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EE‐606: Solid State Devices
EE‐606: Solid State Devices
Lecture 8: Density of States
Muhammad Ashraful Alam
alam@purdue.edu

Alam  ECE‐606 S09 1
Outline

1) Calculation of density of states

2) Density of states for specific materials
Density of states for specific materials

3) Characterization of Effective Mass

4) Conclusions

Reference: Vol. 6, Ch. 3 (pages 88‐96)

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Density of States

E
A single band has total of N‐states
4
O l f ti
Only a fraction of states are occupied
f t t i d

How many states are occupied upto E?
3
Or equivalently…
2
How many states per unit energy ? (DOS)
1
k
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Density of States in 1‐D Semiconductors
N atoms
a

Δk
States between E1 +ΔE & E1 = 2 × E
δk
Δk k1+Δk
= 2× k1
2π Na E1+ΔE
E1

Na Δk
States/unit energy @ E1 =
π ΔE k

π
δk = a
Na

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1D‐DOS L N atoms

N a Δk a
States/unit energy @ E =
π ΔE

2m* ( E − E0 )
E − E0 =
=2k 2
⇒k= E
2m *
=2
dk m* k1+Δk
=
dE 2= 2 ( E − E0 ) k1
E1+ΔE
L m* E1
States/unit energy @ E =
π 2= 2 ( E − E0 )

States/unit energy/unit length @ E k



π
1 m* δk =
≡ DOS = a
π 2= 2 ( E − E0 ) Na

Alam  ECE‐606 S09 5
1D‐DOS

E E DOS =
1 m*
π 2= 2 ( E − E0 )

k
π DOS
2π a
Δk =
Na
Conservation of DOS
Alam  ECE‐606 S09 6
Density of States in 2D Semiconductors

b
a

Show that 2D DOS is a constant independent of energy!

Alam  ECE‐606 S09 7
Density of States in 3D Semiconductors
Macroscopic Sample
States between E1 +ΔE & E1
4 4
π ( k + dk ) − π k 3
3
V H
=3 3 = 2 k 2 Δk
2π 2π 2π 2π
W
L W H
L
V 2 Δk
States/unit energy @ E = 2 k
2π dE 2π/H
2π/W
=2k 2 2m* ( E − E0 ) dk m* 2π/L
E − E0 = ⇒k= ⇒ =
2m *
= 2
dE 2= 2 ( E − E0 )
k
K+dk
States/unit energy/unit volume @ E1
m*
DOS = 2 3 2m* ( E − E0 )
2π =

Alam  ECE‐606 S09 8
3D‐DOS

m3* 2m3* ( E − E0 )
DOS =
E E π 2 =3

k
π π DOS

a 2π a
Δk =
Na
Conservation of DOS
Alam  ECE‐606 S09 9
Outline

1) Calculation of density of states

2) Density of states for specific materials
Density of states for specific materials

3) Characterization of Effective Mass

4) Conclusions

Alam  ECE‐606 S09 10
Density of States of GaAs: Conduction/Valence Bands

m*n 2m*n ( E − Ec )
gc ( E ) =
2π 2 =3

⎧ m* 2m* ( E − E )
υ
⎪ hh hh

⎪ 2π 2 =3

gυ ( E ) = ⎨
⎪ *
lh ( E − Eυ )
*
⎪ lh
m 2 m
⎪⎩ 2π 2 =3
11
Four valleys inside BZ for Germanium

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Ellipsoidal Bands and DOS Effective Mass
k2 const. E
t E
=k
2
= k2
2
= k3
2 2 2 2
E − EC = + 1
*
+
2m 2mt*
l 2mt* E=const. ellipsoid
k12 k2 2 k3 2
k1
1= + +
⎡ 2ml ( E − EC ) ⎤ ⎡ 2mt ( E − EC ) ⎤ ⎡ 2mt* ( E − EC ) ⎤
* *
k3
⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥
⎣ = 2
⎦ ⎣ = 2
⎦ ⎣ = 2

α2 β 2
Transform into …

⎛4 2⎞ 4 3
Vk = N el ⎜ παβ ⎟ ≡ π keff
⎝3 ⎠ 3

3
2m ( E − Ec ) 2m ( E − Ec ) 2m ( E − Ec ) 4 ⎡ 2meff ( E − Ec ) ⎤
* * * *
4
N el π l t t
≡ π⎢ ⎥
3 =2 =2 =2 3 ⎢ =2 ⎥⎦

m *
eff =N 23
el (m m )*
l
*2 1 3
t
13
Alam  ECE‐606 S09
DOS Effective Mass for Conduction Band 

m *
eff =4 23
(m m )
*
l
*2 1 3
t m *
eff =6 23
(m m )
*
l
*2 1 3
t

m*eff 2m*eff ( E − Ec ) m*eff 2m*eff ( E − Ec )


gc ( E ) = gc ( E ) =
2π =
2 3
2π 2 =3

14
Outline

1) Calculation of density of states

2) Density of states for specific materials
Density of states for specific materials

3) Characterization of Effective Mass

4) Conclusions

Alam  ECE‐606 S09 15
Measurement of Effective Mass

ν0=24 GHz B field variable …
(fixed)
Iin Iout
kz

qBcon
m* =
2π v0
ky kx
Iout - Iin

Bcon B 16
Motion in Real Space and Phase Space
Energy=constant.
x Liquid He temperature …

ky
(kx,0)
((0,k
, y)
y
kx

(-kx,0) (0,-ky)
kz

ky kx
qB0
Derive the Cyclotron Formula m* =
2π v0

For an particle in (x‐y) plane with B‐field in z‐direction, 
the Lorentz force is
the Lorentz force is …
B
m* υ 2
= qυ × Bz = qυ Bz
r0
qB0 r0
υ=
m*
2π r0 2π m*
τ= =
υ qB0
1 qB0
ν0 ≡ =
τ 2π m*

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Effective mass in Ge

[111] [111] [111] [111]

[111] [111] [111] [111]

4 angles between B field and the ellipsoids …
Recall the HW1

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Derivation for the Cyclotron Formula
1 cos 2 θ sin 2 θ
Show that  2
= 2
+ Given three mc and three θ,
mc mt ml mt we will Find mt, and ml

The Lorentz force on electrons in a B‐field 


F = qυ × B = [ M ]
dt
In other words,  B
dυ x
Fx = q (υ y Bz − υ z By ) = m*
t
dt

Fy = q (υ z Bx − υ x Bz ) = mt* y
dt
* dυ z
Fz = q (υ x By − υ y Bx ) = ml
dt
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Continued … kz
Let (B) make an angle (θ) with longitudinal axis of the 
ellipsoid (ellipsoids oriented along kz)
B0
Bx = B0 cos (θ ) , By = 0 , Bz = B0 sin (θ ) , ky
kx
Differentiate (vy) and use other equations to find …

d 2υ y
+ υ yω 2 = 0 with ω 2 ≡ ⎡⎣ωt wl sin 2 θ + ωt 2 cos 2 θ ⎤⎦
dt 2
q 0
qB qB
q 0 qB
q 0
ω0 ≡ * ωt ≡ * ωl ≡ *
mc mt ml

1 sin 2 θ cos 2 θ
so that … = +
(m )
* 2
c
ml mt mt 2
Alam  ECE‐606 S09 21
Measurement of Effective Mass

B=[0.61, 0.61, 0.5]

[110]

qB1
Three peaks     B
Three peaks B1, B B2, B
B3 mc =
1 cos 2 θ sin 2 θ 2π v0
2
= 2
+ Three masses   mc1,mc2,mc3
mc mt ml mt Three unique angles: 7, 65, 73 
Known θ and mc allows calculation of mt and ml.
Alam  ECE‐606 S09 22
Valence Band Effective Mass

HW. Which peaks relate to valence band?


Why are there two valence band peaks?

Alam  ECE‐606 S09 23
Conclusions

1) Measurement of Effective mass and band gaps define 
the energy‐band of a material. 

2) Only a fraction of the available states are occupied. The 
number of available states change with energy. DOS 
captures this variation. 

3)) DOS is an important and useful characteristic of a 
p
material that should be understood carefully.  

Alam  ECE‐606 S09 24