom PE30 1PH Tel: 01223 244704
United Kingdom TW10 7QA Memorial Road, Houndstone
United Kingdom DD1 5JH Unit 3C, com and we will add
165A Longford Road, Tel: 01553 770177 Business Park, Somerset
Cannock, Staffordshire
Natures Resources Tel: 0208 744 2226
United Kingdom BA22 8WA Tel: 01382 640420 Bank Quay Trading Est. your store’s name,
Hydrolight UK Ltd. Unit 18, 36 Sanderson Street, Warrington
United Kingdom WS11 0LD 40A, St. Peters Street, Newhall Road Ind Estate R & B Hydroponics Tel: 01935 420 720 The Grow Den United Kingdom WA1 1PJ address and telephone
Tel: 01543 500 800 78 Durban Road, 2 Hothfield Road,
Radford, Nottingham Sheffield
Grimsby Somerset Interior Garden
Rainham, Kent Tel: 01925 637837 number to our
HI Hydroponics United Kingdom NG7 3FF United Kingdom S9 2TW Supplies
Unit 2A, Grove Business Centre Tel: 0115 978 5556 Tel: 0114 2431037
United Kingdom DN32 8BA Rosedale, Moorlands United Kingdom ME8 8BJ Water Culture Hydroponics distributor listing in an
Tel: 01472 241 114 Tel: 01634239333 Unit 38 South Ribble Ent Park,
Warboys Road, Hydroponic Centre Portsmouth New Age Eighteen Twelve
Nr Bridgewater
Grove Road, upcoming issue.
Huntingdon, R Yearsley & Sons United Kingdom TA7 0AX The Grow Pot
Unit 1B, OJ’s Industrial Estate Unit 11, Whitehall Properties Lon-y-Twyn Street, Tel: 01823 490044 Walton Le Dale
Cambridgeshire Towngate, Wyke, Bradford 124 High Park Street,
Claybank, Portsmouth Caerphilly, Mid Glamorgan Toxteth Liverpool, Merseyside Southern Ireland
United Kingdom PE28 3AG United Kingdom PO3 5SX West Yorks South Coast Hydroponics United Kingdom
Tel: 01487 710722 United Kingdom CF83 1NW Unit 8, Enterprise Ind. Estate United Kingdom L8 3UQ
Tel: 02392 669277 United Kingdom BD12 9JQ Tel: 02920 885545 Tel: 00353 351 855 505
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Highlight Horticulture Hydroponica Ltd. United Kingdom PO8 0BB Waterford Hydro
10 Catton Road, Rang Dong The Grow Room-Leicester
130 Doncaster Road, New Age Hydroponics Building 5, Unit 2D, Tel: 02392 598 853 Unit 10 Parnell Court,
Arnold, Nottingham Unit 5 & 6, Marlow Road
United Kingdom NG5 7JD
Wakefield, Yorkshire
United Kingdom WF1 5JF
24 Sandy Lane, Lower Darwen
Lancashire
Ashleigh Commercial Estate
Westmoor Road,
Southern Hydro Centre Leicester
United Kingdom LE3 2BQ
Waterford City, Waterford
Preston, Lancashire
See all the
Tel: 0115 926 1500 9 Malmesbury Road, Shirley
Himalayan Crafts HC
Tel: 01924 362888 United Kingdom BB3 0PU
Tel: 0125 466 1177
Charlton, London
United Kingdom SE7 8NQ
Southampton Tel: 0116 289 4055 United Kingdom PR5 4AJ
Tel: 01772 562648
Maximum Yield
Hydrosense United Kingdom SO15 5FT The Home Grower Ltd.
14 Brew Hill
Navan, Co Meath
6-7 Central Market, Norfolk Lights & Hydroponic
Centre
Tel: 01525 874888 Tel: 023 80704080 Unit 13, Oak Court World Of Enigma Ltd. magazines at
Scarrots Lane Robs Hydroponics Southern Lights Sandwell Business Park (No Name Hydro Store)
United Kingdom
Tel: 00353 469 076 607 Newport, Isle of Wight Unit 2 Guardian Road, Ind Est.
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15 Lockwood Way Parkside
Industrial Estate, Leeds
37-39 Grace Hill, Crystal Drive, 25 Sidcup Hill, maximumyield.com
United Kingdom PO30 1JP Folkestone, Kent Oldbury Sidcup Dartford, Kent
Holland Hydroponics Ltd. Tel: 01983 522240 United Kingdom NR4 7NG United Kingdom LS11 5TQ United Kingdom B66 1QG United Kingdom DA14 6NJ
Tel: 01603 666199 United Kingdom CT20 1HQ
Unit17, Rondin Road, Tel: 01132 706622 Tel: 0130 321 0003 Tel: 0121 541 1446 Tel: 02083 096888
Ardwick, Manchester J’s Hydroponics
North Devon Hydroponics Room 2 Grow
United Kingdom M12 6BF Unit 29B, Lamb Street Abbey Road, Unit 4, Ace Motors
Carlisle, Cumbria Peashill Farm,
Tel: 0161 273 1151 Barnstaple Cotgrave, Nottingham

MAXIMIZE YOUR EXPOSURE WITH


United Kingdom CA2 4NS United Kingdom EX31 1JU
How 2 Grow Ltd. Tel: 01282 592 555 United Kingdom NG12 3HD
Unit 2, Matform Business Park Northern Hydroculture Tel: 01159 892423
Terminus Road, Kentish Green 50 Stainbeck Road,
26 Barden Road, Rootzone Hydroponics Ltd

MAX-MART
Chichester Leeds Unit 2 & 3, The Green Business
United Kingdom PO19 8UL
Tel: 01243 527 412
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Tel: 0113 275 0330
Centre, The Causeway Staines
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PROMOTE
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FOR LOW
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40 St Helens Road,
AS
Unit 2, Brickfields Industrial Larne Country Antrim Sams Hydroponics
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£ 20 MON
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Tel: 0151 482 0101 Tel: 01702 347536 Tel: 028 2827 8485
Get your Max-Mart ad into the next issue!
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Unit 14, Cumberland Unit 12, Mitchelton Industrial Unit 4, Stirchley Trading Estate, Scotgrow
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90 Westlaw Place, Glenrothes
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Tel: 01509 265 032 Tel: 01592 655611 Tel: 0121 685 5900 Tel: 01592 773712

36 MAXIMUM YIELD UK January / February 2008 MAXIMUM YIELD UK January / February 2008 37
by Erik Biksa

1. Is the following statement regarding shortening 4. Three or four weeks a�er transplant, what should the
crop cycles with precision control over light and pH range of the extraction be from the growing media
temperature in a CEA environment TRUE or FALSE? for optimal root conditions?
” …to improve the production of flower and garden
vegetable “plugs” -- 2-inch tall seedlings used at the 5. Three or four weeks a�er transplant, what should the
start of production…..industry standard was four EC range of the extraction be from the growing media
to five weeks before seedlings reached marketable for optimal root conditions?
height. They were able to reduce this time to 16
days.” 6. With gas fired CO2 generators, for every pound
of fuel consumed how many pounds of CO2 are
2. When performing the Dutch RGP method to test typically produced?
growing medias for EC and pH, why is it very a) 4 LBS
important to use a very fine filter (i.e extraction bag b) 3 LBS
mesh) to strain the solution prior to measurement(s)? c) 2 LBS
a) tidiness d) 1 LB
b) for clarity
c) fine soil particulate alters values 7) The N-P-K of the fertilizer “mono-potassium
d) none of the above phosphate” is:
a) 4-2-0
3. What is the ratio of distilled water to growing media b) 0-52-0
required for extraction when using the Dutch RGP c) 15.5-0-0
method? d) 0-52-34
a) 2:1
b) 1.5:1
c) 1:1
d) 0.5:1

ANSWERS:
November/December 2007 quiz
1) A. 2) C 3) C. 4) it is non selective and
may inhibit beneficial micro-organisms.
5) B. 6) D. 7) A,B,C.

Answers to this quiz will be printed in the


March / April 2008 issue of Maximum Yield.

38 MAXIMUM YIELD UK January / February 2008