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# GEL104:

## PRINCIPLES OF ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING

Dr. Nitin K. Goel
Department of Electrical Engineering
IIT Ropar
Room No. - 231
Email: nkgoel@iitrpr.ac.in
Web: www.nitinsahaj.com
Operational Amplifiers
Model and Applications

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AMPLIFIERS
• Amplifiers amplifies the amplitude of a
relatively small input signal to a much
larger output signal.

## • e.g.- Signal from a microphone amplified

into a much larger output signal to drive a
Relay, lamp or loudspeaker.

## •There are many forms of electronic circuits classed as amplifiers, from

Operational Amplifiers and Small Signal Amplifiers up to Large Signal
and Power Amplifiers.

## • Amplifiers can be thought of as a simple box or block containing the

amplifying device, such as a Transistor, Field Effect Transistor or Op-
amp, which has two input terminals and two output terminals (ground
being common) with the output signal being much greater than that of the
input signal as it has been "Amplified".
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AMPLIFIER GAIN
The difference between the input and output signals is known as the Gain of the
amplifier and is a measure of how much an amplifier "amplifies" the input signal.
e.g. If we have an input signal of 1 and an output of 50, then
the gain of the amplifier would be 50. Gain is a ratio, it has no
units but is given the symbol "A", which can be simply
calculated as the output signal divided by the input signal.
Voltage Amplifier Gain

## Power Amplifier Gain Gain can also be defined in dB

Voltage Gain in dB: av = 20 log Av
Current Gain in dB: ai = 20 log Ai
Power Gain in dB: ap = 10 log Ap

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Example
Determine the Voltage, Current and Power Gain of an amplifier that has an input
signal of 1mA at 10mV and a corresponding output signal of 10mA at 1V. Also,
express all three gains in decibels, (dB).
Amplifier Gain.

in Decibels (dB).

## So Voltage Gain - 100, Current Gain - 10 and Power Gain -1,000.

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Ideal Amplifier
• Gain, ( A ) should remain constant for varying values of input signal.
• Gain should not be affected by frequency. Signals of all frequencies
must be amplified by exactly the same amount. - Bandwidth
• Gain must not add noise to the output signal. It should remove any
noise that is already exists in the input signal.
• Gain should not be affected by changes in temp. giving good
temperature stability.
• Gain of the amplifier must remain stable over long periods of time.
• Input resistance (impedance) should be large (infinity)
• Output resistance (impedance) should be small (Zero)
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Decibel

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Input and Output Variables
Electronic amplifiers use two variables: current and voltage. Either can be
used as input, and either as output leading to four types of amplifiers.

## In idealized form they are represented by each of the four types of

dependent source used in linear analysis.

## Input Output Dependent source Amplifier type

I I current controlled current source CCCS current amplifier
I V current controlled voltage source CCVS transresistance amplifier
V I voltage controlled current source VCCS transconductance amplifier
V V voltage controlled voltage source VCVS voltage amplifier

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Voltage_source

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Current_source

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Dependent Sources

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Current-to-voltage_converter

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Voltage-to-current_converter

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Amplifier Model
Amplifier
Vi V0
Gain-A
Amplifier

RS R0

+
VS _ Ri Vi AVi RL V0

## AVi is the controlled Voltage Source

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Amplifier Model (Contd…)
 Ri 
Vi =  .VS
 Ri + RS 
 RL   RL   Ri 
V0 =  . A.Vi ⇒ V0 =  . A. .VS
 R0 + RL   R0 + RL   Ri + RS 
 Gain of the Real Amplifier
V0
Ar =
VS
 RL   Ri 
Ar = A. . 
R
 0 + RL iR + RS 

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Amplifier Model (Contd…)
For Good Performance

R i → l arg e ( → ∞ ) ⇒ V i ≈ V S
Unaffected by RS

R 0 → Small ( → 0 ) ⇒ V 0 ≈ A .V i
Unaffected by RL

Conclusion
• Input resistance (impedance) should be large (infinity)
• Output resistance (impedance) should be small (Zero)

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OPERATIONAL AMPLIFIER (OPAMP)

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OPERATIONAL AMPLIFIER (OPAMP)

## One might ask, why are operational amplifiers

included in Basic Electric Circuits?

## The operational amplifier has become so cheap in

price (often less than \$1.00 per unit) and it can be
used in so many applications, we present an
introductory study early-on in electric circuits.

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OPERATIONAL AMPLIFIER (OPAMP)

## This particular form of amplifier had the name “Operational”

attached to it many years ago.

## As early as 1952, Philbrick Operational Amplifiers (marketed

by George A. Philbrick) were constructed with vacuum tubes
and were used in analog computers.* Even as late as 1965,
vacuum tube operational amplifiers were still in use and cost
in the range of \$75.

* Some reports say that Loebe Julie actually developed the operational amplifier circuitry.

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OPERATIONAL AMPLIFIER (OPAMP)

## The Philbrick Operational Amplifier

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From “OperationalNKG
Amplifier”, by Tony van Roon: http://www.uoguelph.ca/~antoon/gadgets/741/741.html
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OPERATIONAL AMPLIFIER (OPAMP)

## “operational” was used as a descriptor early-on because

this form of amplifier can perform operations of

• adding signals

• subtracting signals
• integrating signals, ∫ x (t )dt
The applications of operational amplifiers ( shortened
to op amp ) have grown beyond those listed above.

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OPERATIONAL AMPLIFIER (OPAMP)

## At this level of study we will be concerned with how to use

the op amp as a device.

## The internal configuration (design) is beyond basic circuit

theory and will be studied in later electronic courses. The
complexity is illustrated in the following circuit.

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OPERATIONAL AMPLIFIER (OPAMP)
The op amp is built using VLSI techniques. The circuit
diagram of an LM 741 from National Semiconductor is
shown below. V+

Vin(-)

Vo

Vin(+)

## Internal circuitry of LM741. V-

Taken from National Semiconductor data sheet as shown on the web.

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OPERATIONAL AMPLIFIER (OPAMP)
Fortunately, we do not have to sweat a circuit with 22
transistors and twelve resistors in order to use the op amp
The circuit in the previous slide is usually encapsulated into
a dual in-line pack (DIP). For a single LM741, the pin
connections for the chip are shown below.

## Pin connection, LM741. Taken from National Semiconductor

data sheet as shown on the web.

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OPERATIONAL AMPLIFIER (OPAMP)
• An Op amp is an active circuit element designed to perform
mathematical operations of addition, subtraction, multiplication,
division, differentiation and integration.

## • Op amp is an electronic unit which

behaves like a VCVS (Voltage
Controlled Voltage Source)

•Differential Amplifier.

## Simple Schematic Representation

of a Differential Amplifier

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OPERATIONAL AMPLIFIER (OPAMP)

## The basic op amp with supply voltage included is shown

in the diagram below.

V-
inverting input
output
noninverting input

V+

## Basic Op Amp Diagram with Supply Voltage.

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OPERATIONAL AMPLIFIER (OPAMP)

In most cases only the two inputs and the output are shown
for the op amp. However, one should keep in mind that
supply voltage is required, and a ground.

## Outer Op Amp Diagram

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OPERATIONAL AMPLIFIER (OPAMP)
A model of the op amp, with respect to the symbol, is shown
below.

V1

_
Ro Vo
Vd Ri
+
AVd
V2

Op Amp Model

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OPERATIONAL AMPLIFIERS
• Op-amps are drawn as a triangle in a circuit schematic
• There are two inputs
– inverting and non-inverting
• And one output
• Also power connections (note no explicit ground)

V+

2 7
inverting input − 6
output
non-inverting input +
3 4

V−

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IDEAL OP-AMP CHARACTERISTICS
PARAMETER IDEALIZED CHARACTERISTIC
Voltage Gain, Infinite - The main function of an operational amplifier is to amplify
(A) the input signal and the more open loop gain it has the better, so for
an ideal amplifier the gain will be infinite. Typical ~ 200000
Input Infinite - Input impedance is assumed to be infinite to prevent any
impedance, current flowing from the source supply into the amplifiers input
(Zin) circuitry. Typical ~ 1000 M
Output Zero - The output impedance of the ideal operational amplifier is
impedance, assumed to be zero so that it can supply as much current as
(Zout) necessary to the load. Typical ~ 50 Ohm
Bandwidth, Infinite - An ideal operational amplifier has an infinite Frequency
(BW) Response and can amplify any frequency signal so it is assumed to
have an infinite bandwidth. Typical ~ Few MHz

Offset Zero - The amplifiers output will be zero when the voltage difference
Voltage, (Vio) between the inverting and non-inverting inputs is zero.

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IDEAL OPERATIONAL AMPLIFIER

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OP-AMP WITHOUT FEEDBACK
• The internal op-amp formula is:
Vout = gain (A)×(V2 − V1)

## • If V1 is greater than V2, the output goes negative

V1 −
Vout
V2 +

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OP-AMP WITH NEGATIVE FEEDBACK

## • Imagine connecting the output to the inverting terminal:

•If the output is less than Vin, it shoots positive
•If the output is greater than Vin, it shoots negative
• Result is that output quickly forces itself to be exactly Vin

Vin +

## –in electronics positive feedback means runaway or

oscillation, and negative feedback leads to stability

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VOLTAGE FOLLOWER

## •The OP-AMP can be used as a VOLTAGE FOLLOWER. The output

voltage follows the input.

## (a) The unity-gain buffer or follower amplifier.

(b) Experimental Setup in the Lab

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EVEN UNDER LOAD
• Even if we load the output (which as pictured wants to drag the output to
ground)…
– the op-amp will do everything it can within its current limitations to
drive the output until the inverting input reaches Vin
– negative feedback makes it self-correcting
– in this case, the op-amp drives (or pulls, if Vin is negative) a current
through the load until the output equals Vin
– so what we have here is a buffer: can apply Vin to a load without
burdening the source of Vin with any current!

• In this arrangement the OPAMP is Vin +
called a BUFFER and has unity gain

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OPERATIONAL AMPLIFIER (OPAMP)
Isolation or Voltage Follower.
Applications arise in which we wish to connect one circuit
to another without the first circuit loading the second.
This requires that we connect to a “block” that has infinite input
impedance and zero output impedance.
An operational amplifier does a good job of approximating this.
Consider the following:

+ +
The
Circuit 1 Vin Vout Circuit 2
_
"Block" _

Illustrating Isolation.

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OPERATIONAL AMPLIFIER (OPAMP)
Isolation or Voltage Follower Continued..

The Block

+ +
Circuit 1 Vin V0 Circuit 2
_ _

## It is easy to see that: V0 = Vin

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Characteristics of the Ideal Op-Amp
• Differential input resistance is infinite.
• Differential voltage gain is infinite.
• Bandwidth is infinite.
• Output resistance is zero.
• Offset voltage and current is zero.
– No difference voltage between inverting
and noninverting terminals.
– No input currents.

## Equivalent Circuit of the Ideal Op Amp

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The Inverting Amplifier Configuration

## The inverting closed-loop configuration.

Virtual ground.

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The Inverting Amplifier Configuration

## Equivalent Circuit of Inverting Op Amp

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The Inverting Amplifier Configuration

− R2
V0 = Vin
R1
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The Inverting Amplifier Configuration

− RF
V0 = V in
R1

## • Closed-loop gain depends entirely on passive components and is

independent of the op amplifier.
• Engineer can make the closed-loop gain as accurate as he wants as
long as the passive components are accurate.

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Non-Inverting Amplifier Configuration

## Non-Inverting Amplifier Configuration

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The Non-Inverting Amplifier Configuration

## Non-Inverting Amplifier Configuration: Equivalent Circuit

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The Non-Inverting Amplifier Configuration

 RF 
V 0 = 1 + .V in
 R1 

## Non-Inverting Amplifier: Lab Experiment

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Op-Amp “Golden Rules”

## • When an op-amp is configured in any negative-feedback

arrangement, it will obey the following two rules:

## – The inputs to the op-amp draw or source no current (true whether

negative feedback or not)

## – The op-amp output will do whatever it can (within its limitations) to

make the voltage difference between the two inputs zero

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Inverting Amplifier
R2

R1
Vin −
Vout
+

## • Applying the rules: − terminal at “virtual ground”

– so current through R1 is If = Vin/R1
• Current does not flow into op-amp (one of our rules)
– so the current through R1 must go through R2
– voltage drop across R2 is then IfR2 = Vin×(R2/R1)
• So Vout = 0 − Vin×(R2/R1) = −Vin×(R2/R1)
• Thus we amplify Vin by factor −R2/R1
– negative sign earns title “inverting” amplifier
• Current is drawn into op-amp output terminal
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Non-inverting Amplifier
R2

R1

Vout
Vin +

## • Now neg. terminal held at Vin

– so current through R1 is If = Vin/R1 (to left, into ground)
• This current cannot come from op-amp input
– so comes through R2 (delivered from op-amp output)
– voltage drop across R2 is IfR2 = Vin×(R2/R1)
– so that output is higher than neg. input terminal by Vin×(R2/R1)
– Vout = Vin + Vin×(R2/R1) = Vin×(1 + R2/R1)
– thus gain is (1 + R2/R1), and is positive
• Current is sourced from op-amp output in this example
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Summing Amplifier
Rf
R1
V1

R2
Vout
V2 +

• Much like the inverting amplifier, but with two input voltages
– inverting input still held at virtual ground
– I1 and I2 are added together to run through Rf
– so we get the (inverted) sum: Vout = −Rf×(V1/R1 + V2/R2)
• if R2 = R1, we get a sum proportional to (V1 + V2)
• Can have any number of summing inputs

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Differencing Amplifier
R2

R1
V− −
Vout
V+ +
R1
R2

## • The non-inverting input is a simple voltage divider:

– Vnode = V+R2/(R1 + R2)
• So If = (V− − Vnode)/R1
– Vout = Vnode − IfR2 = V+(1 + R2/R1)(R2/(R1 + R2)) − V−(R2/R1)
– so Vout = (R2/R1)(V+ − V−)
– therefore we difference V+ and V−

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Differentiator (High-Pass)
R

C
Vin −
Vout
+

## • For a capacitor, Q = CV, so Icap = dQ/dt = C·dV/dt

– Thus Vout = −IcapR = −RC·dV/dt
• So we have a differentiator, or high-pass filter
– if signal is V0sinωt, Vout = −V0RCωcosωt
– the ω-dependence means higher frequencies amplified more

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Differentiator (High-Pass)

## Frequency response of a differentiator with a time-constant CR.

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Low-pass filter (integrator)
C

R
Vin −
Vout
+

## • If = Vin/R, so C·dVcap/dt = Vin/R

– and since left side of capacitor is at virtual ground:
−dVout/dt = Vin/RC
– so

## – and therefore we have an integrator (low pass)

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Integrator (Low-Pass)

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Summary

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OPAMPs

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