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KONSEP DASAR

REAKTOR NON-IDEAL

Prof. Dr. Ir. Slamet, MT


Januari 2019
Reaktor ideal vs non-ideal

 Definisi
Reaktor ideal
Idealisasi pola aliran fluida: plug
flow (tanpa pencampuran, PFR),
mixed flow (pencampuran sempurna,
CSTR)
Reaktor tak-ideal
Pola aliran fluida sesungguhnya
terutama dalam peralatan proses skala
industri umumnya menyimpang dari
aliran ideal yang disebabkan oleh
channeling, recycling dan stagnant
region.
Pola aliran tak-ideal
Residence time Distribution (RTD)

 Definisi RTD:
Pendekatan secara statistik utk
aliran fluida, yaitu distribusi
waktu tinggal elemen fluida/
atom/molekul dlm unit proses
yg dpt menunjukkan
karakteristik mixing.

 Pengukuran RTD:
Dengan injeksi tracer/pelacak
dalam reaktor pada waktu t=0
dan selanjutnya mengukur
konsentrasi tracer pada
keluaran reaktor sebagai
Pengukuran RTD
fungsi waktu.
Kurva C, E, dan F

Diagnosis pelacak yang keluar reaktor dapat dianalisis dengan


berbagi tipe kurva seperti:
 Kurva C : merupakan kurva yang menggambarkan input dan
keluaran pelacak yang dinyatakan dalam konsentrasi tracer
sebagai fungsi waktu.
 Kurva E : merupakan normalisasi dari kurva C, yang disebut
juga dengan fungsi exit-age distribution. Kurva ini dapat
menunjukkan distribusi waktu tinggal atom/molekul dalam
reaktor.
 Kurva F : merupakan fungsi kumulatif dari kurva E yang disebut
dengan cummulative distribution function.
Kurva C, E, dan F
Analisis dengan Pulse Input

• Jumlah tracer yang diinjeksikan: No


• Jumlah tracer yang keluar reaktor dengan waktu tinggal
antara t dan t + Dt: DN = C(t) .n.Dt (1)
dengan n: laju volumetrik
• Fraksi material yg mempunyai waktu tinggal dlm reaktor
antara t + Dt:
(2)

• Fungsi RTD, E(t):


(3)
atau

(pers. 16.7)
Analisis dengan Step Input

(4)

(5)

(6)
Beberapa korelasi

(7)

(8)

(9)
Beberapa korelasi

Untuk kondisi:   tm
- tdk ada perubahan laju volumetrik (v = vo) (10)
- utk fasa gas: no Dp, isotermal, =0 V  v.t m

2
(11)

Pelajari Example 13.1 dan 13.2 (H.S. Fogler)


A. RTD Function: E(t)

= Fraction of molecules exiting the


reactor that have spent a time between
(t) and (t + dt) in the reactor
B. Cumulative Distribution
Function: F(t)

= Fraction of molecules exiting the reactor that have


spent a time t or less in the reactor.
= Fraction of molecules that have spent a time t or
greater in the reactor.
C. Mean Residence Time,
variance, space time

• For no dispersion/diffusion and v = v0, the space time equals the


mean residence time.
RTD for Ideal Reactors

• PFR- Inject a pulse at t=0

Dirac Delta Function:

 
tm 

0
tE (t )dt 

0
t (t   )dt 
RTD for Ideal Reactors
e t / 
• CSTR  E (t ) 

 E ( )  e  
   t /  & E ()   .E (t )
 

  e  t /  dt 
t
 tm  tE (t ) dt 

0 0
• Laminar (LFR)
RTD to Diagnose
Faulty Operation
PFR

PBR
CSTR
RTD to Diagnose Faulty
Operation (CSTR)
Concentration :

RTD Function :

Cumulative Function :
Space Time :

Comparison
of E(t) & F(t)
for CSTR
RTD to Diagnose Faulty
Operation (CSTR)

a. Perfect Operation
1  e t /

b. Bypassing (BP)

c. Dead Volume
RTD to Diagnose Faulty
Operation (PFR)

a. Perfect
Operation

b. Channeling /
bypassing

c. Dead Volume
RTD to Diagnose Faulty
Operation (PFR)

Comparison of F(t) for PFR


Models to Calculate the Exit
Concentrations and Conversions
1. Zero adjustable parameters
a. Segregation model
b. Maximum mixedness model
2. One adjustable parameter
a. Tanks-in-series model (n)
b. Dispersion model (Da)
3. Two adjustable parameters
Real reactors modeled as combinations of
ideal reactors

• X (conversion)
RTD + MODEL + KINETIC DATA
• C (concentration)
Segregation model
• Models the real reactor as a number of small batch reactors,
each spending a different time in the reactor.
• All molecules that spend the same length of time in the reactor
(i.e., that are of the same age) remain together in the same
globule (i.e., batch reactor).
• Mixing of the different age groups occurs at the last possible
moment at the reactor exit.

Little batch reactors Mixing of the globules


(globules) inside a CSTR of different ages
occurs here
Segregation model

X3>X2>X1

Mixing occurs at the latest possible moment.


Each little batch reactor (globule) exiting the real reactor at different
times will have a different conversion (X1, X2, X3...)
Segregation model
Example 13-4
Mean conversion for the segregation model is

Segregation model applied to an ideal PFR

Solve for X(t) for a first order reaction in a batch reactor (A  B):
For the batch reactor the conversion-time
relationship is (first order):
Calculate the mean conversion:

X  1  e  k  1  e  Da
Segregation model

Segregation model applied to an LFR

X
4  Da e ( 0.5) Da  Da  4
4  Da e(0.5) Da  Da

Segregation model applied to a CSTR


k Da
X 
1  k 1  Da
For a 1st order reaction:
- X(t)  f(CA),
- Knowledge of E(t) is sufficient,
- Only RTD is necessary
Segregation model
(Comparison of PFR, LFR, CSTR for order 1)

0.9
PFR
0.8 LFR
0.7 CSTR
Conversion, X

0.6
1
0.5 0.9
0.8

0.4 0.7

Conversion, X
0.6
PFR
0.5
0.3 0.4
LFR

0.3 CSTR

0.2
0.2 0.1
0
0.1 0 1 2 3 4

Damkohler number, Da

0
0.01 0.1 1 10 100
Damkohler number, Da
Segregation model
(Example 13-5)

0.200 0.8

0.180
0.7
0.160
0.6
0.140
E(t) 0.5
E(t), X(t).E(t)

0.120

0.100 X(t).E(t) 0.4

X(t)
X(t)
0.080
0.3
0.060
0.2
0.040

0.020 X  0.385 0.1

0.000 0.0
0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14
t, min.
Maximum Mixedness Model

Mixing occurs at the


earliest possible
moment.

Modeling maximum
mixedness as a
plug flow reactor
with side entrances

 = life expectancy of the fluid in the reactor


Maximum Mixedness Model
dX r E ( )
 A  (X )
or d C Ao 1  F ( )

Because most ODE packages will not integrate backwards, we have


to use the transfer:

Thus

In terms of conversion,
Segregation & Maximum
Mixedness Models
(Example 13-7)
t =  (min) C(t), mg/lt E(t) 1-F(t) E(t)/[1-F(t)] X(t) X(t).E(t) X(t).E(t).Dt
0 112 0.028 1 0.028 0 0 0
5 95.8 0.02395 0.871 0.02749713 0.285714 0.006843 0.0171071
10 82.2 0.02055 0.76 0.02703947 0.444444 0.009133 0.0399405
15 70.6 0.01765 0.663 0.02662142 0.545455 0.009627 0.0469015
20 60.9 0.015225 0.584 0.02607021 0.615385 0.009369 0.0474913
30 45.6 0.0114 0.472 0.02415254 0.705882 0.008047 0.0870814
40 34.5 0.008625 0.353 0.02443343 0.761905 0.006571 0.0730924
50 26.3 0.006575 0.278 0.02365108 0.8 0.00526 0.0591571
70 15.7 0.003925 0.174 0.02255747 0.848485 0.00333 0.085903
100 7.67 0.001918 0.087 0.02204023 0.888889 0.001704 0.0755212
150 2.55 0.000638 0.024 0.0265625 0.923077 0.000588 0.0573226
200 0.9 0.000225 0.003 0.075 0.941176 0.000212 0.0200057
X-segrn = 0.609524

Order 2: X(t) = k.CAo.t/(1+k. CAo.t) X 



0
X (t ) E (t ) dt
Segregation & Maximum
Mixedness Models
(Example 13-7)
120 0.040

0.035
100
0.030
80
0.025
C(t), 100*X(t)

C(t)
60 0.020

E(t)
X(t)
0.015
40 E(t)
0.010
20
0.005

0 0.000
0 50 100 150 200
t , min
Segregation & Maximum
Mixedness Models
(Example 13-7)
0.01

0.008
X
(segregation model)

0.006
X(t).E(t)

0.004

0.002

0
0 50 100 150 200
t , min
Segregation & Maximum
Mixedness Models
(Example 13-7)

Modeling
maximum
mixedness

Euler method:
 E (i ) 
Forward  unstable: X i 1  X i  D  X i  kC Ao (1  X i ) 2 
1  F (i ) 

 E (i ) 
Backward  stable : X i 1  X i  D  X i  kC Ao (1  X i ) 2 
1  F (i ) 
Segregation & Maximum
Mixedness Models
(Example 13-7)

Summary results of X:

Segregation 61%
Max. Mixedness 56 %
PFR 76 %
CSTR 58 %
Segregation & Maximum
Mixedness Models
Non-Isothermal

T  To 
DH Rx 

X
- For adiabatic & DCp = 0:
 i C pi

E  1 1 
- k = f(T): k  k1 exp   
 T  T 

R  1 

- E(T)  f(T)

--- Problem: P13-2A(i & j) ---


Contoh Soal

Reaksi fasa cair 0.14

dilangsungkan secara 0.12


isotermal pada
0.1
reaktor non-ideal
yang mempunyai data 0.08
E(t)

RTD seperti grafik 0.06


berikut. Diketahui
0.04
konstanta laju reaksi k
= 0,185 (satuan 0.02

disesuaikan dengan 0
data RTD dan orde 0 3 6 9 12 15

reaksi). t, menit
Contoh Soal

1. Jika reaksi tersebut ORDER-1, hitunglah konversi pada CSTR


ideal, PFR ideal, dan Reaktor Real.
2. Dengan data RTD yang sama, hitung konversi Reaktor Real
untuk reaksi order-0, order-1, dan order-2, masing-masing
pada variasi CAo dari 1.0 - 5.0 mol/lt. Berikan ANALISIS thd
hasil perhitungan tersebut.
3. Dari hasil-hasil perhitungan yang dilakukan di poin (1) dan (2)
serta profil data RTD yang ada, buatlah ANALISIS untuk
menentukan jenis Reaktor Real dan apa yang menyebabkan
reaktor tersebut TIDAK IDEAL
TUGAS
RTD Calculations
for a Series Reaction
E1 (t ):
Consider the reaction : asymmetric
distribution

occurring in two different reactors


with the same mean residence time
tm=1.26 min, but with the following
residence-time distributions which
are quite different (E1 and E2):
E2 (t ):
(a) Calculate the conversion predicted
bimodal
by an ideal PFR & CSTR
distribution
(b) Determine the product distribution
in each reactor for:
1. The segregation model
2. The maximum mixedness model
Solution (PFR)

Polymath Program for Reactions in a


Combining the mole balance and
Series in a PFR
rate laws for a PFR reactor :

The initial conditions are : vo = 10


L/min, CAo = 1 mol/L, CBo = CCo = 0
Solution (PFR)

X = 0.716

For PFR with


V = 12.6 L,

CAo = 1.00
CA = 0.284,
CB = 0.357,
CC = 0.359,
X = 71.6 %

V=12.6
Solution (CSTR)

The mole balances on A, B, and C Polymath Program for Reactions in


for a CSTR are: a Series in a CSTR:

The solution is:


CA = 0.443,
CB = 0.247,
CC = 0.311,
X = 55.7 %
Solution (Segregation Model)

Combining the mole balance and For the exit concentrations


rate laws for a constant-volume
batch reactor, we have:

For the globules

• The initial conditions are:


t = 0, CAo = 1, CBo = CCo = 0
• The POLYMATH program used to
solve these equations
POLYMATH Program for Segregation
Model with Asymmetric RTD (E1)
POLYMATH Program for Segregation
Model with Bimodal RTD (E2)
Solution (Segregation Model)
Solution (Maximum Mixedness Model)

The equations describing the variations in concentrations


with position (life expectancy) are
POLYMATH Program for Maximum Mixedness
Model with Asymmetric RTD (E1)
POLYMATH Program for Maximum Mixedness
Model with Bimodal RTD (E2)
Solution (Maximum Mixedness Model)
Summary (Segregation vs.
Maximum Mixedness Model)
RTD Calculations
for a Parallel-Series Reaction
X = 1-CAo/CAB
= 0.847
X = 0.876

tm = 1.27 min