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Symmetrical Components

Fortescue’s Theorem

o 3 unbalanced phasors of a 3-phase system can be resolved into 3 balanced systems of phasors. The balanced sets of components are:

Positive-sequence components

+ 3 balanced phasors equal in magnitude displaced from each other by 120° same phase sequence as the original phasors (for example a-b-c)

Negative-sequence components

+ 3 balanced phasors equal in magnitude displaced from each other by 120° opposite phase sequence to the original phasors (for example a-c-b)

Zero-sequence components

+ 3 equal phasors equal in magnitude zero phase displacement from each other

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Symmetrical Components

 ‡ Original voltages: ‡ Va Vb Vc ‡ Positive-sequence components: ‡ Va1 Vb1 Vc1 ‡ or ‡ Va+ Vb+ Vc+ ‡ Negative-sequence components: ‡ Va2 Vb2 Vc2 ‡ or ‡ Va- Vb- Vc- ‡ Zero-sequence components: ‡ Va0 Vb0 Vc0 ‡ ORIGINAL PHASORS ARE THE SUM OF THEIR COMPONENTS: ‡ Va = Va0 + Va1 + Va2 ‡ Vb = Vb0 + Vb1 + Vb2 ‡ Vc = Vc0 + Vc1 + Vc2

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Example 1

POSITIVE-SEQUENCE

COMPONENTS

Vc1   Vb1

Va1

NEGATIVE-SEQUENCE

COMPONENTS

Vc2

Vb2 Va2

ZERO-SEQUENCE

COMPONENTS Va0 Vb0
Vc0 Vc0
Vc
Vc2
Vc1
Va1
Va2
Va
Va0
Vb
Vb0
Vb1
Vb2

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Va1

Vb1   Example 2

Vc1 Vb
Va
Vc

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Vb2 Vc2

Va2 Va0
Vb0
Vc0

Example 3

Vb1   Va1

Vc1 Vb
Va=Vc

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Short Circuit Studies

71 Vb2
Va2

Vc2

Va0=Vb0=Vc0=0

Operators

Lets define a phasor:

a = 1 Ð 120° = -0.5 + j 0.8666 120

The following relations are true:

a2 = (1Ð120°)(1Ð120°) = 1 Ð240°= 1 Ð -120°

a3 =

1 Ð360°= 1 Ð 0°

1 + a

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Short Circuit Studies

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+ a2 = 0 a = 1
120
a 3 = 1
a 2 = 1
-120

Symmetrical Components Relations Vc1
Va1

Vb1

Vc2

Vb2 Va2 Va0
Vb0
Vc0

The positive-sequence components can be written as:

V b1 = (1 – -120 )

V c1 = (1 – 120 )

V a1 = a 2 V a1

V a1 = a V a1

For the negative-sequence, we have:

V b2 = (1 – 120 )

V c2 = (1 – -120 )

V a2 = a V a2

V a2 = a 2 V a2

And for the zero-sequence:

V a0 = V b0 = V c0

The totals are:

Va= V a0 + V a1 + V a2 Vb=V b0 + V b1 + V b2 Vc=V c0 + V c1 + V c2

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=

=

= V a0

V a0

V a0

+

+

+

V a1 + V a2

a 2 V a1 + a a V a1 + a 2

V a2

V a2

Symmetrical Components Relations

In

È

Í

Í

Í

Î

T

A

V

V

V

h

m

a

b

c

is

=

atrix

for m

:

˘

˙

˙

˙

˚

=

È

Í

Í

Í

Î

1

1

1

defin es

È

Í

Í

Í

Î

1

1

1

a

1

a

2

a

1

a

2

the

a

1

a

2

Its

A

- 1

i nvers e

=

1

3

1

1

is:

È

1

Í Í 1 a

Í Î

È

1

1

1

a

a

a

a

Therefore:

È

Í

Í

Í

Î

V

V

V

˘

˙

˙

˙

˚

a

a

a

0

1

2

1

3

1

(

3

Í

Î Í

1

3

1

3

(

Í

V

( V

V

=

or:

V

V

V

a 0

a 1

a

2

=

=

=

2

+

+

+

a

1

a

2

V

a

a

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a

1

a

2

˘

˙

˙

˙

˚

È

Í

Í

Í

Î

V

V

V

a

a

a

0

1

2

˘

˙

˙

˙

˚

tra nsfor m

˘

˙

˙

˙

˚

a

1

2

b

V

2

a

+

b

V

˘

˙

˙

˙

˚

1

a

a

2

b

V

+

˘

˙

˙

˙

˚

c

+

a

È

Í

Í

Í

Î

)

2

a

V

V

V

a

b

c

V

V

c

c

atio n

˘

˙

˙

˙

˚

)

)

m

atrix:

Example

Ia=10 A.  Ib=-Ia   Ic=0      Ia = 10 – 0 A. Ib = 10 – 180 A. Ic = 0 A. Ia0 = 1 [ 10 0 – + 10 – 180 + 0 ] = 0 3 Ia1 = 1 3 [ 10 0 – + ( 10 – 180 )( 1 – 120 ) + 0 ] = 5 78 . – - 30 Ia2 = 1 3 [ 10 0 – + ( 10 – 180 )( 1 – - 120 ) + 0 ] = 5 78 . – 30

Ib0 = Ia0 = 0

 Ib1= 5 78 – - 30 - 120 = 5 78 – - 150 . Ib2 = 5 78 . – + 30 + 120 = . 5 78 . – + 150

Ic0 = Ia0 = 0

 Ic1 = 5 78 – - 30 + 120 = 5 78 – + 90 Ic2 = . 5 78 . – + 30 - 120 = . 5 78 . – - 90

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Short Circuit Studies

75 a
+
Ea
jXn
-
n
-
Eb
-
+
Ec
b
+
c

Generator is grounded through a grounding reactor

Internal voltages are balanced.

Find the symmetrical components for the internal voltages.

1

Í = a

Í Ea2

Î

˚ Î Í

È Ea0 ˘

Í 1 Í

È 1

1

˙

Ea1

˙

˙

3

Í

1 a

2

È Ea0 ˘

Ea1

Ea2

Í

Í

Î

Í

˙

˙

˙

˚

=

È

Í

Í

Í

Î

0

Ea

0

˘

˙

˙

˙

˚

1

2

a

a

˘ È Ea ˘

˙ 1 Í

È 1

1

2

Í

˙ Í

˙ Í

˚ Î

˙

˙

˙

˚

Eb

Ec

=

3

Í 1 a

Í Î 1 a

1 ˘

È Ea

˘

2

a

a

˙ Í

˙ Ea

˙

a ˙

a Ea

˙

2

Í

˙ Í

˚ Î

˚

Only positive-sequence voltage exists!!!

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Generator Equivalent

Positive-sequence jX1
+
Ea1
-

Negative-sequence  jX2

jX0

j3Xn

Zero-sequence

Xn=Impedance from neutral to ground

The current in the neutral of the generator is:

In = Ia + Ib + Ic =

( Ia1 + Ib1 + Ic1) + (Ia2 + Ib2 + Ic2 ) + Ia0 + Ib0 + Ic0

The positive and negative sequence components add to zero:

Ia1 + Ib1 + Ic1 = 0 Ia2 + Ib2 + Ic2 = 0

This means that the neutral does not carry positive or negative sequence components.

However, the zero-sequence components are in phase, and their sum is:

In = Ia0 + Ib0 + Ic0 = 3 Ia0

Therefore the zero sequence equivalent has a grounding impedance of value: Zg = 3 j Xn

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Short Circuit Studies

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Single-line to ground fault

Unloaded generator (with balanced internal voltages)

If a
b
G
jXn
c
Generator is Y-connected
grounded using a grounding reactor
Ia = If
Ib = 0
Ic = 0
Va = 0
Vb=?
Vc=?
È Ia 0 ˘
È 1
1
1
˘ È Ia
˘
È 1
1
1
˘ È If
˙
1
Í
˙ Í
˙
1
Í
˙
Í
2
2
Í Í Ia 1
=
1
a
a
Ib
=
1 a
a
0
˙
Í
˙ Í
˙
Í
˙
Í
3
3
Í
2
2
Î Í Ia 2
˙
1
a
a
˙
Ic
˙
Í
1 a
a
˙
0
˚
Î
˚ Î Í
˚
Î
˚ Í Î
È Ia 0 ˘
È If
/
3 ˘
˙
Í
˙
Í Í Ia 1
=
If
/
3
˙
Í
˙
Í Î Ia 2
˙
Í
If
/
3
˙
˚
Î
˚
If
Ia
0
=
Ib
0
=
Ic
0
=
3

˘

˙

˙

˙

˚

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Short Circuit Studies

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Single-line to ground fault

We have Ia1=Ia2=Ia0 and Va=0. This situation can be represented in the following way:

Ia1=Ia2=Ia0 jX1
+
+
Ea1
Va1
-
-
Ia2
jX2
+
Va2
-
Ia0
jX0
+
Va0
j3Xn
-

+

Va = Va0 + Va1 + Va2 = 0

-

From the circuit:

Ia0 = Ia1 = Ia2 =

Ea1

jX1 + jX2 + jX0 + j3Xn

Va1 = Ea1 - (jX1)(Ia1) Va2 = 0 - (jX2)(Ia2) Va0 = 0 - j(X0 + 3Xn)(Ia0) With this term we include the value of the grounding reactor

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Example: Line-to-ground fault in an unloaded generator

Assume:

X1 =

X2 = 0.12 p. u.

X0 = 0.06 p. u.,

Ia0 = Ia1 = Ia2 =

1

0

j (

0 12

.

+

0 12

.

+

0 06

.

)

Ia = If

Ib = 0 Ic = 0

= 3Ia1 = -j10 p. u.

=

Xn = 0

-

j 3 33 p.u.

.

Ea1 = 1 p. u.

Va0 = -jX0(Ia0) = -j0.06(-j3.33) = -0.2 Va1 = Ea1 - jX1(Ia1) = 1- j0.12(-j3.33) = 1 - j0.4 = 0.6 Va2 = -jX2(Ia2) = -j0.12(-j3 .33) = -0.4

È Va ˘

Vb

Î

Í

Í

Í

˙

˙

Vc

˙

˚

=

È 1

1

1

Í

Í

Î

Í

1

a

2

a

1

a

a

2

È Va0 ˘

˘

Í

˚ Î Í

Í

˙

˙

˙

Va1

Va2

˙

˙

˙

˚

Va = Va0 + Va1 + Va2 = -0.2 + 0.6 - 0.4 = 0

Vb

Vb = -0.2 + 0.6

Va0 +

a

2

=

Va1 +

a

2

a

- 0.4

Va2

a

= -0.2 + 0.6

 Vb = 0 . 9165 Vc = Va0 + Vc = 0 . 9165

– -

109 1

.

Va1 +

a

– +

a

2

Va2 = -0.2 + 0.6

.

109 1

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-120 -0.4

120

120 -0.4

-120

Line-to-line fault jXn 0
a
b
If
G
c
-If
=
Ic = -If
Ia = 0
Ib
If
Va = ?
Vb= Vc

È Ia 0 ˘

Í Í Ia 1

Î Í Ia 2

˙

˙

˙

˚

˙

˙

˙

˚

=

=

=

=

=

0

Ê

È Ia 0 ˘

Í Í Ia 1

Î Í Ia 2

Ia 0

Ia

Ia

1 j Á

Ë

2 -

1

3

È 1

Í

Í

Í

Î

1

1

If

3

È

Í

Í

Í

Î

a

a

1

a

1

a

2

a

2 a

1

-

2

- 1

a

2

- a

˘

˙

˙

˙

˚

If 3

ˆ

˜

¯ Ê
If
ˆ
j Á
˜
Ë
3 ¯

˘ È Ia ˘

Í Í Ib

˙

˙

˙

Í Ic

˚ Î

È 1

1

1 a

1

a

˙ Í

˙ Í

3

=

1

˙ Í

˚ a

Î

1 a

2

2

˘ È

˙

˙

˙

˚ Î

0 ˘

˙

˙

˙

Í Í If

Í ˚

-

If

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Line-to-line fault

We have Ia1=-Ia2, Ia0=0. This situation can be represented in the following way:

Ia1 jX1
+ +
Ea1
Va1
-
-
Ia2=-Ia1
jX2
+
Va2
-

Ia0=0

j3Xn

jX0

Va0       From the c ircuit:

Ia1 = -Ia2 =

Ea1

jX1 + jX2

Va1 = Ea1 - (jX1)(Ia1) Va2 = Va1 Va0 = 0

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Example: Line-to-line fault in an unloaded generator

Assume:

X 1 =

X 2

=

0.12 p. u .

X 0 =

0.06 p. u .,

Xn

1

0

 Ia1 = -Ia2 = = - Ia0 = 0 j ( 0 12 . + 0 12 . )

j 4 1 7

.

p. u .

=

0

Phase currents durin g the fault are:

 Ia = 0 Ib = If = -j 3 Ia1 = -7.22 p. u. Ic = -If = 7.22 p. u.

Ea1 = 1

p. u.

Va0 = -jX0(Ia0) = 0

Va1 = Ea1 - jX1(Ia1) = 1 - j0.12(-j4.17) = 1 - 0.5 = 0.5

Va2 = -jX2(Ia2) = -j0.12(j4.17) = 0.5

Phase voltages durin g the fault are:

V a

V a

=

=

Va0 + Va1 + Va2

0 + 0.5 + 0.5 = 1.0

p. u .

Did not change!!!

b

V b

V

V

b

V

V

V c

c

c

=

=

= -

Va0 +

0 + 0.5

2 Va1 +

a

2

+

0.5

a

a

-

=

a

a

Va2

0

.5( a

0 5

.

p. u.

a

Va1 +

+ a

2 )

=

= Va0 +

= 0.5( a

2 Va2

0 5

.

=

- 0 5

.

p. u .

2

+

a )

=

0 5

.

(

-

1

)

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Protection in Industrial Electric Networks

Objective: Isolation of the problem with the minimum service disruption

Based on the protective device Time-Current characteristics time

current

Information needed for a protection study:

 o Protective device manufacturer and type o Protective device ratings o Trip settings and ratings o Short circuit current at each bus o Full load current of all loads o Voltage level at each bus o Power transformers data o Instrumentation transformers ratios

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