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CHAPTER -1

OVERVIEW

INTRODUCTION

Now a day's every system is automated in order to face new challenges in the present
day situation. Automated systems have less manual operations, so that the flexibility,
reliabilities are high and accurate. Owing to this the demand, hence every field prefers
automated control systems. Especially in the field of electronics automated systems are
doing better performance. In the present scenario of war situations, unmanned systems
plays very important role to minimize human losses. So this robot is very useful to do
operations, such as detection of enemies and to find human bodies and so many things.

Robot

"A re-programmable, multifunctional manipulator designed to move material, parts,


tools, or specialized devices through various programmed motions for the performance of
a variety of tasks."

OBJECTIVE
The main objective of this project is to control the direction of the robot using RF
communication.

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CHAPTER 2

MICROCONTROLLER

2.1 A Brief History of 8051

In 1981, Intel Corporation introduced an 8 bit microcontroller called 8051. This


microcontroller had 128 bytes of RAM, 4K bytes of chip ROM, two timers, one serial
port, and four ports all on a single chip. At the time it was also referred as “A SYSTEM
ON A CHIP”

The 8051 is an 8-bit processor meaning that the CPU can work only on 8 bits data
at a time. Data larger than 8 bits has to be broken into 8 bits pieces to be processed by the
CPU. The 8051 has a total of four I\O ports each 8 bit wide.

There are many versions of 8051 with different speeds and amount of on-chip
ROM and they are all compatible with the original 8051. This means that if you write a
program for one it will run on any of them.

The 8052 is an original member of the 8051 family. There are two other members
in the 8051 family of microcontrollers. They are 8052 and 8031. All the three
microcontrollers will have the same internal architecture, but they differ in the following
aspects.
 8031 has 128 bytes of RAM, two timers and 6 interrupts.
 89S51 has 4KB ROM, 128 bytes of RAM, two timers and 6
interrupts.
 89S52 has 8KB ROM, 128 bytes of RAM, three timers and 8
interrupts.

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Of the three microcontrollers, 89S51 is the most preferable. Microcontroller
supports both serial and parallel communication.
In the concerned project 89S52 microcontroller is used. Here microcontroller used
is AT89S52, which is manufactured by ATMEL laboratories.

2.2 Description of 89C52 Microcontroller

The AT89S52 provides the following standard features: 8Kbytes of Flash, 256
bytes of RAM, 32 I/O lines, three 16-bit timer/counters, six-vector two-level interrupt
architecture, a full duplex serial port, on-chip oscillator, and clock circuitry. In addition,
the AT89S52 is designed with static logic for operation down to zero frequency and
supports two software selectable power saving modes. The Idle Mode stops the CPU
while allowing the RAM, timer/counters, serial port, and interrupt system to continue
functioning. The Power down Mode saves the RAM contents but freezes the oscillator,
disabling all other chip functions until the next hardware reset.

By combining a versatile 8-bit CPU with Flash on a monolithic chip, the


AT89S52 is a powerful microcomputer which provides a highly flexible and cost
effective solution to many embedded control applications.

2.3 Features of Microcontroller (89S52)

• Compatible with MCS-51 Products


• 8 Kbytes of In-System Reprogrammable Flash Memory
• Endurance: 1,000 Write/Erase Cycles
• Fully Static Operation: 0 Hz to 24 MHz
• Three-Level Program Memory Lock

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• 256 x 8-Bit Internal RAM
• 32 Programmable I/O Lines
• Three 16-Bit Timer/Counters
• Eight vector two level Interrupt Sources
• Programmable Serial Channel
• Low Power Idle and Power Down Modes

In addition, the AT89S52 is designed with static logic for operation down to zero
frequency and supports two software selectable power saving modes.The Idle Mode stops
the CPU while allowing the RAM, timer/counters, serial port and interrupt system to
continue functioning. The Power down Mode saves the RAM contents but freezes the
oscillator disabling all other chip functions until the next hardware reset.

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2.4 Block Diagram of Microcontroller

Figure 2.1Block Diagram of 89S52

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2.5 Pin Configurations

Figure 2.2Pin Diagram of 89S52

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Pin Description

• VCC

Pin 40 provides Supply voltage to the chip. The voltage source is +5v

• GND.

Pin 20 is the grounded

• Port 0

Port 0 is an 8-bit open drain bidirectional I/O port from pin 32 to 39. As an output
port each pin can sink eight TTL inputs. When 1s are written to port 0 pins, the pins can
be used as high-impedance inputs. Port 0 may also be configured to be the multiplexed
low-order address/data bus during accesses to external program and data memory. In this
mode P0 has internal pull-ups.
Port 0 also receives the code bytes during Flash programming, and outputs the
code bytes during program verification. External pull-ups are required during program
verification.

• Port 1

Port 1 is an 8-bit bidirectional I/O port with internal pull-ups from pin 1 to 8. The
Port 1 output buffers can sink/source four TTL inputs. When 1s are written to Port 1 pins
they are pulled high by the internal pull-ups and can be used as inputs. As inputs, Port 1
pins that are externally being pulled low will source current (IIL) because of the internal
pull-ups.
In addition, P1.0 and P1.1 can be configured to be the timer/counter 2 external
count input (P1.0/T2) and the timer/counter 2 trigger input (P1.1/T2EX), respectively, as
shown in following table.

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Port 1 also receives the low-order address bytes during Flash programming and
program verification.

• Port 2

Port 2 is an 8-bit bidirectional I/O port with internal pull-ups from pin 21 to 28.
The Port 2 output buffers can sink / source four TTL inputs. When 1s are written to Port
2 pins they are pulled high by the internal pull-ups and can be used as inputs. As inputs,
Port 2 pins that are externally being pulled low will source current (IIL) because of the
internal pull-ups.

Port 2 emits the high-order address byte during fetches from external program
memory and during accesses to external data memory that uses 16-bit addresses (MOVX
@ DPTR). In this application it uses strong internal pull-ups when emitting 1s. During
accesses to external data memory that uses 8-bit addresses (MOVX @ RI), Port 2 emits
the contents of the P2 Special Function Register. Port 2 also receives the high-order
address bits and some control signals during Flash programming and verification.
• Port 3
Port 3 is an 8-bit bidirectional I/O port with internal pull-ups from pin 10 to 17.
The Port 3 output buffers can sink / source four TTL inputs. When 1s are written to
Port 3 pins they are pulled high by the internal pull-ups and can be used as inputs. As
inputs, Port 3 pins that are externally being pulled low will source current (IIL)
because of the pull-ups.
Port 3 also serves the functions of various special features of the AT89C52 as
listed below:

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Table 2.1Special Features of port3

Port 3 also receives some control signals for Flash programming and
programming verification.

• RST

Pin 9 is the Reset input. It is active high. Upon applying a high pulse to this pin,
the microcontroller will reset and terminate all activities. A high on this pin for two
machine cycles while the oscillator is running resets the device.

• ALE/PROG

Address Latch is an output pin and is active high. Address Latch Enable output
pulse for latching the low byte of the address during accesses to external memory.
This pin is also the program pulse input (PROG) during Flash programming. In
normal operation ALE is emitted at a constant rate of 1/6 the oscillator frequency, and
may be used for external timing or clocking purposes.
Note, however, that one ALE pulse is skipped during each access to external Data
Memory. If desired, ALE operation can be disabled by setting bit 0 of SFR location
8EH. With the bit set, ALE is active only during a MOVX or MOVC instruction.
Otherwise, the pin is weakly pulled high. Setting the ALE-disable bit has no effect if
the microcontroller is in external execution mode.

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PSEN

Program Store Enable is the read strobe to external program memory. When the
AT89S52 is executing code from external program memory, PSEN is activated twice
each machine cycle, except that two PSEN activations are skipped during each access to
external data memory.

• EA/VPP

External Access Enable EA must be strapped to GND in order to enable the


device to fetch code from external program memory locations starting at 0000H up to
FFFFH. Note, however, that if lock bit 1 is programmed, EA will be internally latched on
reset. EA should be strapped to VCC for internal program executions. This pin also
receives the 12-volt programming enable voltage (VPP) during Flash programming when
12-volt programming is selected.

• XTAL1

Input to the inverting oscillator amplifier and input to the internal clock operating
circuit.
• XTAL2

Output from the inverting oscillator amplifier.

• Oscillator Characteristics

XTAL1 and XTAL2 are the input and output, respectively, of an inverting
amplifier which can be configured for use as an on chip oscillator, as shown in Figure
5.3. Either a quartz crystal or ceramic resonator may be used. To drive the device from an

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external clock source, XTAL2 should be left unconnected while XTAL1 is driven as
shown in Figure.

Figure 2.3 crystal connections

Figure 2.4External Clock Drive Configuration

There are no requirements on the duty cycle of the external clock signal, since the
input to the internal clocking circuitry is through a divide-by two flip-flop, but minimum
and maximum voltage high and low time specifications must be observed.

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• Idle Mode

In idle mode, the CPU puts itself to sleep while all the on-chip peripherals remain active.
The mode is invoked by software. The content of the on-chip RAM and all the special
functions registers remain unchanged during this mode. The idle mode can be terminated
by any enabled interrupt or by a hardware reset. It should be noted that when idle is
terminated by a hardware reset, the device normally resumes program execution, from
where it left off, up to two machine cycles before the internal reset algorithm takes
control.
On-chip hardware inhibits access to internal RAM in this event, but access to the
port pins is not inhibited. To eliminate the possibility of an unexpected write to a port pin
when Idle is terminated by reset, the instruction following the one that invokes Idle
should not be one that writes to a port pin or to external memory.

• Power down Mode

In the power down mode the oscillator is stopped, and the instruction that invokes
power down is the last instruction executed. The on-chip RAM and Special Function
Registers retain their values until the power down mode is terminated. The only exit from
power down is a hardware reset. Reset redefines the SFRs but does not change the on-
chip RAM. The reset should not be activated before VCC is restored to its normal
operating level and must be held active long enough to allow the oscillator to restart and
stabilize.

Table 2.2Status of External Pins during Idle and Power down Mode

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• Program Memory Lock Bits

On the chip are three lock bits which can be left unprogrammed (U) or can be
programmed (P) to obtain the additional features listed in the table 5.4. When lock bit 1 is
programmed, the logic level at the EA pin is sampled and latched during reset. If the
device is powered up without a reset, the latch initializes to a random value, and holds
that value until reset is activated. It is necessary that the latched value of EA be in
agreement with the current logic level at that pin in order for the device to function
properly.

Table 2.3Lock Bit Protection Modes

TIMERS

• Timer 0 and 1

Timer 0 and Timer 1 in the AT89S52 operate the same way as Timer 0 and Timer
1 in the AT89S52.
Register pairs (TH0, TL1), (TH1, TL1) are the 16-bit counter registers for timer/c;
ounters 0 and 1.

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• Timer 2

Timer 2 is a 16-bit Timer/Counter that can operate as either a timer or an event


counter. The type of operation is selected by bit C/T2 in the SFR T2CON. Timer 2 has
three operating modes: capture, auto-reload (up or down counting), and baud rate
generator. The modes are selected by bits in T2CON, as shown in Table 5.2. Timer 2
consists of two 8-bit registers, TH2 and TL2. In the Timer function, the TL2 register is
incremented every machine cycle. Since a machine cycle consists of 12 oscillator periods,
the count rate is 1/12 of the oscillator frequency.

Table 2.4Timer 2 Operating Modes

In the Counter function, the register is incremented in response to a 1-to-0


transition at its corresponding external input pin, T2. In this function, the external input is
sampled during S5P2 of every machine cycle. When the samples show a high in one
cycle and a low in the next cycle, the count is incremented. The new count value appears
in the register during S3P1 of the cycle following the one in which the transition was
detected. Since two machine cycles (24 oscillator periods) are required to recognize a 1-
to-0 transition, the maximum count rate is 1/24 of the oscillator frequency. To ensure that
a given level is sampled at least once before it changes, the level should be held for at
least one full machine cycle.
There are no restrictions on the duty cycle of external input signal, but it should
for at least one full machine to ensure that a given level is sampled at least once before it
changes.

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• Capture Mode

In the capture mode, two options are selected by bit EXEN2 in T2CON. If
EXEN2 = 0, Timer 2 is a 16-bit timer or counter which upon overflow sets bit TF2 in
T2CON.This bit can then be used to generate an interrupt. IfEXEN2 = 1, Timer 2
performs the same operation, but a 1-to-0 transition at external input T2EX also causes
the current value in TH2 and TL2 to be captured into RCAP2H andRCAP2L,
respectively. In addition, the transition at T2EXcauses bit EXF2 in T2CON to be set. The
EXF2 bit, likeTF2, can generate an interrupt.

• Auto-reload (Up or Down Counter)

Timer 2 can be programmed to count up or down when configured in its 16-bit


auto-reload mode. This feature is invoked by the DCEN (Down Counter Enable) bit
located in the SFR T2MOD (see Table 4). Upon reset, the DCEN bit is set to 0 so that
timer 2 will default to count up. When DCEN is set, Timer 2 can count up or down,
depending on the value of the T2EX pin.

Table2.5 T2MOD-Timer 2 Mode Control Register

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Table 2.6 T2CON-Timer/Counter2 Control Register

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2.5 Interrupts

The AT89C52 has a total of six interrupt vectors: two external interrupts (INT0
and INT1), three timer interrupts (Timers 0, 1, and 2), and the serial port interrupt. These
interrupts are all shown in Figure 2.5

Figure 2.5Interrupts source

Each of these interrupt sources can be individually enabled or disabled by setting


or clearing a bit in Special Function Register IE. IE also contains a global disable bit, EA,
which disables all interrupts at once.

Note that Table shows that bit position IE.6 is unimplemented. In the AT89C51,
bit position IE.5 is also unimplemented. User software should not write 1s to these bit
positions, since they may be used in future AT89 products.

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Table 2.7Interrupts Enable Register

Timer 2 interrupt is generated by the logical OR of bits TF2 and EXF2 in register
T2CON. Neither of these flags is cleared by hardware when the service routine is
vectored to. In fact, the service routine may have to determine whether it was TF2 or
EXF2 that generated the interrupt, and that bit will have to be cleared in software.

The Timer 0 and Timer 1 flags, TF0 and TF1, are set at S5P2 of the cycle in
which the timers overflow. The values are then polled by the circuitry in the next cycle.
However, the Timer 2 flag, TF2, is set at S2P2 and is polled in the same cycle in which
the timer overflows.

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2.6 Special function registers:

Special function registers are the areas of memory that control specific
functionality of the 89c52 microcontroller.

a) Accumulator (0E0h)

As its name suggests, it is used to accumulate the results of large no. of


instructions. It can hold 8 bit values.

b) B register (oFoh)

The B register is very similar to accumulator. It may hold 8-bit value. The B
register is only used by MUL AB and DIV AB instructions. In MUL AB the higher byte
of the products gets stored in B register. In DIV AB the quotient gets stored in B with the
remainder in A.

c) Stack pointer (081h)

The stack pointer holds 8-bit value. This is used to indicate where the next value
to be removed from the stack should be taken from. When a value is to be pushed on to
the stack, the 8052 first store the value of SP and then store the value at the resulting
memory location. When a value is to be popped from the stack, the 8052 returns the value
from the memory location indicated by SP and then decrements the value of SP.

d) Data pointer (Data pointer low/high, address 82/83h)

The SFRs DPL and DPH work together to represent a 16-bit value called the data
pointer. The data pointer is used in operations regarding external RAM and some
instructions code memory. It is a 16-bit SFR and also an addressable SFR.

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e) Program counter
The program counter is a 16 bit register, which contains the 2 byte address, which tells
the next instruction to execute to be found in memory. When the 8052 is initialized PC
starts at 0000h and is incremented each time an instruction is executes. It is not
addressable SFR.

f) PCON (power control, 87h)

The power control SFR is used to control the 8052’s power control modes.
Certain operation modes of the 8052 allow the 8052 to go into a type of “sleep mode”
which consumes low power.

SMOD ---- --- ---- GF1 GF0 PD IDL

g)TCON(Timer control, 88h)

The timer mode control SFR is used to configure and modify the way in which
the 8052’s two timers operate. This SFR controls whether each of the two timers is
running or stopped and contains a flag to indicate that each timer has overflowed.
Additionally, some non-timer related bits are located in TCON SER. These bits are used
to configure the way in which the external interrupt flags are activated, which are set
when an external interrupt occur.

TF1 TR1 TF0 TR0 IE1 IT1 IE0 IT0

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h)TMOD(Timer Mode,89h)

The timer mode SFR is used to configure the mode of operation of each of the
two timers. Using this SR your program may configure each timer to be a 16-bit timer, or
13 bit timer, 8-bit auto reload timer, or two separate timers. Additionally you may
configure the timers to only count when an external pin is activated or to count “events”
that are indicated on an external pin.

‌ ‌
Gate C/ T M1 M0 Gate C/ T M1 M0

TIMER1 TIMER0

i) T0 (Timer 0 low/ high, address 8A/ 8C h)

These two SFRs together represent timer 0. Their exact behavior depends on how
the timer is configured in the TMOD SFR; however, these timers always count up. What
is configurable is how and when they increment value.

j) T1 (Timer 1 low/ high, address 8B/ 8D h)

These two SFRs together represent timer 1. Their exact behavior depends on how
the timer is configured in the TMOD SFR; however, these timers always count up. What
is configurable is how and when they increment in value.

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k) P0 (Port 0, address 80h, bit addressable)

This is port 0 latch. Each bit of this SFR corresponds to one of the pins on a micro
controller. Any data to be outputted to port 0 is first written on P0 register. For e.g., bit 0
of port 0 is pin P0.0, bit 7 is pin P0.7. Writing a value of 1 to a bit of this SFR will send a
high level on the corresponding I/O pin whereas a value of 0 will bring it to low level.

l) P1 (Port 1, address 90h, bit addressable)

This is port 1 latch. Each bit of this SFR corresponds to one of the pins on a micro
controller. Any data to be outputted to port 1 is first written on P1 register. For e.g., bit 0
of port 1 is pin P1.0, bit 7 is pin P1.7. Writing a value of 1 to a bit of this SFR will send a
high level on the corresponding I/O pin whereas a value of 0 will bring it to low level.

m) P2 (Port 2, address 0A0h, bit addressable)

This is port 2 latch. Each bit of this SFR corresponds to one of the pins on a micro
controller. Any data to be outputted to port 2 is first written on P2 register. For e.g., bit 0
of port 2 is pin P2.0, bit 7 is pin P2.7. Writing a value of 1 to a bit of this SFR will send a
high level on the corresponding I/O pin whereas a value of 0 will bring it to low level.

n) P3 (Port 3, address 0B0h, bit addressable)

This is port 3 latch. Each bit of this SFR corresponds to one of the pins on a micro
controller. Any data to be outputted to port 3 is first written on P3 register. For e.g., bit 0
of port 3 is pin P3.0, bit 7 is pin P3.7. Writing a value of 1 to a bit of this SFR will send a
high level on the corresponding I/O pin whereas a value of 0 will bring it to low level.

o) IE (Interrupt Enable, 0A8h)

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The interrupt enable SFR is used to enable and disable specific interrupts. The
low 7 bits of the SFR are used to enable/disable the specific interrupts, where the MSB
bit is used to enable or disable all the interrupts. Thus, if the high bit of IE 0 all interrupts
are disabled regardless of whether an individual interrupt is enabled by setting a lower
bit.

___
EA ET2 ES ET1 EX1 ET0 EX0

p) IP (Interrupt Priority, 0B8h)

The interrupt priority SFR is used to specify the relative priority of each interrupt.
On 8052, an interrupt may be either low or high priority. An interrupt may interrupt
interrupts. For e.g., if we configure all interrupts as low priority other than serial
interrupt. The serial interrupt always interrupts the system; even if another interrupt is
currently executing no other interrupt will be able to interrupt the serial interrupt routine
since the serial interrupt routine has the highest priority.

___ ___
PT2 PS PT1 PX1 PT0 PX0

q)PSW (Program Status Word, 0D0h)

The Program Status Word is used to store a number of important bits that are set
and cleared by 8052 instructions. The PSW SFR contains the carry flag, the auxiliary
carry flag, the parity flag and the overflow flag. Additionally, it also contains the register
bank select flags, which are used to select, which of the “R” register banks currently in
use.

CY AC F0 RS1 RS0 OV ---- P


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r) SBUF (Serial Buffer, 99h)

SBUF is used to hold data in serial communication. It is physically two registers.


One is writing only and is used to hold data to be transmitted out of 8052 via TXD. The
other is read only and holds received data from external sources via RXD. Both mutually
exclusive registers use address 99h.

1.7 Memory Organization


The total memory of 89C52 system is logically divided in Program memory and
Data memory. Program memory stores the programs to be executed, while data memory
stores the data like intermediate results, variables and constants required for the execution
of the program. Program memory is invariably implemented using EPROM, because it
stores only program code which is to be executed and thus it need not be written into.
However, the data memory may be read from or written to and thus it is implemented
using RAM.
Further, the program memory and data memory both may be categorized as on-
chip (internal) and external memory, depending upon whether the memory physically
exists on the chip or it is externally interfaced. The 89C52 can address 8Kbytes on-chip
memory whose map starts from 0000H and ends at 1FFFH. It can address 64Kbytes of
external program memory under the control of PSEN (low) signal.
The AT89C52 implements 256 bytes of on-chip RAM. The upper 128 bytes
occupy a parallel address space to the Special Function Registers. That means the upper
128bytes have the same addresses as the SFR space but are physically separate from SFR
space. When an instruction accesses an internal location above address 7FH, the address
mode used in the instruction specifies whether the CPU accesses the upper 128 bytes of
RAM or the SFR space. Instructions that use direct addressing access SFR space. For
example, the following direct addressing instruction accesses the SFR at location 0A0H
(which is P2).
MOV 0A0H, #data

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Instructions that use indirect addressing access the upper128 bytes of RAM. For
example, the following indirect addressing instruction, where R0 contains 0A0H,
accesses the data byte at address 0A0H, rather than P2 (whose address is 0A0H)
.MOV @R0, #data
Note that stack operations are examples of indirect addressing, so the upper 128 bytes of
data RAM are available as stack space.

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CHAPTER 3

KIT DISCRIPTION
Circuit diagram

Rx:

Figure 3.1 Block diagram of receiver

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Circuit diagram
Tx:

Figure 3.2Block diagram of transmitter

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WORKING PRINCIPLE:

3.1 TRANSMITTER

OPERATION OF THE TRANSMITTER

TRANSMITTER SECTION (schematic explanation)

Power Supply: AC 230v/50Hz is converted to a 5V DC power sufficient for circuit


operation Microcontroller, 640 IC).

Port 0:
It will be acting as both input port as well as output port. Upon reset port0 will
be acting as output port and if we want to use it as input port we have to connect pull up
resistances to make port0 as input port. Here, in this particular project prot0 is left
unconnected.

Port 1:
Port 1 can act as both input port as well as output port. Upon reset port1
will be acting as input port. The port 1 first four pins are connected to the transmitter
circuit. We are using HT12E IC which is a 18 pin IC. This encoder will encode the data
send by the microcontroller and then transmits the encoded data to the receiver through
air. In encoder IC, 10 to 13 pins are connected to Port 1 (P1.0 to P1.3 pins). Through
these pins the microcontroller will send data to the transmitter. This transmitter will sends
this data to the receiver circuit. Here data transmission is wireless.

Port 2:
This Port2 is used as both input as well as output port. In this port 2 first pin
is connected to Buzzer. In this two DC motors are connected which can move the robot

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wheels in different directions. The first four pins of this particular Port2 (P2.4 TO P2.7)
are connected to transistor driver circuits. These transistors will get sufficient input from
the microcontroller where the microcontroller is in turn receiving this data from the
transmitter section wirelessly, to drive the motors which in turn rotate the wheels of the
robot to rotate in different desired directions and the data is send from the transmitter
section wirelessly.

Port 3:
This port is used as both input as well as output port. The port 3 first pin is
connected to temperature sensor. In temperature sensor circuit we are having thermistor
whose resistance valure is inversely proportional to temperature. The thermistor is having
negative temperature coefficient ie when temperature increases, the resistance of the
thermistor decreases.

When ever we increase the temperature, the transistor will start conducting. When the
transistor is ON the output of the collector will be zero which is connected to the
microcontroller. So microcontroller will receives logic 0 at the port 3.1 pin. When
microcontroller receives logic 0 it will make the buzzer ON, which is connected to the
other robot. It will send that signal to the encoder Ic. Here we are using HT12E as
encoder. This encoder will encode the data which is given by the micro controller into RF
signal. That signal will be transmitted through RF transmitter.

The port 3 second pin is connected to smoke sensor. When ever this smoke sensor
detects any smoke it will send logic 1 to the base of the transistor. Then the transistor
starts conducting which in turn produces logic 0 at the collector output. The output of the
collector is connected to the micro controller second pin (P3.1). When the micro
controller receives logic 0 at this pin it will send that signal to the other robot which in
turn makes the buzzer ON.

The 3rd pin of this particular Port3 (P3.2) is connected to TSOP. This TSOP will send
logic1 always to microcontroller. When ever any obstacle or any object comes in front it

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receives the signal back then it sends logic 0 to the microcontroller. Then the
microcontroller will stop the robot movement and change the angle.

The 4th pin of port 3 is connected is micro switch. When the robot dashes any object this
switch will becomes zero. Then later when ever the robot senses any obstacle it will turn
left or right or moves back. In this way the robot will learn. So by this way we are able to
produce self learning to the robot.

3.2RECEIVER
OPERATION OF THE RECEIVER

RECEIVER SECTION (Schematic Explanation)

Power Supply: AC 230v/50Hz is converted to a 5V DC power sufficient for circuit


operation (Microcontroller,648IC ).

Port 3:
The port 1 first four pins are connected to the Receiver circuit. We are using
HT12D IC which is a 18 pin IC. This decoder IC will decode the data received from the
air which is send from the Transmitter section. In decoder IC, 8 to 11 pins are connected
to Port 1 (P1.0 to P1.3 pins). Through these pins the microcontroller will be getting the
data from the decoder output. Here data receiving is wireless.

Port 2:

This port is used as both input as well as output port. In this two DC motors are
connected which can move the robot wheels in different directions. The first four pins of
this particular Port2 (P2.4 TO P2.7) are connected to transistor driver circuits. These
transistors will get sufficient input from the microcontroller where the microcontroller is

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in turn receiving this data from the transmitter section wirelessly, to drive the motors
which in turn rotate the wheels of the robot to rotate in different desired directions and
the data is send from the transmitter section wirelessly.

Port 3:

This port is used as both input as well as output port. The 3rd pin of this particular
Port3 (P3.2) is connected to TSOP. This TSOP will send logic1 always to
microcontroller. When ever any obstacle or any object comes in front it receives the
signal back then it sends logic 0 to the microcontroller. Then the microcontroller will stop
the robot and change the angle.

3.3REGULATED POWER SUPPLY

3.3.1 Description:

A variable regulated power supply, also called a variable bench power


supply, is one where you can continuously adjust the output voltage to your requirements.
Varying the output of the power supply is the recommended way to test a project after
having double checked parts placement against circuit drawings and the parts placement
guide. This type of regulation is ideal for having a simple variable bench power supply.
Actually this is quite important because one of the first projects a hobbyist should
undertake is the construction of a variable regulated power supply. While a dedicated
supply is quite handy e.g. 5V or 12V, it's much handier to have a variable supply on
hand, especially for testing. Most digital logic circuits and processors need a 5 volt power
supply. To use these parts we need to build a regulated 5 volt source. Usually you start
with an unregulated power supply ranging from 9 volts to 24 volts DC (A 12 volt power

31
supply is included with the Beginner Kit and the Microcontroller Beginner Kit.). To
make a 5 volt power supply, we use a LM7805 voltage regulator IC .

The LM7805 is simple to use. You simply connect the positive lead of your
unregulated DC power supply (anything from 9VDC to 24VDC) to the Input pin, connect
the negative lead to the Common pin and then when you turn on the power, you get a 5
volt supply from the Output pin.

Circuit Features:

Brief description of operation: Gives out well regulated +5V output, output
current capability of 100 mA

• Circuit protection: Built-in overheating protection shuts down output when


regulator IC gets too hot
• Circuit complexity: Very simple and easy to build
• Circuit performance: Very stable +5V output voltage, reliable operation
• Availability of components: Easy to get, uses only very common basic
components

32
• Design testing: Based on datasheet example circuit, I have used this circuit
successfully as part of many electronics projects
• Applications: Part of electronics devices, small laboratory power supply
• Power supply voltage: Unregulated DC 8-18V power supply
• Power supply current: Needed output current + 5 mA
• Component costs: Few dollars for the electronics components + the input
transformer cost

3.3.1 Block diagram

3.3.2 Circuit diagram

33
Basic Power Supply Circuit:

Above is the circuit of a basic unregulated dc power supply. A bridge rectifier


D1 to D4 rectifies the ac from the transformer secondary, which may also be a block
rectifier such as WO4 or even four individual diodes such as 1N4004 types. (See later re
rectifier ratings).
The principal advantage of a bridge rectifier is you do not need a centre tap on the
secondary of the transformer. A further but significant advantage is that the ripple
frequency at the output is twice the line frequency (i.e. 50 Hz or 60 Hz) and makes
filtering somewhat easier.
As a design example consider we wanted a small unregulated bench supply for
our projects. Here we will go for a voltage of about 12 - 13V at a maximum output
current (IL) of 500ma (0.5A). Maximum ripple will be 2.5% and load regulation is 5%.
Now the RMS secondary voltage (primary is whatever is consistent with your
area) for our power transformer T1 must be our desired output Vo PLUS the voltage
drops across D2 and D4 (2 * 0.7V) divided by 1.414.
This means that Vsec = [13V + 1.4V] / 1.414 which equals about 10.2V. Depending on
the VA rating of your transformer, the secondary voltage will vary considerably in
accordance with the applied load. The secondary voltage on a transformer advertised as
say 20VA will be much greater if the secondary is only lightly loaded.
If we accept the 2.5% ripple as adequate for our purposes then at 13V this
becomes 13 * 0.025 = 0.325 Vrms. The peak to peak value is 2.828 times this value. Vrip
= 0.325V X 2.828 = 0.92 V and this value is required to calculate the value of C1. Also
required for this calculation is the time interval for charging pulses. If you are on a 60Hz
system it it 1/ (2 * 60) = 0.008333 which is 8.33 milliseconds. For a 50Hz system it is
0.01 sec or 10 milliseconds.
Remember the tolerance of the type of capacitor used here is very loose. The
important thing to be aware of is the voltage rating should be at least 13V X 1.414 or

34
18.33. Here you would use at least the standard 25V or higher (absolutely not 16V).With
our rectifier diodes or bridge they should have a PIV rating of 2.828 times the Vsec or at
least 29V. Don't search for this rating because it doesn't exist. Use the next highest
standard or even higher. The current rating should be at least twice the load current
maximum i.e. 2 X 0.5A or 1A. A good type to use would be 1N4004, 1N4006 or 1N4008
types.
These are rated 1 Amp at 400PIV, 600PIV and 1000PIV respectively. Always be
on the lookout for the higher voltage ones when they are on special.

IC Voltage Regulators:
Voltage regulators comprise a class of widely used ICs. Regulator IC units
contain the circuitry for reference source, comparator amplifier, control device, and
overload protection all in a single IC. Although the internal construction of the IC is
somewhat different from that described for discrete voltage regulator circuits, the external
operation is much the same. IC units provide regulation of either a fixed positive voltage,
a fixed negative voltage, or an adjustably set voltage.

A power supply can be built using a transformer connected to the ac supply line to
step the ac voltage to desired amplitude, then rectifying that ac voltage, filtering with a
capacitor and RC filter, if desired, and finally regulating the dc voltage using an IC
regulator. The regulators can be selected for operation with load currents from hundreds
of mill amperes to tens of amperes, corresponding to power ratings from mill watts to
tens of watts.
Three-Terminal Voltage Regulators:
Fixed Positive Voltage Regulators:

IN OUT
Vin 78XX
Vout
GND
C1 C2

35
Fig shows the basic connection of a three-terminal voltage regulator IC to a load.
The fixed voltage regulator has an unregulated dc input voltage, Vi, applied to one input
terminal, a regulated output dc voltage, Vo, from a second terminal, with the third
terminal connected to ground. While the input voltage may vary over some permissible
voltage range, and the output load may vary over some acceptable range, the output
voltage remains constant within specified voltage variation limits. A table of positive
voltage regulated ICs is provided in table. For a selected regulator, IC device
specifications list a voltage range over which the input voltage can vary to maintain a
regulated output voltage over a range of load current. The specifications also list the
amount of output voltage change resulting from a change in load current (load regulation)
or in input voltage (line regulation).

TABLE: Positive Voltage Regulators in 7800 series

IC No. Output voltage(v) Maximum input voltage(v)

7805 +5
7806 +6 35V
7808 +8
7810 +10
7812 +12
7815 +15
7818 +18
7824 +24 40V

36
3.4 Relays

Description:

A relay is an electrically operated switch. Current flowing through the coil of


the relay creates a magnetic field which attracts a lever and changes the switch contacts.
The coil current can be on or off so relays have two switch positions and they are double
throw (changeover) switches.

3.2 DPDT Relay (DOUBLE POLE DOUBLE THROW):

Figure 3.4.1 DPDT relay

General purpose double pole, double throw 12V relay with magnetic coil

Figure 3.4.2 Symbol of DPDT

The features of the DPDT switches are as follows:

37
• Can be used to isolate float switches from spiking voltage or
excessive current.
• Avoids risk that spiking pump voltage will hurt float switches
• Works with our 12 Volt Wall Transformer
• Specifications:
o Coil voltage: 12VD
o Coil resistance: 160 Ohms
o Contact rating: 15A at 110VAC or 24VDC

SPST Relay (SINGLE POLE SINGLE THROW RELAY):

SPST Relays allow one circuit to switch a second circuit which can be
completely separate from the first. For example a low voltage battery circuit can
use a relay to switch a 230V AC mains circuit. There is no electrical connection
inside the relay between the two circuits; the link is magnetic and mechanical.

Figure 3.4.3SPST relay

The relay's switch connections are usually labeled COM, NC and NO:

• COM = Common, always connect to this, it is the moving part of


the switch.
• NC = Normally Closed, COM is connected to this when the relay
coil is off.

38
• NO = Normally Open, COM is connected to this when the relay
coil is on.
• Connect to COM and NO if you want the switched circuit to be on
when the relay coil is on.
• Connect to COM and NC if you want the switched circuit to be on
when the relay coil is off.

Figure 3.4 .4 Circuit symbol of a relay

Figure 3.4.5 relay with protection diodes

Protection diodes for relays:

If the coil is energized with DC, a diode is frequently installed across the
coil, to dissipate the energy from the collapsing magnetic field at deactivation,

39
which would otherwise generate a spike of voltage and might cause damage to
circuit components

Relay coils produce brief high voltage 'spikes' when they are switched off
and this can destroy transistors and ICs in the circuit. To prevent damage you
must connect a protection diode across the relay coil.

Transistors and ICs (chips) must be protected from the brief high voltage
'spike' produced when the relay coil is switched off. The diagram shows how a
signal diode (e.g. 1N4148) is connected across the relay coil to provide this
protection. Note that the diode is connected 'backwards' so that it will normally
not conduct. Conduction only occurs when the relay coil is switched off, at this
moment current tries to continue flowing through the coil and it is harmlessly
diverted through the diode. Without the diode no current could flow and the coil
would produce a damaging high voltage 'spike' in its attempt to keep the current
flowing.

Relays and transistors compared:

Like relays, transistors can be used as an electrically operated switch. For


switching small DC currents (< 1A) at low voltage they are usually a better choice
than a relay. However transistors cannot switch AC or high voltages (such as
mains electricity) and they are not usually a good choice for switching large
currents (> 5A). In these cases a relay will be needed, but note that a low power
transistor may still be needed to switch the current for the relay's coil! The main
advantages and disadvantages of relays are listed below:

Advantages of relays:

Relays can switch AC and DC, transistors can only switch DC.

• Relays can switch high voltages, transistors cannot.

40
• Relays are a better choice for switching large currents (> 5A).
• Relays can switch many contacts at once.

Disadvantages of relays:

• Relays are bulkier than transistors for switching small currents.


• Relays cannot switch rapidly (except reed relays), transistors can
switch many times per second.
• Relays use more power due to the current flowing through their
coil.

Relays require more current than many chips can provide, so a low power
transistor may be needed to switch the current for the relay's coil.

3.5 ULN 2003 driver

ULN is mainly suited for interfacing between low-level circuits and multiple peripheral
power loads,. The series ULN20XX high voltage, high current Darlington arrays feature
continuous load current ratings.

41
The driver makes use of the ULN2003 driver IC, which contains an array of 7 power
Darlington arrays, each capable of driving 500mA of current. At an approximate duty
cycle, depending on ambient temperature and number of drivers turned on,
simultaneously typical power loads totaling over 230w can be controlled.
The device has base resistors, allowing direct connection to any common logic
family. All the emitters are tied together and brought out to a separate terminal. Output
protection diodes are included; hence the device can drive inductive loads with minimum
extra components. Typical loads include relays, solenoids, stepper motors, magnetic print
hammers, multiplexed LED, incandescent displays and heaters.

Relay Driver ULN 2803:

The ULN2803A is a high-voltage, high-current Darlington transistor


array. The device consists of eight npn Darlington pairs that feature high-voltage
outputs with common-cathode clamp diodes for switching inductive loads. The

42
collector-current rating of each Darlington pair is 500 mA. The Darlington pairs
may be connected in parallel for higher current capability.

Features:
• 500-mA Rated Collector Current (Single Output)

• High-Voltage Outputs . . . 50 V

• Output Clamp Diodes

• Inputs Compatible With Various Types of Logic

• Relay Driver Applications

• Compatible with ULN2800A Series

4.3 IC Description:

Figure 3.5.1 pin diagram

43
Figure 3.5.2 logic diagram

Figure 3.5.3 schematic diagram

Applications:
The applications include relay drivers, hammer drivers, lamp drivers,
display drivers (LED and gas discharge), line drivers, and logic buffers. The
ULN2803A has a 2.7-kΩ series base resistor for each Darlington pair for
operation directly with TTL or 5-V CMOS devices

44
3.6 DC MOTORS

Motors – Helical Gear Motors:

A unit which creates mechanical energy from electrical energy and which
transmits mechanical energy through the gearbox at a reduced speed is a Gear
motor.
A gear head and motor combination is to reduce the speed of the motor to obtain
the desired speed or torque.

Figure 3.5.1 Helical gear motor

Gear motors of all types and sizes include single / multiphase, universal,
servo, induction and synchronous types. DC gear motors are configured in many
types and sizes, including brushless and servo. A DC gear motor consists of a
rotor and a permanent magnetic field stator and an integral gearbox or gear head.
The magnetic field is maintained using either permanent magnets or
electromagnetic windings. DC motors are most commonly used in variable speed
and torque applications. A DC servomotor has an output shaft that can be
positioned by sending a coded signal to the motor. As the input to the motor
changes, the angular position of the output shaft changes as well. Servomotors
are generally small and powerful for their size, and easy to control. Common
types of DC servomotors include brushless or gear motor types. Stepper motors
are classes of motors that provide incremental motion, or steps, in response to
pulses of current that alternately change the polarity of the stator poles; step
motors do not require feedback and are sometimes used in "Open Loop," or no-
feedback applications.

45
Important performance specifications to consider when searching for gear
motors include shaft speed, continuous torque, continuous current, and continuous
output power. The terminal voltage is the design DC motor voltage. The
continuous torque is the output torque capability of the motor under constant
running conditions. Continuous current is the maximum rated current that can be
supplied to the motor windings without overheating. Continuous output power is
the mechanical power provided by the motor output.
Important DC motor specifications to consider include terminal voltage,
motor construction and commutation. The terminal voltage is the design DC
motor voltage. Motor construction choices include permanent magnet, shunt
wound, series wound, compound wound, disc armature, and coreless or slot less.
Important gearing specifications to consider for gear motors and gear heads
include the gearing arrangement, gearbox ratio, and gearbox efficiency. Gearing
arrangement choices for gear motors or gear heads include spur, planetary,
harmonic, worm, and bevel. Gearbox ratio is the ratio of input speed to output
speed. A ratio greater than one, therefore, indicates speed reduction, while a ratio
less than one indicates speed increase. Efficiency is the percentage of power or
torque that is transferred through the gearbox. Losses occur due to factors such as
friction and slippage inside the gearbox. Feedback choices for gear motors
include integral encoder, integral resolver, and integral tachometer. Other
important parameters to consider when specifying gear motors include shaft
orientation or type and number of shafts, design units, motor shape, diameter or
width, housing length, NEMA frame size, enclosure options and special or
extreme environment construction. Common features include multi-speed,
reversible, integral driver electronics, integral brake, integral clutch, and brake
and clutch combination.

3.7 BATTERIES

46
The Ultra life lithium 9-volt battery is a consumer-replaceable battery that lasts up to 5
times longer than ordinary alkaline 9V batteries and 10 times longer than carbon-zinc
batteries. This primary battery has the highest energy density, flattest discharge voltage
curve, longest shelf life, widest operating temperature range, and lightest weight of any
comparable 9-volt battery.
These batteries are most widely used in smoke sensors and also for robotic
applications.
Capped 9v batteries are for applications where the 9 volts will be traveling
extensively. The cap is a detachable terminal protector that safeguards + and - leads from
shorting out during travel against conducting metal objects such as wires, other batteries,
loose change in your pocket etc.

47
FIGURE: 3.7.1 BLOCKS DIAGRAM OF BATTERY

Do I need 9v caps?

Capped 9v batteries are for applications where the 9 volts will be traveling
extensively. The cap is a detachable terminal protector that safeguards + and - leads from
shorting out during travel against conducting metal objects such as wires, other batteries,
loose change in your pocket (ouch!), etc. Most applications do not need them.

• Ultralife Batteries have a 10-year life in ionization type smoke alarms


• Lasts up to 10 times longer than other 9 Volt batteries
• Great for Smoke Detectors & Smoke Alarms
• Part number listed on the battery is U9VL-J
• Replaces: XU9VL, U9VL-BP
• 100% Free of Mercury, Lead and Cadmium
• Operating Temperature Range: -4° to 140°F
• Storage Temperature Range: -40° to 140° F
• UL-recognized
• 1 Year Warranty
• Made in the USA

3.8 RECEIVER

RF Receiver Modules - RX433


Remote Control Products

48
RF Receiver Module RX433
Click these images for a larger view.

This compact radio frequency (RF) receiver module is suitable for remote control or
telemetry applications. The double sided circuit board is pre-populated with Surface
Mount Devices (SMD) and is tuned to 433MHz. No module assembly or adjustments are
required. RF receiver module RX433 receives RF control signals from the 8 channel RF
remote control transmitter K8058 and performs as an RF receiver interface when used
on the 8 channel remote control relay board K8056. (Only one RX433 RF receiver is
needed for full RF remote control operation of the 8 channel relay board K8056). RF
receiver module RX433 is a highly sensitive passive design that is easy to implement
with a low external parts count. (Download datasheet with hook-up schematic below)

RF remote receiver module RX433 can also be used with 433MHz RF Transmitter
TX433N for your custom remote control or telemetry requirements. (However, the FCC
has restrictions on the sale of the TX433N transmitter module in the U.S., so we don't
have these transmitters available).

RF Receiver Module Features

• no RF receiver module adjustments required


• stable output
• suitable for RF remote controls, telemetry, ...

Specifications

• RF receiver frequency: 433MHz


• receiver range: 220 yards (200m) in open air

49
• modulation: AM
• modulate mode: ASK
• circuit shape: LC
• sensitivity: 3µVrms
• power supply: 4.5 - 5.5V DC
• data rate: 4800 bps
• receiver selectivity: -106 dB
• channel spacing: 1 MHz
• digital and linear output
• RF receiver module pin numbers
o 1: gnd
o 2: digital output
o 3: linear output
o 4: Vcc
o 5: Vcc
o 6: gnd
o 7: gnd
o 8: antenna: 11.8" - 13.77" (30cm - 35cm)

3.9 TRANSMITTER

TX433: 433MHz Transmitter Module

Modulation : AM
RF output : 8mW
VIEW LARGER
IMAGE Power supply : 3 - 12Vdc

50
Power Supply and All Input /
Output Pins: -0.3 to +12.0 V
*Non-Operating Case Temperature: -20 to +85
*Soldering Temperature ( 10 Seconds ) : 230 ( 10 Seconds )

Features
no adjustments required
stable output
suitable for remote controls, telemetry, ..

Specifications

frequency : 433MHz Pin numbers :


modulation : AM 1 : GND
RF output : 8mW 2 : Data_IN
power supply : 3 - 12Vdc 3 : Vcc
Circuit Shape: SAW 4 : ANT

Data Rate: 8 kbps

CHAPTER 4

4.1 PROGRAMMING

Source code:

/*************************************
TRASMITTER***************************************************

RF TE PIN

P3-0,1 TX AND RX PINS

51
***********************************************************
**************************************/

#include<reg51.h>

sbit TE=P2^0;

sbit SW1=P2^1;

sbit SW2=P2^2;

sbit SW3=P2^3;

sbit SW4=P2^4;

delay(unsigned int)

void main(void)

TE=0;

SW1=0;

SW2=0;

SW3=0;

SW4=0;

while(1)

if(SW1==1)

P1=0X31;

TE=1;

52
delay(300);

TE=0;

if(SW2==1)

P1=0X32;

TE=1;

delay(300);

TE=0;

if(SW3==1)

P1=0X33;

TE=1;

delay(300);

TE=0;

if(SW4==1)

P1=0X34;

TE=1;

delay(300);

TE=0;

53
}

delay(unsigned int k)

int i,j;

for (i=0;i<=k;i++)

for (j=0;j<=1275;j++);

delay(unsigned int k)

int i,j;

for (i=0;i<=k;i++)

for (j=0;j<=1275;j++);

/*************************************
TRASMITTER***************************************************

RF TE PIN

P3-0,1 TX AND RX PINS

********************************************************************
*****************************/

54
#include<reg51.h>

sbit TE=P2^0;

sbit SW1=P2^1;

sbit SW2=P2^2;

sbit SW3=P2^3;

sbit SW4=P2^4;

delay(unsigned int);

void main(void)

TE=0;

SW1=0;

SW2=0;

SW3=0;

SW4=0;

while(1)

if(SW1==1)

P1=0X31;

TE=1;

delay(300);

TE=0;

55
}

if(SW2==1)

P1=0X32;

TE=1;

delay(300);

TE=0;

if(SW3==1)

P1=0X33;

TE=1;

delay(300);

TE=0;

if(SW4==1)

P1=0X34;

TE=1;

delay(300);

TE=0;

56
delay(unsigned int k)

int i,j;

for (i=0;i<=k;i++)

for (j=0;j<=1275;j++);

delay(unsigned int k)

int i,j;

for (i=0;i<=k;i++)

for (j=0;j<=1275;j++);

/*************************************
RECEIVER***************************************************

PORT0 USED FOR RECEIVING DATA FROM HT12D

PORT1 USED FOR LCD DATA

PORT2-,5,6,7 USED FOR CTRL SIGNALS FOR LCD AND P2.0 FOR RF VT
PIN

P3-0,1 TX AND RX PINS

57
********************************************************************
*****************************/

#include<reg51.h>

sbit VT=P2^0;

sbit L_MOTORFORWARD=P1^0;

sbit L_MOTORBACKWARD=P1^1;

sbit R_MOTORFORWARD=P1^6;

sbit R_MOTORBACKWARD=P1^7;

delay(unsigned int);

void main(void)

unsigned char l;

L_MOTORFORWARD=0;

L_MOTORBACKWARD=0;

R_MOTORFORWARD=0;

R_MOTORBACKWARD=0;

while(1)

if(VT==0);

l=P3;

if(l==0x31)

L_MOTORFORWARD=1;

58
R_MOTORFORWARD=1;

delay(150); //FORWARD

L_MOTORFORWARD=0;

R_MOTORFORWARD=0;

if(l==0x32)

L_MOTORFORWARD=1;

delay(150);

L_MOTORFORWARD=0; //LEFT

L_MOTORBACKWARD=0;

R_MOTORFORWARD=0;

R_MOTORBACKWARD=0;

if(l==0x33)

R_MOTORFORWARD=1;

delay(150);

R_MOTORFORWARD=0;

L_MOTORFORWARD=0;

L_MOTORBACKWARD=0; //RIGHT

R_MOTORBACKWARD=0;

if(l==0x34)

59
{

L_MOTORBACKWARD=1;

R_MOTORBACKWARD=1;

delay(150); //BACK

L_MOTORBACKWARD=0;

R_MOTORBACKWARD=0;

delay(unsigned int k)

int i,j;

for (i=0;i<=k;i++)

for (j=0;j<=1275;j++);

4.2 CONCLUSION
The project “RF ROBOTICS” has been successfully designed and tested.
It has been developed by integrating features of all the hardware components used.
Presence of every module has been reasoned out and placed carefully thus contributing to
the best working of the unit.
Secondly, using highly advanced IC’s and with the help of growing technology the
project has been successfully implemented.

60
Finally we conclude that RF ROBOTICS” is an emerging field and there is a huge scope
for research and development.

4.3 FUTURE ENHANCEMENT

The field of robotics has created a large class of robots with basic physical and
navigational competencies. At the same time, society has begun to move towards
incorporating robots into everyday life, from entertainment to health care. Moreover,
robots could free a large number of people from hazardous situations, essentially
allowing them to be used as replacements for human beings. Many of the applications
being pursued by AI robotics researchers are already fulfilling that potential. In addition,
robots can be used for more commonplace tasks such as janitorial work. Whereas robots
were initially developed for dirty, dull, and dangerous applications, they are now being
considered as personal assistants. Regardless of application, robots will require more
rather than less intelligence, and will thereby have a significant impact on our society in
the future as technology expands to new horizons.

4.4 REFERENCES

The 8051 Micro controller and Embedded


Systems

-Muhammad Ali Mazidi


Janice Gillispie Mazidi

61
The 8051 Micro controller Architecture,
Programming & Applications

-Kenneth J.Ayala

Fundamentals Of Micro processors and


Micro computers

-B.Ram

Micro processor Architecture, Programming


& Applications

-Ramesh S.Gaonkar

Electronic Components

-D.V.Prasad

Wireless Communications
- Theodore S. Rappaport

Mobile Tele Communications


- William C.Y. Lee

References on the Web:


www.national.com
www.atmel.com
www.microsoftsearch.com
www.geocities.com

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