Anda di halaman 1dari 22

INDEX

S.No Title Pg. Date Sign.


. No.

1
Experiment No. 1

Aim:
To study the Ethernet Cable.

The Ethernet CAT5 cable is a twisted pair cable type. The cable, mostly
being unshielded, relies on the twisted-pair design for noise reduction.

UTP Cable:
The Unshielded Twisted Pair is a type of cable that is found in many
Ethernet networks and telephone systems. The cable consists of the
conductor, insulation and a sheath. The twists in the cable help in
reducing crosstalk between the pairs. There are two other types of twisted
pair cables – Foiled twisted pair and Shielded twisted pair.

Characteristics of the CAT5 UTP:


1. Propagation Speed : 0.64c

2. Propagation Delay : 4.80 – 5.30 ns/m

3. Operating Temperature : -55 to +60 °C

4. Cut-off Frequency : 50323 Hz

Connectors and Color coding:


The Ethernet cable terminates into a RJ-45 connector, also known as the
8P8C modular connector. It could be terminated in either of the 2
schemes -T568A or T568B.

The colors of the wires in the 2 wiring schemes are:

Pin T568A T568B


No.

1. White/Green White/Orange
2. Green Orange
3. White/Orange White/Green
4. Blue Blue
5. White/Blue White/Blue
6. Orange Green
7. White/Brown White/Brown
8. Brown Brown

2
On an average, there are 6 twists per 5 centimeters. To reduce crosstalk,
the number of twists per centimeters can be made to differ for different
colors.

3
Straight-Through Cable

Pin at Pin at
Connector Connector 2
1 1 1
2 2
3
3
4 4
5 5
6 6
7 7
8 8

Cross-Over Cable

Pin at Pin at
Connector 1 Connector 2

1 1
2
3 2
3

4 4
5 5
6 6
7 7
8 8

4
Types of Ethernet cables:
The Ethernet cable is used generally in 2 ways: as a Straight cable or as a
Crossover cable.

The straight cable is used for connecting dissimilar devices like


1. Computer to a Switch/Hub
2. Computer to cable/DSL Modem

The Crossover cable is used for connecting similar devices like


1. Computer to Computer
2. Switch/Hub to Switch/Hub

In a straight cable, both the terminals of the wire attach to a connector


with the same wiring schemes, i.e., either T568A or T568B. In case of a
crossover cable, one end of the wire is fit into the connector using the
T568A scheme and other using the T568B. This means that the first and
the third wires are swapped and so are the second and the sixth to make
the cable a crossover.

5
Experiment No. 2
Aim:
To study the different network commands in Windows.

Commands:

IPCONFIG:
Ipconfig is a MS-DOS utility that can be used from MS-DOS and a MS-
DOS shell to display the network settings currently assigned and given by
a network. This command can be utilized to verify a network connection
as well as to verify your network settings.

Sample output:

Windows IP Configuration

Ethernet adapter Local Area Connection:

Media State . . . . . . . . . . . : Media disconnected

Ethernet adapter Wireless Network Connection:

Connection-specific DNS Suffix . : Belkin

IP Address . . . . . . . . . . . . : 192.168.2.3

Subnet Mask . . . . . . . . . . . : 255.255.255.0

Default Gateway . . . . . . . . . : 192.168.2.1

ARP:
Used to display or manipulate the ARP information on a network
device or computer.

Sample Output:

Interface: 192.168.2.3 --- 0x3


Internet Address Physical Address Type
192.168.2.1 94-44-52-08-59-9d dynamic
192.168.2.5 00-22-3f-fe-9d-5f dynamic

NET VIEW:
The net command is used to update, fix, or view the network or
network settings. The view option displays a list of computers in a
specified workgroup or the shared resources available on a specified

6
computer.
Sample Output:

Server Name Remark


-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
\\MANCHANDA-PC
\\SAURABH Saurabh
The command completed successfully.

PING:
Ping is one of the most commonly used and known commands. Ping
allows a user to ping another network IP address. This can help determine
if the network is able to communicate with the network

Sample Output:

Pinging 192.168.2.5 with 32 bytes of data:

Reply from 192.168.2.5: bytes=32 time=7ms TTL=128

Reply from 192.168.2.5: bytes=32 time=2ms TTL=128

Reply from 192.168.2.5: bytes=32 time=22ms TTL=128

Reply from 192.168.2.5: bytes=32 time=9ms TTL=128

Ping statistics for 192.168.2.5:

Packets: Sent = 4, Received = 4, Lost = 0 (0% loss),

Approximate round trip times in milli-seconds:

Minimum = 2ms, Maximum = 22ms, Average = 10ms

TRACERT:
The tracert command is used to determine network related issues or
slowdowns. Using this command one can view a listing of how a network
packet travels through the network and where it may fail or slow down.
Also, one can determine the computer, router, switch or other network
device possibly causing the network issues.

Sample Output:

Tracing route to google.com [209.85.231.104]

over a maximum of 30 hops:

1 3 ms 1 ms 1 ms . [192.168.2.1]

7
2 3 ms 1 ms 4 ms 192.168.1.1

3 46 ms 39 ms 39 ms ABTS-North-Static-
001.129.160.122.airtelbroadband.in [122.160.129.1]

4 41 ms 39 ms 39 ms ABTS-North-Static-
249.242.160.122.airtelbroadband.in [122.160.242.249]

5 42 ms 40 ms 39 ms AES-Static-229.85.22.125.airtel.in
[125.22.85.229]

6 99 ms 89 ms 89 ms 125.21.167.70

7 94 ms 92 ms 91 ms 72.14.216.229

8 91 ms 88 ms 89 ms 66.249.94.170

9 104 ms 304 ms 109 ms 72.14.238.74


10 315 ms 311 ms 401 ms google.com [209.85.231.104]

Trace complete.

8
Experiment No. 3

Aim:
To configure two routers connected via their Ethernet interface and
check the connection status.

Commands Used:
Command Description

enable Switches from user mode to priviledged


mode
config t Used to execute configuration commands
from the terminal
show ip interface brief Overview all interfaces on the router
Interface <InterfaceName> Moves to interface configuration mode
ip address <IP Addr> To add an IP address to the interface
<SubnetMask>
no shutdown Enables an interface

9
10
11
Experiment No. 4

Aim:
To configure two routers connected via their Serial interface and
check the connection status.

Commands Used:
Command Description
zz
enable Switches from user mode to priviledged
mode
config t Used to execute configuration commands
from the terminal
show ip interface brief Overview all interfaces on the router
hostname <routername> Used to configure the hostname of the
router
Interface <InterfaceName> Moves to interface configuration mode
ip address <IP Addr> To add an IP address to the interface
<SubnetMask>
no shutdown Enables an interface
clock rate <rate> Sets clock rate for router with DCE cable

12
13
14
Experiment No. 5

Aim:
To set the console, enable and telnet password and banner of a
router and start a telnet session between two routers

Commands Used:
Command Description

enable password Sets priviledged mode password


<password>
line con 0 Enter console configuration mode
line vty 0 4 Enter Virtual terminal configuration
mode
password <password> Set the password
login Enable password checking at login
telnet <ipAddr> Starts a telnet session with host at
ipAddr
banner motd # message # Sets ‘Message of the day’

15
16
17
Experiment No. 6

Aim:
To setup a static routing table for a router and test it.

Commands Used:
Command Description

show ip route Shows the routing table


ip route <net> <subnet> Sets the next hop for ‘net’ to ‘addr’
<addr>
Ipconfig /ip Sets ip address for PC
Ipconfig /dg Sets the default gateway for PC
ping Checks the connectivity between 2
hosts

18
[Router1 output before setting the routing table]

19
[Router2 output after setting the routing table]

20
[PC1 PING command output]

21
[PC2 PING command output]

22