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Symmetrical Components

Fortescue’s Theorem

o 3 unbalanced phasors of a 3-phase system can be resolved into 3 balanced systems of phasors. The balanced sets of components are:

Positive-sequence components

+ 3 balanced phasors equal in magnitude displaced from each other by 120° same phase sequence as the original phasors (for example a-b-c)

Negative-sequence components

+ 3 balanced phasors equal in magnitude displaced from each other by 120° opposite phase sequence to the original phasors (for example a-c-b)

Zero-sequence components

+ 3 equal phasors equal in magnitude zero phase displacement from each other

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Symmetrical Components

Original voltages:

 

Va

Vb

Vc

Positive-sequence components:

Va1

Vb1

Vc1

or

Va+

Vb+

Vc+

Negative-sequence components:

Va2

Vb2

Vc2

or

Va- Vb-

Vc-

Zero-sequence components:

Va0

Vb0

Vc0

ORIGINAL PHASORS ARE THE SUM OF THEIR COMPONENTS:

Va = Va0 + Va1 + Va2

 

Vb = Vb0 + Vb1 + Vb2

Vc = Vc0 + Vc1 + Vc2

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Example 1

POSITIVE-SEQUENCE

COMPONENTS

Vc1

Example 1 POSITIVE-SEQUENCE COMPONENTS Vc1 Vb1 Va1 NEGATIVE-SEQUENCE COMPONENTS Vc2 Vb2 Va2 ZERO-SEQUENCE COMPONENTS Va0
Example 1 POSITIVE-SEQUENCE COMPONENTS Vc1 Vb1 Va1 NEGATIVE-SEQUENCE COMPONENTS Vc2 Vb2 Va2 ZERO-SEQUENCE COMPONENTS Va0
Example 1 POSITIVE-SEQUENCE COMPONENTS Vc1 Vb1 Va1 NEGATIVE-SEQUENCE COMPONENTS Vc2 Vb2 Va2 ZERO-SEQUENCE COMPONENTS Va0

Vb1

Va1

NEGATIVE-SEQUENCE

COMPONENTS

Vc2

Vb2

COMPONENTS Vc1 Vb1 Va1 NEGATIVE-SEQUENCE COMPONENTS Vc2 Vb2 Va2 ZERO-SEQUENCE COMPONENTS Va0 Vb0 Vc0 Vc0 Vc

Va2

ZERO-SEQUENCE

COMPONENTS

Va0 Vb0 Vc0
Va0 Vb0
Vc0
Vc0 Vc Vc2 Vc1 Va1 Va2 Va Va0 Vb Vb0 Vb1 Vb2
Vc0
Vc
Vc2
Vc1
Va1
Va2
Va
Va0
Vb
Vb0
Vb1
Vb2

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Va1

Vb1

Va1 Vb1 Example 2 Vc1 Vb Va Vc ELEC 371 Short Circuit Studies 70 Vb2 Vc2
Va1 Vb1 Example 2 Vc1 Vb Va Vc ELEC 371 Short Circuit Studies 70 Vb2 Vc2
Va1 Vb1 Example 2 Vc1 Vb Va Vc ELEC 371 Short Circuit Studies 70 Vb2 Vc2

Example 2

Vc1

Vb Va Vc
Vb
Va
Vc

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Vb2

2 Vc1 Vb Va Vc ELEC 371 Short Circuit Studies 70 Vb2 Vc2 Va2 Va0 Vb0

Vc2

Va2

Va0 Vb0 Vc0
Va0
Vb0
Vc0

Industrial Power Systems © Salvador Acevedo, 2000

Example 3

Vb1

Example 3 Vb1 Va1 Vc1 Vb Va=Vc ELEC 371 Short Circuit Studies 71 Vb2 Va2 Vc2
Example 3 Vb1 Va1 Vc1 Vb Va=Vc ELEC 371 Short Circuit Studies 71 Vb2 Va2 Vc2
Example 3 Vb1 Va1 Vc1 Vb Va=Vc ELEC 371 Short Circuit Studies 71 Vb2 Va2 Vc2

Va1

Vc1

Vb Va=Vc
Vb
Va=Vc

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Short Circuit Studies

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Vb2 Va2
Vb2
Va2

Vc2

Va0=Vb0=Vc0=0

Industrial Power Systems © Salvador Acevedo, 2000

Operators

Lets define a phasor:

a = 1 Ð 120° = -0.5 + j 0.8666

120
120

The following relations are true:

a2 = (1Ð120°)(1Ð120°) = 1 Ð240°= 1 Ð -120°

a3 =

1 Ð360°= 1 Ð 0°

1 + a

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+ a2 = 0

a = 1 120 a 3 = 1 a 2 = 1 -120
a = 1
120
a 3 = 1
a 2 = 1
-120

Industrial Power Systems © Salvador Acevedo, 2000

Symmetrical Components Relations

Vc1 Va1
Vc1
Va1

Vb1

Vc2

Vb2

Symmetrical Components Relations Vc1 Va1 Vb1 Vc2 Vb2 Va2 Va0 Vb0 Vc0 The positive-sequence components can

Va2

Va0 Vb0 Vc0
Va0
Vb0
Vc0

The positive-sequence components can be written as:

V b1 = (1 – -120 )

V c1 = (1 – 120 )

V a1 = a 2 V a1

V a1 = a V a1

For the negative-sequence, we have:

V b2 = (1 – 120 )

V c2 = (1 – -120 )

V a2 = a V a2

V a2 = a 2 V a2

And for the zero-sequence:

V a0 = V b0 = V c0

The totals are:

Va= V a0 + V a1 + V a2 Vb=V b0 + V b1 + V b2 Vc=V c0 + V c1 + V c2

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=

=

= V a0

V a0

V a0

+

+

+

V a1 + V a2

a 2 V a1 + a a V a1 + a 2

V a2

V a2

Industrial Power Systems © Salvador Acevedo, 2000

Symmetrical Components Relations

In

È

Í

Í

Í

Î

T

A

V

V

V

h

m

a

b

c

is

=

atrix

for m

:

˘

˙

˙

˙

˚

=

È

Í

Í

Í

Î

1

1

1

defin es

È

Í

Í

Í

Î

1

1

1

a

1

a

2

a

1

a

2

the

a

1

a

2

Its

A

- 1

i nvers e

=

1

3

1

1

is:

È

1

Í Í 1 a

Í Î

È

1

1

1

a

a

a

a

Therefore:

È

Í

Í

Í

Î

V

V

V

˘

˙

˙

˙

˚

a

a

a

0

1

2

1

3

1

(

3

Í

Î Í

1

3

1

3

(

Í

V

( V

V

=

or:

V

V

V

a 0

a 1

a

2

=

=

=

2

+

+

+

a

1

a

2

V

a

a

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a

1

a

2

˘

˙

˙

˙

˚

È

Í

Í

Í

Î

V

V

V

a

a

a

0

1

2

˘

˙

˙

˙

˚

tra nsfor m

˘

˙

˙

˙

˚

a

1

2

b

V

2

a

+

b

V

˘

˙

˙

˙

˚

1

a

a

2

b

V

+

˘

˙

˙

˙

˚

c

+

a

È

Í

Í

Í

Î

)

2

a

V

V

V

a

b

c

V

V

c

c

atio n

˘

˙

˙

˙

˚

)

)

m

atrix:

Industrial Power Systems © Salvador Acevedo, 2000

Example

Ia=10 A.

Example Ia=10 A. Ib=-Ia Ic=0 Ia = 10 – 0 A. Ib = 10 – 180
Example Ia=10 A. Ib=-Ia Ic=0 Ia = 10 – 0 A. Ib = 10 – 180

Ib=-Ia

Example Ia=10 A. Ib=-Ia Ic=0 Ia = 10 – 0 A. Ib = 10 – 180
Example Ia=10 A. Ib=-Ia Ic=0 Ia = 10 – 0 A. Ib = 10 – 180
Ic=0

Ic=0

Ic=0
Ic=0
Ic=0
Ic=0
Ic=0
Ic=0

Ia = 10

0

A. Ib = 10

180

A.

 

Ic = 0 A.

 

Ia0 = 1

[

10

0

+

10

180

+

0

]

=

0

3

   

Ia1 = 1

3

[

10

0

+

(

10

180

)(

1

120

)

+

0

]

=

5 78

.

– -

30

Ia2 = 1

3

[

10

0

+

(

10

180

)(

1

– -

120

)

+

0

]

=

5 78

.

30

Ib0 = Ia0 = 0

Ib1= 5 78

-

30

-

120

=

5 78

– -

150

.

Ib2 = 5 78

.

+

30

+

120

=

.

5 78

.

– +

150

Ic0 = Ia0 = 0

Ic1 = 5 78

-

30

+

120

=

5 78

– +

90

Ic2 =

.

5 78

.

+

30

-

120

=

.

5 78

.

– -

90

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Short Circuit Studies

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Unloaded Generator

a + Ea jXn - n - Eb - + Ec b + c
a
+
Ea
jXn
-
n
-
Eb
-
+
Ec
b
+
c

Generator is grounded through a grounding reactor

Internal voltages are balanced.

Find the symmetrical components for the internal voltages.

1

Í = a

Í Ea2

Î

˚ Î Í

È Ea0 ˘

Í 1 Í

È 1

1

˙

Ea1

˙

˙

3

Í

1 a

2

È Ea0 ˘

Ea1

Ea2

Í

Í

Î

Í

˙

˙

˙

˚

=

È

Í

Í

Í

Î

0

Ea

0

˘

˙

˙

˙

˚

1

2

a

a

˘ È Ea ˘

˙ 1 Í

È 1

1

2

Í

˙ Í

˙ Í

˚ Î

˙

˙

˙

˚

Eb

Ec

=

3

Í 1 a

Í Î 1 a

1 ˘

È Ea

˘

2

a

a

˙ Í

˙ Ea

˙

a ˙

a Ea

˙

2

Í

˙ Í

˚ Î

˚

Only positive-sequence voltage exists!!!

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Short Circuit Studies

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Generator Equivalent

Positive-sequence

jX1 + Ea1 -
jX1
+
Ea1
-

Negative-sequence

Positive-sequence jX1 + Ea1 - Negative-sequence jX2 jX0 j3Xn Zero-sequence Xn=Impedance from neutral to
jX2

jX2

jX0

j3Xn

Zero-sequence

Xn=Impedance from neutral to ground

The current in the neutral of the generator is:

In = Ia + Ib + Ic =

( Ia1 + Ib1 + Ic1) + (Ia2 + Ib2 + Ic2 ) + Ia0 + Ib0 + Ic0

The positive and negative sequence components add to zero:

Ia1 + Ib1 + Ic1 = 0 Ia2 + Ib2 + Ic2 = 0

This means that the neutral does not carry positive or negative sequence components.

However, the zero-sequence components are in phase, and their sum is:

In = Ia0 + Ib0 + Ic0 = 3 Ia0

Therefore the zero sequence equivalent has a grounding impedance of value: Zg = 3 j Xn

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Single-line to ground fault

Unloaded generator (with balanced internal voltages)

If

a b G jXn c Generator is Y-connected grounded using a grounding reactor Ia =
a
b
G
jXn
c
Generator is Y-connected
grounded using a grounding reactor
Ia = If
Ib = 0
Ic = 0
Va = 0
Vb=?
Vc=?
È Ia 0 ˘
È 1
1
1
˘ È Ia
˘
È 1
1
1
˘ È If
˙
1
Í
˙ Í
˙
1
Í
˙
Í
2
2
Í Í Ia 1
=
1
a
a
Ib
=
1 a
a
0
˙
Í
˙ Í
˙
Í
˙
Í
3
3
Í
2
2
Î Í Ia 2
˙
1
a
a
˙
Ic
˙
Í
1 a
a
˙
0
˚
Î
˚ Î Í
˚
Î
˚ Í Î
È Ia 0 ˘
È If
/
3 ˘
˙
Í
˙
Í Í Ia 1
=
If
/
3
˙
Í
˙
Í Î Ia 2
˙
Í
If
/
3
˙
˚
Î
˚
If
Ia
0
=
Ib
0
=
Ic
0
=
3

˘

˙

˙

˙

˚

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Single-line to ground fault

We have Ia1=Ia2=Ia0 and Va=0. This situation can be represented in the following way:

Ia1=Ia2=Ia0

jX1 + + Ea1 Va1 - - Ia2 jX2 + Va2 - Ia0 jX0 +
jX1
+
+
Ea1
Va1
-
-
Ia2
jX2
+
Va2
-
Ia0
jX0
+
Va0
j3Xn
-

+

Va = Va0 + Va1 + Va2 = 0

-

From the circuit:

Ia0 = Ia1 = Ia2 =

Ea1

jX1 + jX2 + jX0 + j3Xn

Va1 = Ea1 - (jX1)(Ia1) Va2 = 0 - (jX2)(Ia2) Va0 = 0 - j(X0 + 3Xn)(Ia0)

- (jX1)(Ia1) Va2 = 0 - (jX2)(Ia2) Va0 = 0 - j(X0 + 3Xn)(Ia0) With this

With this term we include the value of the grounding reactor

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Example: Line-to-ground fault in an unloaded generator

Assume:

X1 =

X2 = 0.12 p. u.

X0 = 0.06 p. u.,

Ia0 = Ia1 = Ia2 =

1

0

j (

0 12

.

+

0 12

.

+

0 06

.

)

Ia = If

Ib = 0 Ic = 0

= 3Ia1 = -j10 p. u.

=

Xn = 0

-

j 3 33 p.u.

.

Ea1 = 1 p. u.

Va0 = -jX0(Ia0) = -j0.06(-j3.33) = -0.2 Va1 = Ea1 - jX1(Ia1) = 1- j0.12(-j3.33) = 1 - j0.4 = 0.6 Va2 = -jX2(Ia2) = -j0.12(-j3 .33) = -0.4

È Va ˘

Vb

Î

Í

Í

Í

˙

˙

Vc

˙

˚

=

È 1

1

1

Í

Í

Î

Í

1

a

2

a

1

a

a

2

È Va0 ˘

˘

Í

˚ Î Í

Í

˙

˙

˙

Va1

Va2

˙

˙

˙

˚

Va = Va0 + Va1 + Va2 = -0.2 + 0.6 - 0.4 = 0

Vb

Vb = -0.2 + 0.6

Va0 +

a

2

=

Va1 +

a

2

a

- 0.4

Va2

a

= -0.2 + 0.6

Vb

=

0

.

9165

Vc

=

Va0 +

Vc

=

0

.

9165

– -

109 1

.

Va1 +

a

– +

a

2

Va2 = -0.2 + 0.6

.

109 1

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-120 -0.4

120

120 -0.4

-120

Industrial Power Systems © Salvador Acevedo, 2000

Line-to-line fault

Unloaded generator

jXn
jXn
0 a b If G c -If = Ic = -If Ia = 0 Ib
0
a
b
If
G
c
-If
=
Ic = -If
Ia = 0
Ib
If
Va = ?
Vb= Vc

È Ia 0 ˘

Í Í Ia 1

Î Í Ia 2

˙

˙

˙

˚

˙

˙

˙

˚

=

=

=

=

=

0

Ê

È Ia 0 ˘

Í Í Ia 1

Î Í Ia 2

Ia 0

Ia

Ia

1 j Á

Ë

2 -

1

3

È 1

Í

Í

Í

Î

1

1

If

3

È

Í

Í

Í

Î

a

a

1

a

1

a

2

a

2 a

1

-

2

- 1

a

2

- a

˘

˙

˙

˙

˚

If

3
3

ˆ

˜

¯

Ê If ˆ j Á ˜ Ë 3 ¯
Ê
If
ˆ
j Á
˜
Ë
3 ¯

˘ È Ia ˘

Í Í Ib

˙

˙

˙

Í Ic

˚ Î

È 1

1

1 a

1

a

˙ Í

˙ Í

3

=

1

˙ Í

˚ a

Î

1 a

2

2

˘ È

˙

˙

˙

˚ Î

0 ˘

˙

˙

˙

Í Í If

Í ˚

-

If

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Line-to-line fault

We have Ia1=-Ia2, Ia0=0. This situation can be represented in the following way:

Ia1

jX1 + + Ea1 Va1 - - Ia2=-Ia1 jX2 + Va2 -
jX1
+ +
Ea1
Va1
-
-
Ia2=-Ia1
jX2
+
Va2
-

Ia0=0

j3Xn

jX0

Va0

Va1 - - Ia2=-Ia1 jX2 + Va2 - Ia0=0 j3Xn jX0 Va0 From the c ircuit:
Va1 - - Ia2=-Ia1 jX2 + Va2 - Ia0=0 j3Xn jX0 Va0 From the c ircuit:
Va1 - - Ia2=-Ia1 jX2 + Va2 - Ia0=0 j3Xn jX0 Va0 From the c ircuit:
Va1 - - Ia2=-Ia1 jX2 + Va2 - Ia0=0 j3Xn jX0 Va0 From the c ircuit:
Va1 - - Ia2=-Ia1 jX2 + Va2 - Ia0=0 j3Xn jX0 Va0 From the c ircuit:
Va1 - - Ia2=-Ia1 jX2 + Va2 - Ia0=0 j3Xn jX0 Va0 From the c ircuit:
Va1 - - Ia2=-Ia1 jX2 + Va2 - Ia0=0 j3Xn jX0 Va0 From the c ircuit:

From the c ircuit:

Ia1 = -Ia2 =

Ea1

jX1 + jX2

Va1 = Ea1 - (jX1)(Ia1) Va2 = Va1 Va0 = 0

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Example: Line-to-line fault in an unloaded generator

Assume:

X 1 =

X 2

=

0.12 p. u .

X 0 =

0.06 p. u .,

Xn

1

0

Ia1 =

-Ia2 =

 

=

 
 

-

Ia0 =

0

j (

0 12

.

+ 0 12

.

)

j 4 1 7

.

p. u .

=

0

Phase currents durin g the fault are:

Ia

=

0

Ib =

If

=

-j

3
3

Ia1 = -7.22 p. u.

Ic =

-If

= 7.22 p. u.

Ea1 = 1

p. u.

Va0 = -jX0(Ia0) = 0

Va1 = Ea1 - jX1(Ia1) = 1 - j0.12(-j4.17) = 1 - 0.5 = 0.5

Va2 = -jX2(Ia2) = -j0.12(j4.17) = 0.5

Phase voltages durin g the fault are:

V a

V a

=

=

Va0 + Va1 + Va2

0 + 0.5 + 0.5 = 1.0

p. u .

Did not change!!!

b

V b

V

V

b

V

V

V c

c

c

=

=

= -

Va0 +

0 + 0.5

2 Va1 +

a

2

+

0.5

a

a

-

=

a

a

Va2

0

.5( a

0 5

.

p. u.

a

Va1 +

+ a

2 )

=

= Va0 +

= 0.5( a

2 Va2

0 5

.

=

- 0 5

.

p. u .

2

+

a )

=

0 5

.

(

-

1

)

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Protection in Industrial Electric Networks

Objective: Isolation of the problem with the minimum service disruption

Based on the protective device Time-Current characteristics

Based on the protective device Time-Current characteristics time current ‡ Information needed for a protection study:

time

current

Information needed for a protection study:

o

Protective device manufacturer and type

o

Protective device ratings

o

Trip settings and ratings

o

Short circuit current at each bus

o

Full load current of all loads

o

Voltage level at each bus

o

Power transformers data

o

Instrumentation transformers ratios

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Industrial Power Systems © Salvador Acevedo, 2000