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Content

Present Simple and Present Continuous..............................................................................3


Present simple..................................................................................................................3
Present continuous...........................................................................................................4
Ability: can, could, be able..................................................................................................6
Literature:.............................................................................................................................8

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Present Simple and Present Continuous

Present simple

FORM

I work, etc.
Do/does + infinitive for questions, negatives and short
answers

USE

• A regular repeted activity.


We often use the present simple in this way with adverbs or adverbial
phrases of frequwncy: sometimes, never, occasionally, every day, on
Saturdays, once a week, etc:
I catch the 8 o’clock train every day.
He attends the board meeting every Monday.

• Something that is generally true; a statement of fact:


Water boils at 100 degrees centigrade.
Cats don’t like water.
Where do you work?

• With stative verbs, that is, verbs that describe sentiments, thoughts and
states rather than activities:
Adrian needs your help.
That coat belongs to me.

• Instructions:
(We can use the imperative or the present simple for instructions.)
You take the first turning on the left.
You mix the soup with some cream at the end.

• In clauses of time and condition, referring to the future. It is used after:


when, if,unless, before, after, until, as soon as, whenever, etc:
I’ll give her the message when she comes back.
Will you tell me if you see her?

• Introducing a quotation:
This book says that too much butter and milk is bad for you.
The local newspaper says that the government should do more to create
jobs in the area.

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• In newspaper headlines:
RIOTS BREAK OUT IN CITY CENTRE.
PRESIDENT RECEIVES HUGE WELCOME.

• For dramatic narrative.


It is most often used for dramatic narrative in sports commentating when
radio and television commentators describe a short action that is
completed as the commentator is speaking:
And Eastwood passes the ball to Andrews.
And Miller takes the lead in the first lap.

• To give information about a future event:


It is used in this way with information about timetables, official events and
itineraries:
The train leaves at 3.30 this afternoon.
The Prime Minister starts his official visit to China tomorrow.
You arrive at the hotel at about 6.00 and have your evening meal at 7.30

Present continuous

FORM

Verb to be + present participle:


I am working, etc.

USE

• Activity in progress at this moment:


Where’s David?
He’s doing his homework.

• An activity that is takig place in the present time period and will continue
for a limited time. The activity may or may not be in progress at the
moment of speaking.
The present continuous is often used in this way with these days, this
week, today, this month, etc:

‘And what’s Linda doing these days?’


‘She’s doing a course in engineering.’
(Linda may not be studying engineering at this minute.)

The decorator’s painting the children’s bedrooms this week so they’re


sleeping in the living room
(The decorators may not be painting at this moment and the children may

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not be sleeping.)

• A situation that is in the process of changing:


Venice is falling into the sea.
The number of cars on the road is increasing rapidly each year.

• A future intention with a verb of motion:


We’re driving up to Scotland next week.
He’s flying back on Saturday.

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Ability: can, could, be able

• Can (present or future) and could (past) refer to a general ability to do


something. Can is also used to refer to an ability to do something specific
at a time in the future:
She can sing really well.
I can come and see you next week.
I can’t swim so I won’t come to the pool with you.
He could read when he was four.
I couldn’t understand the language when I first came here.

• Can and could refer to the ability to do something, but not to the doing of
it.
We use can and be able to talk about ability:
Will you be able to/Can you come on Saturday?
My parents live quite a distance away so we’re not able to/can’t see
them very often.
He had a motorbike accident at the age of eighteen and after that he
wasn’t able to/couldn’t walk.

We use be able to talk about ability + achievement of the action:


Jan gave me a lift home so I was able to stay at the party till late.
We got lost but we were able to find our way home again with the map.

• We use will be able and not can to talk about skills that will be acquired in
the future:
I’ll be able to drive by next summer so we can hire a car.
Will you be able to read textbooks in German when you’ve finished this
course?

• We use can + be + adjective or noun to talk about possibility:


The sea can be quite warm in September./The sea is sometimes quite
warm in September.
She can be very charming when she wants to be.

• We use be able for different grammatical forms that are not possible with
can:
I like being able to work at home.
We’d like to be able to work much faster since I got that new computer.

• We use can, could and could have in conditional sentences. We also

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use them in sentences with an implied condition:
I can help you if you want me to.
I could do it if I had the time.
You could do that job easily. (if you had that job)
I couldn’t have done it if I hadn’t had your help.
I could have got here earlier but I didn’t know you were waiting. (I could
have got here earlier if I had known you were waiting.)

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Literature:

Elaine Walker, Steve Elsworth, ‘Grammar Practice for Upper Intermediate


Students’, Pearson Education Limited 2000.

John Eastwood, ‘Oxford Practice Grammar’, Second Edition, Oxford University


Press 1999.