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EE‐606: Solid State Devices
EE‐606: Solid State Devices
Lecture 8: Density of States
alam@purdue.edu

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Outline

1) Calculation of density of states

2) Density of states for specific materials
Density of states for specific materials

3) Characterization of Effective Mass

4) Conclusions

Reference: Vol. 6, Ch. 3 (pages 88‐96)

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Density of States

E
A single band has total of N‐states
4
O l f ti
Only a fraction of states are occupied
f t t i d

How many states are occupied upto E?
3
Or equivalently…
2
How many states per unit energy ? (DOS)
1
k
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Density of States in 1‐D Semiconductors
N atoms
a

Δk
States between E1 +ΔE & E1 = 2 × E
δk
Δk k1+Δk
= 2× k1
2π Na E1+ΔE
E1

Na Δk
States/unit energy @ E1 =
π ΔE k

π
δk = a
Na

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1D‐DOS L N atoms

N a Δk a
States/unit energy @ E =
π ΔE

2m* ( E − E0 )
E − E0 =
=2k 2
⇒k= E
2m *
=2
dk m* k1+Δk
=
dE 2= 2 ( E − E0 ) k1
E1+ΔE
L m* E1
States/unit energy @ E =
π 2= 2 ( E − E0 )

## States/unit energy/unit length @ E k

π
1 m* δk =
≡ DOS = a
π 2= 2 ( E − E0 ) Na

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1D‐DOS

E E DOS =
1 m*
π 2= 2 ( E − E0 )

k
π DOS
2π a
Δk =
Na
Conservation of DOS
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Density of States in 2D Semiconductors

b
a

## Show that 2D DOS is a constant independent of energy!

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Density of States in 3D Semiconductors
Macroscopic Sample
States between E1 +ΔE & E1
4 4
π ( k + dk ) − π k 3
3
V H
=3 3 = 2 k 2 Δk
2π 2π 2π 2π
W
L W H
L
V 2 Δk
States/unit energy @ E = 2 k
2π dE 2π/H
2π/W
=2k 2 2m* ( E − E0 ) dk m* 2π/L
E − E0 = ⇒k= ⇒ =
2m *
= 2
dE 2= 2 ( E − E0 )
k
K+dk
States/unit energy/unit volume @ E1
m*
DOS = 2 3 2m* ( E − E0 )
2π =

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3D‐DOS

m3* 2m3* ( E − E0 )
DOS =
E E π 2 =3

k
π π DOS

a 2π a
Δk =
Na
Conservation of DOS
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Outline

1) Calculation of density of states

2) Density of states for specific materials
Density of states for specific materials

3) Characterization of Effective Mass

4) Conclusions

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Density of States of GaAs: Conduction/Valence Bands

m*n 2m*n ( E − Ec )
gc ( E ) =
2π 2 =3

⎧ m* 2m* ( E − E )
υ
⎪ hh hh

⎪ 2π 2 =3

gυ ( E ) = ⎨
⎪ *
lh ( E − Eυ )
*
⎪ lh
m 2 m
⎪⎩ 2π 2 =3
11
Four valleys inside BZ for Germanium

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Ellipsoidal Bands and DOS Effective Mass
k2 const. E
t E
=k
2
= k2
2
= k3
2 2 2 2
E − EC = + 1
*
+
2m 2mt*
l 2mt* E=const. ellipsoid
k12 k2 2 k3 2
k1
1= + +
⎡ 2ml ( E − EC ) ⎤ ⎡ 2mt ( E − EC ) ⎤ ⎡ 2mt* ( E − EC ) ⎤
* *
k3
⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥
⎣ = 2
⎦ ⎣ = 2
⎦ ⎣ = 2

α2 β 2
Transform into …

⎛4 2⎞ 4 3
Vk = N el ⎜ παβ ⎟ ≡ π keff
⎝3 ⎠ 3

3
2m ( E − Ec ) 2m ( E − Ec ) 2m ( E − Ec ) 4 ⎡ 2meff ( E − Ec ) ⎤
* * * *
4
N el π l t t
≡ π⎢ ⎥
3 =2 =2 =2 3 ⎢ =2 ⎥⎦

m *
eff =N 23
el (m m )*
l
*2 1 3
t
13
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DOS Effective Mass for Conduction Band

m *
eff =4 23
(m m )
*
l
*2 1 3
t m *
eff =6 23
(m m )
*
l
*2 1 3
t

## m*eff 2m*eff ( E − Ec ) m*eff 2m*eff ( E − Ec )

gc ( E ) = gc ( E ) =
2π =
2 3
2π 2 =3

14
Outline

1) Calculation of density of states

2) Density of states for specific materials
Density of states for specific materials

3) Characterization of Effective Mass

4) Conclusions

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Measurement of Effective Mass

ν0=24 GHz B field variable …
(fixed)
Iin Iout
kz

qBcon
m* =
2π v0
ky kx
Iout - Iin

Bcon B 16
Motion in Real Space and Phase Space
Energy=constant.
x Liquid He temperature …

ky
(kx,0)
((0,k
, y)
y
kx

(-kx,0) (0,-ky)
kz

ky kx
qB0
Derive the Cyclotron Formula m* =
2π v0

For an particle in (x‐y) plane with B‐field in z‐direction,
the Lorentz force is
the Lorentz force is …
B
m* υ 2
= qυ × Bz = qυ Bz
r0
qB0 r0
υ=
m*
2π r0 2π m*
τ= =
υ qB0
1 qB0
ν0 ≡ =
τ 2π m*

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Effective mass in Ge

## [111] [111] [111] [111]

4 angles between B field and the ellipsoids …
Recall the HW1

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Derivation for the Cyclotron Formula
1 cos 2 θ sin 2 θ
Show that  2
= 2
+ Given three mc and three θ,
mc mt ml mt we will Find mt, and ml

The Lorentz force on electrons in a B‐field

F = qυ × B = [ M ]
dt
In other words,  B
dυ x
Fx = q (υ y Bz − υ z By ) = m*
t
dt

Fy = q (υ z Bx − υ x Bz ) = mt* y
dt
* dυ z
Fz = q (υ x By − υ y Bx ) = ml
dt
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Continued … kz
Let (B) make an angle (θ) with longitudinal axis of the
ellipsoid (ellipsoids oriented along kz)
B0
Bx = B0 cos (θ ) , By = 0 , Bz = B0 sin (θ ) , ky
kx
Differentiate (vy) and use other equations to find …

d 2υ y
+ υ yω 2 = 0 with ω 2 ≡ ⎡⎣ωt wl sin 2 θ + ωt 2 cos 2 θ ⎤⎦
dt 2
q 0
qB qB
q 0 qB
q 0
ω0 ≡ * ωt ≡ * ωl ≡ *
mc mt ml

1 sin 2 θ cos 2 θ
so that … = +
(m )
* 2
c
ml mt mt 2
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Measurement of Effective Mass

B=[0.61, 0.61, 0.5]

[110]

qB1
Three peaks     B
Three peaks B1, B B2, B
B3 mc =
1 cos 2 θ sin 2 θ 2π v0
2
= 2
+ Three masses   mc1,mc2,mc3
mc mt ml mt Three unique angles: 7, 65, 73
Known θ and mc allows calculation of mt and ml.
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Valence Band Effective Mass

## HW. Which peaks relate to valence band?

Why are there two valence band peaks?

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Conclusions

1) Measurement of Effective mass and band gaps define
the energy‐band of a material.

2) Only a fraction of the available states are occupied. The
number of available states change with energy. DOS
captures this variation.

3)) DOS is an important and useful characteristic of a
p
material that should be understood carefully.

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