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Minerals Industry

Risk Management
(MIRM) Model

Minerals Industry Safety & Health Centre (MISHC)


Sir James Foots Institute of Mineral Resources
University of Queensland

Prepared by Professor Jim Joy, Director, MISHC


June 1999 – Draft 2

Draft 2, June 1999 Page 1 of 90 © MISHC, 1999


Minerals Industry Risk Management (MIRM) Model

The Minerals Industry Risk Management Model, illustrated by a single logic chart, is
intended to define the topic areas of a new discipline. The discipline of Minerals
Industry Risk Management has been defined to assist in course development for
mining, minerals processing and materials engineers in undergraduate, post graduate
and continuing education situations.

Information in this description of the discipline is subdivided into three areas.

1. General information on the specific element of the model


2. Implications to Minerals Industry Engineering Education
3. Auditing Criteria (should the model be used for that purpose)

A logic tree helps demonstrate relationships between items as well as reduction of


larger items into their subsets.

The top items in the Model illustrate the primary concept that the successful
management of risks involves the quality of engineering and management decisions.

T Safe
Production

S/M R
Pro Decision, competency,
Decision No opportunity,
Risk
Making Oversights or support &
Management
Process Omissions reinforcement
Culture

M P

Management Work Process


System Inputs Process (wheel)
Factors Factors

To A To B

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T Safe Production

The top box of the chart is, of course, the intent of the subsequent sub-components.
The ingredients of an effective mining risk management system should be
“Safe Production”, not production without safety or safety without production.

Implications to Minerals Industry Engineering Education:

Minerals Industry Engineers should understand the concept of “Safe Production” so


that they appreciate the goal of the Minerals Industry. Specifically, this means that
that target is production with minimal losses.

Auditing Criteria:

When auditing an organisation, the auditor should check for this type of “Safe
Production” message in Policy and other sources of internal direction. Measures of
business success should include both positive and negative indicators where high
positives and low negatives are the target.

Comment:

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M/P Decision Making Process

To achieve “Safe Production” there must be a quality decision making process for
critical functions that, at the appropriate point for the function / role, considers the
potential negative scenarios or outcomes in deriving the appropriate action.

Implications to Minerals Industry Engineering Education:

The identification of key engineering and management decisions where unwanted and
/ or unnecessary risks can be assumed is key to effective risk management. The
undergraduate Minerals Engineer must recognise the need to identify the critical
decision points and, by careful analysis, deduce the best approach to Safe Production.

Auditing Criteria:

The auditor should look for a cohesive, documented management systems approach
that defines engineering, management and operating procedures. This system should
include pro-active, systematic requirements for hazard identification and risk analysis.
The detail of the logic tree should guide the auditor in his/her review.

Comment:

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R Pro Decision, Risk Management Culture

A quality decision making process will produce the desired output if the
organisational culture supports that process through areas such as;

• provision of competent persons for the process,


• availability of time and other resources to undertake then process,
• support for the decision making process so it occurs when expected,
• and reinforcement for the process through recognition of its importance, as well as
effective execution of the decision outcomes.

Implications to Minerals Industry Engineering Education:

The student should be aware that the organisation has a culture of which engineering
is part. The degree to which the culture supports proactive decision making to reduce
key risks should be seen as an indicator of a responsible engineering organisation.

Auditing Criteria:

The auditor should look for demonstrated commitment to quality decision making in
key minerals engineering functions. This might be demonstrated by documented
activities and procedures that reflect the 4 points listed above, or conversely,
anecdotal information that demonstrates the opposite.

Comment:

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M Management Systems Factors

The management system is one of the two major components that contributes to
quality decisions. The other major factor is the immediate Work Process (see “P”).

The management system involves the management and engineering framework for the
design and operation of the site. As such, it supplies the inputs to the daily work
processes.

Implications to Minerals Industry Engineering Education:

Firstly, the engineering student must recognise that the quality of any work process
depends on the quality of the engineering and management process that designs,
maintains, modifies, purchases, trains, standardises and otherwise defines the nature
of the day-to-day work process.

The engineer must recognise the need for the management system to be defined and
formally documented so that the quality of key decisions is not left to chance.

Auditing Criteria:

The auditor should look for a corporate and/or site document that identifies
engineering and management procedures that systematically integrate pro-active
methods of identifying, analysing and controlling for risks. The procedures should be
those which are significant mechanisms for the site such as purchasing, design,
maintenance, etc. as per the elements detailed under this part of the model.

Comment:

Draft 2, June 1999 Page 6 of 90 © MISHC, 1999


From A
M

Management
System Inputs
Factors

MA1 MA2 MA3


Corporate Site Policy & Site Risk
Policy, Criteria, Implement- Management
Resources, ation System
Communication

MB1 MB3 MB5

Hazard
Goals Review
Analysis
Program
Processes

To C MC3

MB2 MB4
Incident /
Technical Performance Accident
Information Measurement Investigation
(re: Hazards)
MC4

Systems
Audit

Draft 2, June 1999 Page 7 of 90 © MISHC, 1999


MA1 Corporate Policy, Criteria, Resources, Communication

The clear and demonstrated commitment of the corporate entity, which provides
direction and resources to the site, is a key component of an effective management
system.

Commitment includes the policy, criteria for site performance, resources to execute
required activities and clear communication from corporate to site concerning all
aspects.

Implications to Minerals Industry Engineering Education:

Commitment of corporate and site management to pro-active, systematic


management of relevant risks is key to an effective risk management system.
Undergraduate engineers should be aware of the criticality of overt commitment
and the need to go beyond “motherhood” statements to give clear direction and
support.

Auditing Criteria:

The auditor must try to identify the degree to which the company and site are
overtly committed to effective risk management. Very often interviews with
corporate or site management to identify company and site goals related to risk
management are relevant. The site should also have a Business Plan that should
indicate commitment through relevant goal statements, strategies, objectives,
targets and resource commitments.

Comment:

Draft 2, June 1999 Page 8 of 90 © MISHC, 1999


MA2 Site Policy & Implementation

Local commitment follows the corporate direction. Site policy should not only be a
statement of leadership and morale responsibility but also include words that give
each and every employee (general workforce, supervisors, engineers and
managers) guidance on the importance of safety, health and other risk management
in their roles.

Implications to Minerals Industry Engineering Education:

Engineers should recognise that pro-active and effective risk management systems
require clear direction, usually expressed in the form of OH&S and / or Risk
Management Policy. The Policy should include or be supported by criteria for
application, criteria for risk management (including acceptability of risk) and
mechanisms to communicate the Policy and criteria to the relevant personnel.

Auditing Criteria:

The auditor should look for clear direction on risk management activities, usually
expressed in the form of OH&S and / or Risk Management Policy. The Policy
should include or be supported by criteria for application, criteria for risk
management (including acceptability of risk) and mechanisms to communicate the
Policy and criteria to the relevant personnel.

Comment:

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MA3 Site Risk Management System

The set of site management system components that design and operate a major
site is quite extensive. Those listed below (MB1 to MB5) make up a
comprehensive approach that can be applied to a new project or operating site, that
is, throughout the sites life cycle.

Implications to Minerals Industry Engineering Education:

It is critical that engineers recognise the need for documented “standards” for
operation of the mine or processing operation. In addition to a Standard Operating
Procedure (SOP) for work tasks, there should be a set of “standards” related to
various engineering and management processes as outlined in the elements of this
part of the Model.

Auditing Criteria:

The auditor should look for a site risk management document that includes
“standards” for various management, engineering, supervision, operations and
maintenance activities. The “standards” should include the goal of the “standard”,
guidance for executing the task to achieve the goal, analytical requirements,
relevant responsibilities and review / audit requirements. The detail of the
“standards is suggested by subsequent elements in this Model.

Comment:

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MB1 Goals

In addition to the policy, the site should establish specific goals for the risk
management system, in order to direct and focus activities and outcomes. These
goals should be a part of the annual planning process.

Implications to Minerals Industry Engineering Education:

The engineer must have an image of the types of goals that can be set for a
company, site or department in order to provide adequate direction for effective
risk management. Goals related to safety and health are critical. It may also be
desirable to set goals related to asset, production / schedule and environment
protection in the same risk management approach.

Auditing Criteria:

The auditor should look for goal statements in corporate, site and possibly
department management plans that effectively indicate the direction for the
relevant risk management approach. These goals should be incorporated into
business plans and the plan should include information derived with the intent
of meeting the goals.

Comment:

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MB2 Technical Information (re: Hazards)

The site must have and/or gather the appropriate information on the nature and
magnitude of the relevant hazards. There must also be information that explains
the possible negative consequences related to that hazard. For example, a
Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS) should exist for all chemicals on site. For
hazards related to roof fall in an underground mine the site should have a
written document that defines the magnitude of roof / rib or back / sides hazards
and supplies valid information and assumptions that can be used to make
relevant decisions at all levels.

Implications to Minerals Industry Engineering Education:

An engineer must understand the importance of investigating and understanding


any hazard (something with the potential for harm) within their area of
accountability. They should relate this information to their tasks by ensuring
they have the technical information required to understand the hazard and its
potential consequences.

Auditing Criteria:

The auditor should look for information that demonstrates that the site has
identified and examined the site hazards. The information should also
demonstrate that the site has invested appropriate resources in looking for
hazards, gathering information to deduce the hazard magnitudes, as well as
acquiring and communicating relevant technical information

Comment:

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MB3 Hazard Analysis Process

Many aspects of the minerals industry rely on engineering decisions. The


quality of these decisions is dependent on the process of making the decision
and the degree to which accurate consideration of risks occur.

There are many engineering and management processes that, with the
appropriate criteria, can greatly reduce risk related to minerals industry
operations.

Implications to Minerals Industry Engineering Education:

Hazard Analysis is a pro-active process. The engineer must have an image of a


systematic approach to risk engineering that includes the many tasks the
engineer may be asked to do, including supervision and future management
roles. Subsequent elements in this part of the model outline the detail.

Auditing Criteria:

The auditor should look for the detail of the pro-active and effectively reactive
risk management system but looking for the detail described in the sub-elements
of this part of the model.

Comment:

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From C
MB3

Hazard
Analysis
Processes

MC1 MC2

Safety Safety
Concepts & Design
Reqts. Processes

To E

MD2 MD3
MD1

Risk Accept- Criteria Life Cycle


ability Reqts.

ME1 ME2 ME3

Human Job Safety


Risk
Factors Analysis
Assessment
Review

MF1
MF2

Hazard Formal Risk


Identification Assessment

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MC1 Safety Concepts and Requirements

The guidance given to the engineering and management processes where key
risk decisions are made must include information on specific requirements.
This information provides constraints and mandates that guide the site in the
risk management process.

Implications to Minerals Industry Engineering Education:

Engineers must have an image of appropriate risk management concepts as a


basis for their more detailed knowledge of the tools and methods of
integrating risk engineering into their tasks. The detail of the next 6 boxes
provides the detail of that foundation of knowledge.

Auditing Criteria:

The auditor should look for an existing foundation of concepts and


requirements related to the risk management that provides guidance in the
following 6 areas.

Comment:

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MD1 Risk Acceptability

Regulatory approaches around Australia and the rest of the world tend to
use “Duty of Care” or similar approaches to suggest that the site is
responsible for managing risk to a level that is reasonably achievable
(ALARA) or practicable (ALARP).

No Australian minerals industry regulatory authority (or, to the authors


knowledge, any other countrys regulatory authority) provides an image of
the exact amount of reasonable effort or level of risk that is acceptable.
The company and / or site should provide some practical guidance to
engineers and managers on risk acceptability.

Messages such as “safety first” offer leadership, though to some degree


this is impractical if interpreted to mean that production will always be
secondary to safety. This interpretation can lead to a “zero risk” mentality
which is incorrect.

It may be more desirable to assign a method of calculating risk and define


the cut off for acceptability as a standard for the site.

Implications to Minerals Industry Engineering Education:

The engineer must understand the meaning of “risk” and “unacceptable


risk”. Methods of calculating risk in qualitative, semi-qualitative and
quantitative terms must be understood, along with their limitations.

The concepts of ALARA and ALARP must be understood, as well as an


image of acceptability levels to ensure that “zero risk” initiatives are
challenged. The existing environmental planning criteria of 1 in a million
public fatalities per year or the generally accepted 1 in 100,000 workplace
fatalities per year are examples of risk acceptability guidelines.

Semi-quantitative criteria such as risk ranking methods are more common


in the minerals industry than the quantitative examples noted above.
Therefore risk acceptability levels are most often expressed by risk
ranking tables with risk ranks of, for example, 16 and above (ranks of 1 to
25), being acceptable.

Auditing Criteria:

The auditor should look for a corporate or site method for assessing risk
either by quantitative or semi-quantitative means. This method should

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include a defined acceptability level where corporate or site Policy
indicates that no further action is required to reduce the risk.

Comment:

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MD2 Criteria

Pro-active decision analysis is the key to effective risk management. As


the term suggests, the risks in a decision must be considered before the
risk is assumed rather than reactively.

Criteria for when a pro-active analysis should take place should reside in
the engineering or management process (see MC2 Safety Design
Processes). Criteria for the “how to” of the pro-active analysis should
reside in a site standard.

Implications to Minerals Industry Engineering Education:

The engineer must have a set of analytical tools for reviewing risks related
to significant tasks. These tools should be clearly applicable to minerals
industry requirements. The following 3 boxes provide guidance on the
tools that are timely for the current industry situation. They assume that
engineers will need to analyse risks in the areas under Element MC2
Safety Design Processes.

Auditing Criteria:

The auditor should look for a set of “standards” at the site which outline
the processes to be followed to identify hazards, analyse risk and deduce
controls for new designs, acquisitions, maintenance and other site
requirements. They should include one or more risk assessment
techniques, a method of pro-actively considering human factors issues and
a method to consider risks when drafting or reviewing work procedures.

Comment:

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ME1 Risk Assessment

There are a variety of systematic, formal and informal risk assessment


techniques that suit various types of engineering, management and
workplace decision situations.

A procedure for the most appropriate risk assessment methods should


be in place. Currently the most common risk assessment tools in the
minerals industry are Hazard Identification, Process Hazard Analysis
(HAZAN, WRAC, etc.), Hardware Review Studies (HAZOP, FMECA,
etc.) and Logic Analysis (LTA, FTA, etc.).

Implications to Minerals Industry Engineering Education:

Engineers must be familiar with the analysis and assessment phases of


the risk management process as defined in AS 4360 and other related
guidelines.

Auditing Criteria:

The auditor should look for a commitment to systematic pro-active


approaches to identification and reduction of unacceptable risk, similar
to the approach described in AS 4360 (Risk Management). Procedures
related to the next two sub-elements (MF1 – Hazard Identification and
MF2 – Formal Risk Assessment) would provide a good demonstration
of commitment.

Comment:

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MF1 Hazard Identification (informal risk assessment)

Every site should have a procedure and a process for informal risk
assessment. Every person on the site should be skilled in identifying
and addressing hazards involving unacceptable risks in their jobs.

A “mental model” should be introduced to all personnel such as the


following.

• Pause before you start a task


• Look for hazards
• Consider the risks
• Act to reduce unacceptable risk (or do not proceed with the task)
• Report any unacceptable risk that needs further action

A process is also required in addition to the “mental model” which


gathers requirements for further action, ensures required action is taken
and feeds back action status to the initiator.

Implications to Minerals Industry Engineering Education:

Engineers must be aware of the need for Hazard Identification


methods. The “mental model” can be applied to their own work, as
well as included as a systematic approach to identifying and reducing
risks at the site.

Graduates should be familiar with the Hazard Identification process, as


well as its systematic application in a work site.

Auditing Criteria:

The auditor should look for a corporate or site “standard” for Hazard
Identification. This “ standard” should include the “mental model” as
well as the systematic application to ensure persons are competent,
encouraged to apply the model and reported hazards are addressed in a
timely and open manner.

Comment:

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MF2 Formal Risk Assessment

Formal risk assessment is a documented process, usually involving a


team of relevant site and, possibly, off-site expertise.

As mentioned in ME1, there are many techniques.

HAZAN - Hazard Analysis


WRAC – Workplace Risk Assessment and Control
HAZOP – Hazard and Operability Studies
FMECA – Failure Modes and Effects Criticality Analysis
LTA – Logic Tree Analysis
FTA – Fault Tree Analysis
QRA – Quantitative Risk Assessment

Although very similar in principle, the above tools vary in detail to suit
specific issues. It is important to note, however, an experienced person
can tailor most tools for multiple applications.

The Minerals Industry must use all or some of these tools to pro-
actively reduce risks of major events or cumulative loss costs.

Implications to Minerals Industry Engineering Education:

Engineers must have a “tool box” of analytical tools to help them


systematically deduce and address risks in their various tasks. HAZAN
(or WRAC), HAZOP, FMECA and LTA should be the basic minimum
set of risk engineering tools.

Graduates should be familiar with the method of applying these tools,


as well as the criteria for their application within the expected
engineering tasks of the minerals industry.

Auditing Criteria:

The auditor should look for corporate or site “standards” for risk
assessment methods. These “ standards” should include the detail of
setting up (scoping) the resource requirements, operating the process
and dealing with the outcomes.

Depending on the nature and operating status of the site, the risk
assessment tools should suit the specific needs. Sites with complex
hardware such as minerals processing plants should minimally have

Draft 2, June 1999 Page 21 of 90 © MISHC, 1999


HAZOP, while more labour intensive operations such as underground
mines should minimally have a Hazard Analysis method.

It is desirable that the site risk assessment techniques should be


outlined in a “standard” document in the site Risk Management
document.

Comment:

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ME2 Human Factors Review

Most unwanted events involve some form of human error, most often
for understandable and predictable reasons. The consideration of
human fallibility in engineering and management decisions is critical,
especially for areas where human performance is critical to success, i.e.
“Safe Production”.

Several methods of reviewing potential for human performance issues


exist which suit various situations.

Effective risk assessment, using the tools mentioned in MF2 (Formal


Risk Assessment), should help identify predictable human error.
However, it is desirable to ensure that reasonable variations due to
human fallibility are considered when personnel performance is
critical. To ensure this analysis occurs it is desirable to have a
“standard” procedure for Human Factors Review.

Implications to Minerals Industry Engineering Education:

Engineers must have a sound appreciation of the human factor in


engineering. Legislation and other relevant mechanisms such as
Australian Standards often suggest that designs must consider
predictable human error.

The variations and fallibilities of normal human behavior, as well as


those of the anatomical, bio-mechanical and physiological aspects,
need to be understood by engineers, at least to the level where they
recognise that more information or expertise is required.

A Human Factors Analysis technique, which prompts the engineer to


think about human issues in their work area, is critical to their skill
base, as well as engineering ethics that support this approach.

Auditing Criteria:

The auditor should look for a corporate or site “standard” which


appropriately addresses a method for considering human factors in the
management system. At this point, the auditor is not looking for
supervisor training or site discipline approaches but rather a method of
deducing possible human errors in the design of the workplace.

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Comment:

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ME3 Job Safety Analysis

All operations should undertake the development of work procedures


or instructions that set the standard for tasks. Job Safety Analysis (JSA)
offers the systematic, formal approach for development of such
standards.

A procedure for Job Safety Analysis should be in place, possibly in the


Documentation Process (MD8).

Implications to Minerals Industry Engineering Education:

Engineers will be responsible for deriving methods of doing work.


These methods may be related to maintenance or production tasks. The
term “Standard Operating Procedure” (SOP) is often used to describe
the document that provides guidance for work tasks.

Job Safety Analysis should be recognised by engineers as the tool for


building risk management into an SOP. Therefore, an engineer must be
familiar with the JSA technique.

Auditing Criteria:

The auditor should look for a documented procedure for Job Safety
Analysis. This may be part of a procedure for deriving and
documenting Standard Operating Procedure (see Element MD8).

The JSA Procedure should give clear guidance on the method of doing
a JSA, including any forms.

Comment:

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MD3 Life Cycle Requirements

Life cycle of a site covers the project from concept phase through design
and construction, and into operation, maintenance and modification. The
life cycle is over when the project is decommissioned. All sites,
equipment, materials, etc. have a life cycle.

Exactly the point where the pro-active methods should be applied is


covered in subsequent components of MC2 Safety Design Processes.
However, defined points in project life cycle where cost-effective risk
review opportunities exist are desirable as a guide to the company or site.

Implications to Minerals Industry Engineering Education:

The life cycle model of a project or a minerals site offers the engineer a
framework for understanding his/her role. Design roles differ from
construction roles. Operating differs from Maintenance and Modification.
Understanding the life cycle concept helps engineers identify types of
risks, as well as appropriate timing and methods for analysing risk.

Auditing Criteria:

The auditor should look for company or site guidance that indicates
commitment to assessing and controlling risk early in the life cycle.
Commitments and guidance for risk assessment in project management, or
design / acquisition and construction phases indicates that approach.

Comment:

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MC2 Safety Design Processes

This Element and its sub-elements define the specific engineering task areas
where the information from MC1 – Safety Concepts and Requirements and
its sub-elements should be applied.

There are a series of specific minerals industry engineering and management


processes where decisions are made which affect the risk in the operation.
When an unwanted incident occurs, investigations almost always identify
problems in these areas. Sometimes these incident-related decisions are
called “upstream” because they most often occur before the day of the event.

The processes listed in the following sub-components involve decisions that


affect the quality of equipment, materials, procedures, work environment,
supervision and the person performing the work on the day.

The 7 major minerals industry processes include:

MD4 - Communication Process


MD5 – Design & Modification
MD6 – Maintenance Process
MD7 – Inspection & Monitoring
MD8 – Documentation Process
MD9 – Competency Process
MD10- Emergency Response Process

These 7 represent a list of the major minerals industry engineering and


management processes where key risk decisions are made.

Implications to Minerals Industry Engineering Education:

Engineers must understand the tasks they will undertake in the minerals
industry. The Risk Management Model makes no attempt to outline these
tasks since that information exists in other disciplines related to mining,
minerals and materials engineering.

In general, engineers should understand where the application of risk


management concepts and tools fits into their various tasks. This may also
include tasks related to supervision and future management roles.

Auditing Criteria:

The auditor should look for a documented set of engineering and


management procedures that define, at least, the 7 major sub-elements

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below. These procedures may not be a part of the Risk Management Manual
since they cover more than the management of risk. However, there should
be information in the Risk Management Manual that identifies the
requirements in these processes and cross –references or links to the main
document.

Comment:

From E
MC1

Safety
Design
Processes

MD4 MD6 MD8 MD10

Emergency
Communication Maintenance Documentation Response
Process Process Process Process

MD5 MD9
MD7
Design &
Inspection & Competency
Modification
Monitoring Process
Process
Process

ME4 ME6 ME9


ME8
Mine / Equip-
Site ment Selection Training

ME5 ME7

Plant Materials

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MD4 Communication Process

Effective communication throughout the organisation results from the


design and operation of a communication process. Like any process it
must be designed to meet the needs of the organisation. Types of
information, information objectives, sources, recipients, medium,
timeliness, documentation control and other factors must be considered to
design and operate a successful communication system.

Implications to Minerals Industry Engineering Education:

The importance of planned, systematic communication in the minerals


industry should be made clear to engineers. The design of an effective
communication process should consider the message, the media and
timeliness.

Risk management depends on effective communication to highlight


hazards, update risk related information and gather input. These areas
should be addressed in undergraduate education.

Auditing Criteria:

The auditor should look for a documented outline of the site


communication process that addresses the site specific risk management
needs. This might include identification of various written and non-written
methods to inform the various parts of the workforce about new or
changing risks, as well as mechanisms to retrieve workplace input on
hazards.

Comment:

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MD5 Design & Modification Process

Design, selection and / or modification is one of the most important and


cost effective components of risk management. The opportunity to
“design-in-safety” must be the priority when the consequences of design
problems, including error provocative designs, is major.

Implications to Minerals Industry Engineering Education:

Clearly a minerals industry engineer will have a large role in design and
planning at the site. Engineers must recognise the importance of
“designing-in” safety and health risk management. The four sub-elements
of MD5 detail the exact approach for the main areas.

Auditing Criteria:

The auditor should look for a documented set of procedures dealing with
the methods of designing and/or planning the site requirements. As
previously mentioned, these procedures may not be located in the Risk
Management Manual but rather in Engineering / Acquisition Procedures
for the site. The procedures should include risk review where significant
risks may be present.

Comment:

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ME4 Mine / Site (Design & Modification)

Whether it is an exploration site, an operating mine or a process plant,


design of the physical work environment is critical to success. A long
history of events related to surface and underground mine design
suggests that mine planning can be improved.

Integration of risk analysis and subsequent planning processes is key to


minerals industry safety, health and other loss control.

Implications to Minerals Industry Engineering Education:

As a part of developing mine or processing site planning skills,


engineers should know when and how to evaluate risks. Tools for Risk
Assessment should be selected from ME1 – Risk Assessment and
integrated into the design / planning process as the standard
methodology to be used in the industry.

A graduate minerals industry engineer should see risk assessment as a


key step in planning.

Auditing Criteria:

The auditor should look for a mine or site planning procedure that
defines the method by which new plans or changes to plans are
derived. Inherent in the procedure the auditor should find criteria for
assessing risk based on potential hazards.

The procedure should suggest 1 or more tools for assessing risk, as


well as resource / expertise requirements and direction on application
of results from the risk assessment.

Comment:

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ME5 Plant (Design & Modification)

The design of new plant or modification of existing plant for mining or


processing offers an opportunity to reduce the likelihood of losses due
to plant that is not “fit-for-purpose”.

Pro-active analysis of hazards and risks should be included in the


design and modification process, possibly including site Safety and
Health criteria.

Implications to Minerals Industry Engineering Education:

This area of site operation may fall within the mechanical or electrical
engineering disciplines at a mine. However, mining engineers should
have a basic familiarity with risk management in plant design and
modification. Minerals and materials engineers should, as a part of
developing their plant design or modification skills, know when and
how to evaluate risks. Tools for Risk Assessment should be selected
from ME1 (Risk Assessment) and integrated into this process as the
standard methodology to be used in the industry.

A graduate minerals industry engineer should see risk assessment as a


key step in design and acquisition of plant.

Auditing Criteria:

The auditor should look for plant design and modification procedures
that define the method by which new designs or changes to plant are
derived. Inherent in the procedure the auditor should find criteria for
assessing risk based on potential hazards.

The procedure should suggest 1 or more tools for assessing risk, as


well as resource / expertise requirements and direction on use of results
from the risk assessment.

Comment:

Draft 2, June 1999 Page 32 of 90 © MISHC, 1999


ME6 Equipment (Design & Modification)

Like plant, equipment design or acquisition should include formal


consideration of hazards and risks.

Most equipment will be purchased rather than designed by the site.


Therefore the main focus with this process (as well as the next sub-
element on Materials) would be the acquisition or purchasing process.

The acquisition or purchasing process will usually require that


significant purchases are done with a set of specifications. Safety and
health requirements should be included in these specifications. It may
also be desirable to include a method of comparing risk issues when
options are being considered.

Implications to Minerals Industry Engineering Education:

Minerals Engineers will be involved in purchasing significant items for


their operation. They should be aware of a quality approach to
acquisitions or purchasing. They should also be aware of the need to
include safety and health risk management specifications where
relevant.

The use of analytical tools to develop specifications or to compare


equipment options also needs to be addressed. This would include risk
assessment and human factors tools.

A graduate minerals industry engineer should see risk assessment as a


key step in acquisitions / purchasing of equipment.

Auditing Criteria:

The auditor should look for an Acquisition or Purchasing Procedure


that defines the method by which purchasing is done. Inherent in the
procedure the auditor should find criteria for assessing risk based on
potential hazards.

The procedure should suggest 1 or more tools for assessing risk, as


well as resource / expertise requirements and direction on use of results
from the risk assessment.

Draft 2, June 1999 Page 33 of 90 © MISHC, 1999


Comment:

Draft 2, June 1999 Page 34 of 90 © MISHC, 1999


ME7 Materials (Design & Modification)

Again, like plant and equipment, there should be pro-active analysis to


acquire quality, safe materials.

Chemical safety can be greatly enhanced with careful acquisition of


relevant production and maintenance materials, including review and
use of Material Safety Data Sheets (MSDS).

Implications to Minerals Industry Engineering Education:

Specific implications for ME7 are similar to ME6 except for the
addition of chemical hazards. Engineers should be familiar with the
purpose and general content of MSDS information, as well as a
reasonable understanding of chemical risk mechanisms (explosion, fire,
contact, inhalation and ingestion).

Auditing Criteria:

The auditor may have already identified and reviewed the Acquisition
or Purchasing Procedure as part of ME6.

In addition, material safety and health criteria, especially the use of


MSDS information should be included.

Comment:

Draft 2, June 1999 Page 35 of 90 © MISHC, 1999


MD6 Maintenance Process

Development and application of maintenance plans, as well as selection of


“insurance spares” and development of safe maintenance work practices,
is a key part of any moderate to large minerals operation. Often
mechanical and/or electrical engineers do this planning.

Integration of safety and health risk management into the Maintenance


Process (MD6) involves considering the possibility of losses when
deciding on maintenance requirements.

From the standpoint of asset protection, techniques such as Reliability


Centred Maintenance (RCM) are now becoming more common in the
minerals industry. This method uses analytical methods to deduce high
maintenance risks (low reliability, high consequence of failure) and, as a
result, develop more effective maintenance plans.

For safety and health, consequences to personnel could replace those of


asset damage or production delay in the RCM risk assessment.

The development of maintenance SOP documents with Job Safety


Analysis (JSA) is also included in this process.

Implications to Minerals Industry Engineering Education:

Minerals Processing and Materials Engineers must have a good


understanding of the maintenance planning process. Use of risk
assessment techniques to derive maintenance plans and relevant work
methods should be included in that understanding.

Mining Engineers are less likely to have maintenance planning as a part of


their role but they should be familiar with its importance and the risk
management implications.

Auditing Criteria:

The auditor should look for a documented maintenance planning process


that includes provision for considering risks to personnel, assets and
production. As previously mentioned, the procedure may not be in the
Risk Management Manual.

Draft 2, June 1999 Page 36 of 90 © MISHC, 1999


Comment:

Draft 2, June 1999 Page 37 of 90 © MISHC, 1999


MD7 Inspection & Monitoring Process

Inspection is a regular activity that checks the status of specific items in


the work place. Equipment is inspected before each shift as well as less
frequently in more detail for maintenance purposes.

Monitoring is an ongoing process of checking the status by observation or


by gathering information with equipment. Supervisors monitor adherence
to work practices. Gas monitors identify the level of specific hazardous
gases in certain locations. The exact hazard monitoring requirements
should be determined by defining the monitoring barriers required for the
relevant hazards (see PB2 – Monitoring).

Inspection and monitoring processes should be derived by consideration


of the relevant risks where monitoring is key.

Implications to Minerals Industry Engineering Education:

Engineers should understand the importance of inspections and


monitoring as a system to ensure the desired process and outcomes are
occurring. They should also understand how to focus those processes on
the risks which are significant, as well as where inspection or monitoring
can be effective to reduce the risk.

Auditing Criteria:

An auditor should look for defined Inspection and Monitoring Procedures,


focussing on site risks. Inspection procedures that target critical plant or
equipment should exist. Monitoring of behavior may be targeted through
selection of major suspected sources of human error. Monitoring of
hazards should be especially targeted on major hazards where status
monitoring is key to management.

Comment:

Draft 2, June 1999 Page 38 of 90 © MISHC, 1999


MD8 Documentation Process

The documentation of “standards” for the various work methods and other
tasks on the site is critical for the development of a management system.
The identification of required documentation should be done using criteria
such as the following.

• Methods require a clear, step-by-step process


• Risks in the method are significant if it is not done correctly
• Complex methods where coordination is key
• General recognition that documentation would be helpful

It should also be noted that documentation applies to management and


engineering tasks, as well as operating or maintenance tasks.

Document control, as suggested in Quality Standards, should also be used.


Ideally, the site should have a documented process of developing
documentation that includes criteria for required documentation, method
of deriving documented “standards”, methods for introducing new
documents and methods for monitoring and reviewing documentation.

Implications to Minerals Industry Engineering Education:

Engineers must recognise the importance of developing effective


documentation for plans and procedures, including documented
approaches to engineering tasks such as those listed under MC2 – Safety
Design Processes.

Methods for developing documentation will be company or site specific.


However, engineers should be familiar with issues in document
development processes and tools such as Job Safety Analysis (JSA). JSA
is a common tool for drafting one type of work site documentation, a
Standard Operating Procedure (SOP).

Auditing Criteria:

The auditor should look for a site method for identifying, developing,
integrating and reviewing work method “standards”. Ideally, this process
would be documented in a site documentation development “standard”.

In addition, the site documentation process should include documentation


of engineering and management tasks that involve decisions where

Draft 2, June 1999 Page 39 of 90 © MISHC, 1999


significant risks can be inadvertently assumed. These documents should
include requirements for pro-active analysis to consider risks.

Comment:

Draft 2, June 1999 Page 40 of 90 © MISHC, 1999


MD9 Competency Process

A competent person is an adequately qualified, effective, adequate,


legitimate person, according to the dictionary. For this model, a competent
person is one who has sufficient knowledge and skills to perform the
required task.

The development of competency is a process. A site should have a process


that includes selection, induction and training in the site-specific
requirements to ensure adequate competency.

The first step involves identifying competency requirements, especially


those that are different from or additions to existing “ticketed”
competencies. “Ticketed” competencies refer to those basic competencies
accredited to electricians, fitters, engineers, mining officials, etc.

Once a need is identified, objectives should be defined, resources to


improve competency developed and some form of training delivered. As
in other processes, the outcome should be monitored to ensure the process
is effective. In other words, there should be monitoring to identify the
degree to which training is effective.

Implications to Minerals Industry Engineering Education:

Engineers should understand the meaning of competency and the


competency related issues in the minerals industry. Although they should
not be expected to be professional trainers, they should recognise that this
element, in conjunction with MC8 – “Documentation Process”, is key to
controlling the quality of the work process. Without required documented
“standards” and a relevant competency development process, the work-
site relies on the individual’s perception of the task requirements and past
learning.

Specifically, engineers should be challenged to define rule-based, skill-


based and knowledge-based competency, and its relationship to the
minerals industry. From this understanding they should be able to identify
the basic process required to develop that specific type of competency.

Auditing Criteria:

The auditor should look for a documented competency approach that


clearly identifies competency requirements for the site and the process by
which this is managed.

Draft 2, June 1999 Page 41 of 90 © MISHC, 1999


Documented competency information may reside inside the site Training
Activity.

Comment:

Draft 2, June 1999 Page 42 of 90 © MISHC, 1999


ME8 Selection

As part of the competency process, the site should have a systematic


selection process. Effective selection involves identifying the
knowledge, skills and other requirements of the site. Searching for
potential selection candidates should be done with clear requirements.
Final selection should involve careful consideration versus
requirements, as well as verification of capability through quality
references.

It is important to note that some parts of the minerals industry still


apply a selection process that is limited by industrial agreements.

Implications to Minerals Industry Engineering Education:

Engineers should have a basic understanding of an effective personnel


selection process.

Auditing Criteria:

The auditor should look for demonstrated application of a systematic


selection process that considers the points made above.

Comment:

Draft 2, June 1999 Page 43 of 90 © MISHC, 1999


ME9 Training

Every site should have a documented training programme that includes


competency objectives, training content, assessment methods and
records of training. The site should have an up-to-date record for every
employee, including induction information and requirements for re-
training / refreshers.

Implications to Minerals Industry Engineering Education:

Engineers should be aware of the basic requirements for a training


system as outlined above.

Auditing Criteria:

Auditors should look for the training materials and record system. The
goal would be information covering all significant tasks and all
employees.

Comment:

Draft 2, June 1999 Page 44 of 90 © MISHC, 1999


MD10 Emergency Response Process

Any minerals site must have an Emergency Response Plan (ERP) that has
been systematically developed to address the possible major events.
Identification of the events that require inclusion in the ERP can be done
using risk assessment. The ERP should include clear direction on actions
to be taken from discovery of major events such as fires, through to
evacuation / egress and off site support such as Mines Rescue, fire and
ambulance services. Capability of local medical services to assist with
injuries typical of the site hazards should also be included.

Implications to Minerals Industry Engineering Education:

Engineers should understand the process of developing an effective


Emergency Response Plan, especially in areas where their engineering
may affect the likelihood or consequences of major events.

Auditing Criteria:

The auditor should identify and examine the Emergency Response Plan.
The process by which the ERP was developed should also be reviewed.
Ideally, there should be a traceable process that allows the auditor to
understand the potential events and therefore the basis for the ERP.

The ERP should give clear, effective direction to those persons which can
be affected by the event and those who must take action should the event
occur. ERP content should be included in induction and other training. It
should also be available for referral where required.

Comment:

Draft 2, June 1999 Page 45 of 90 © MISHC, 1999


MB4 Performance Measurement

The adage “what gets measured gets done” is often used in management
training to indicate that measurement drives the performance of people. Those
people can be engineers, managers, workforce personnel or anyone else.

Effective safety and health risk management requires selection of performance


measures that are measurable and meaningful. Traditional measures such as
Lost Time Injury Frequent Rate (LTIFR) have limited value since they are
outcome measures indicating more than good safety and health. Low LTIFR can
also indicate aggressive claims management methods.

Measures of losses that track severity or costs are better than frequency alone.
Measures that involve the quality of the process are also desirable. The
challenge is to identify day-to-day process measures that accurately indicate
successful risk management, as well as being easy to track.

Implications to Minerals Industry Engineering Education:

Engineers must recognise the importance of effective performance


measurement. They must also be able to identify options for measuring safety,
health and other loss areas in their engineering roles.

Engineers should also have basic skills related to the analysis of performance
information.

Auditing Criteria:

The auditor should look for a documented set of performance measures with
targets, as well as a clear and effective method of gathering, analysing and
reporting performance information.

Comment:

Draft 2, June 1999 Page 46 of 90 © MISHC, 1999


MB5 Review Program

Performance Measurement, as well as Monitoring, are ongoing activities that


check and track adherence to “standards” and targets. “Review” activities occur
occasionally, sometimes based on a schedule. They also check on adherence.
Incident / Accident Investigation and Auditing are two major forms of review.
Both require a systematic, documented procedure.

Implications to Minerals Industry Engineering Education:

Engineers must recognise the importance of checking the management system


using auditing methods. They should be basically familiar with Gap Analysis
approaches to auditing.

Engineers should also be familiar with systematic methods of investigating


unwanted events such as incidents and accidents.

Auditing Criteria:

The company or site should have information that clearly makes a commitment
to learning from unwanted events, ideally not only events that cause serious
losses but also events that could have lead to major losses but did not.

The auditor should also look for a documented commitment to regular auditing
of the management system.

Comment:

Draft 2, June 1999 Page 47 of 90 © MISHC, 1999


MC3 Incident / Accident Investigation

Any minerals site must have a documented procedure for investigating


unwanted events. Unwanted events can occur in any part of the site,
delivering different outcomes. The site Incident / Accident Investigation
Process should be scaled to apply the appropriate level of investigation to an
unwanted event. The scale of investigation may vary from brief
consideration to lengthy detailed team investigation.

Ideally, the site should set the investigation criteria based on potential
outcomes rather than actual outcomes. This ensures that the site investigates
the most significant issues.

There are several analytical tools that assist in investigation of serious


potential or actual events.

• Events and Conditions Charting


• Energy Barrier Tracing
• Human Error Analysis
• Fault Tree Analysis
• Gap Analysis for Codes, Standards and Regulations
• Gap Analysis for Management Systems

These tools, and other similar approaches, provide a framework for team-
based analysis. An effective Incident / Accident Investigation Process should
include a requirement for team-based analysis of major events.

Implications to Minerals Industry Engineering Education:

Engineers should understand the importance of an effective Incident /


Accident Investigation Process, as well as be familiar with investigating
unwanted events using analytical methods.

Auditing Criteria:

The Auditor should look for a documented Incident / Accident Investigation


Process that includes defined levels of investigation, specific to an actual or
potential outcome. The process should include derivation of actions to
improve after the event, as well as feedback to the workforce and follow up
review to ensure actions are implemented

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Comment:

Draft 2, June 1999 Page 49 of 90 © MISHC, 1999


MC4 Auditing

Regular, systematic auditing of the risk management system is an essential


part of the model. The site must have a process that compares the actual
situation to the expected as defined in management system procedures and
plans. Auditing should include review of documentation, as well as
observations of key performance areas.

Although the entire risk management system may not be audited in one
effort, all aspects should be audited over a two or three year period.

Implications to Minerals Industry Engineering Education:

Engineers should be aware of the need for Auditing as a key part of the risk
management system and basically aware of the auditing process.

Auditing Criteria:

The auditor should look for a documented auditing process that includes the
areas to be audited, the schedule, the resources and the action planning /
feedback approach to be followed with each audit.

Comment:

Draft 2, June 1999 Page 50 of 90 © MISHC, 1999


P Work Process Factors

Work Process Factors is the second major component of the Minerals Industry Risk
Management Model. The other major factor is the Management System (see “M”).

Work Process factors are the elements of Risk Management which apply to decisions
made specific to a particular hazard (PA1 - Barriers) or decisions made immediately
before or during a task (PA2 - Controls).

The proposed model of the Work Process has been borrowed from System Safety
information developed by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) for use in the
nuclear power industry.

The Work Process Model developed for the U.S. DOE suggests that Safe Production
is achieved by having four key ingredients in any task.

• Fit for purpose equipment and materials


• Quality work methods
• Competent people, and
• A controlled work environment (both physically and from a supervision
standpoint)

The above diagram is the “Nertney Wheel”. It illustrates the 4 ingredients as an inter-
dependent relationship. The wheel was created by Nertney to illustrate the Work
Process.

Implications to Minerals Industry Engineering Education:

Draft 2, June 1999 Page 51 of 90 © MISHC, 1999


Engineers must recognise that Barriers need to be defined and installed which are
designed to manage the nature and magnitude of the site-specific hazards. They must
also recognise that Controls are required to optimise the quality of the Work Process,
as defined above in the “Nertney Wheel”.

Auditing Criteria:

The auditor should look for corporate and site recognition that there must be a
systematic approach to deducing required Barriers and ensuring that Controls are in
place to optimise the Work Process.

Broad Brush Risk Assessments or other site risk assessment techniques are often used
to deduce the major hazards that must have defined Barriers. Other review methods
such as Operational Risk Assessments and Job Safety Analysis can be used to
examine the site risks in more detail.

Comment:

P
From B

Work Process
Process (wheel)
Factors

PA2
PA1

Specific to
Barriers Controls
Hazards

To D

PB1 PB2 PB3 PB4


Draft 2, June 1999 Page 52 of 90 © MISHC, 1999
1st Amelior-
Prevention Monitoring
Response ation
PA1 Barriers

Barriers are the equipment, materials, rules, methods, competencies, labels or other
mechanisms that are put in place to control a hazard. A hazard is something with
the potential to do harm. Safety and health losses occur because barriers related to
hazards are less than adequate.

The Energy Concept is useful for understanding safety and health hazards.
Physical damage to people can only occur due to some form of energy. There are 8
main energy sources.

Gravity – falls of things, falls of people, uncontrolled movement


(minerals hazards such as fall of ground, falling off structure,
vehicle runaways, etc.)

Chemical – solids, liquids, gases that burn, explode, affect people due to
contact, inhalation or ingestion
(minerals hazards such as spontaneous combustion in coal,
sulphide dust explosion, methane explosion, acid spills, fuel/oil
fires, etc.)

Electrical – contact, induction, arcing


(minerals hazards such as inadvertent contact, faults, arcing in a
gaseous environment)

Mechanical – caught in, hit by, collisions


(minerals hazards such as vehicle collisions, caught in moving
equipment, hit by moving machinery, machine vibration, etc.)

Pressure – release or explosion of air, water, hydraulics or mechanical


items under pressure (including noise)
(minerals hazards such as pneumatic/tyre failures, hydraulic
pressure releases, spring pressure release, excessive noise, etc.)

Radiant – radiation, hot or cold surfaces


(minerals hazards such as radioactive materials, sunshine,
overheated mechanical equipment, refrigeration systems, etc.)

Bio-mechanical – the body’s mechanical energy that slips, trips, strains, sprains
(minerals hazards such as manual handling, poor housekeeping,
poor access , poor work positions, etc.)

Microbiological – viruses, bacteria


(minerals hazards such as hepatitis, tinea, sewage effluent, etc.)

Draft 2, June 1999 Page 53 of 90 © MISHC, 1999


Effective barriers are deduced by identifying the energies that are present on the
site, as well as establishing their location, exact nature and magnitude. Once this
information is understood risks can be assessed and barriers defined to suit the risk.

Barrier definition should consider a four-stage approach.

• Prevention – barriers intended to prevent the energy from getting out of


control
• Monitoring – barriers intended to monitor the status of the energy to
identify if it is different from expected
• 1st Response – barriers intended to stop an unwanted event in the early
stages before any significant consequence can occur
• Amelioration – barriers intended to minimise the consequences of a major
unwanted event (Emergency Response plus other activities)

The four stages are also in the order that should be used to deduce Barriers.
Prevention should always be the first concern. Monitoring is also important and, in
some cases, an under utilised approach in the minerals industry.

Implications to Minerals Industry Engineering Education:

Engineers must be knowledgable in the hazards (or energies) that are inherent in
the minerals industry. They must be able to identify and quantify any relevant
industry hazard to define its nature and magnitude. Familiarity with the Energy
Concept may help them with this area.

They must also be aware of effective barriers for common relevant minerals
industry hazards, including Prevention, Monitoring, 1st Response and Amelioration
Barriers.

Finally, engineers should understand the process of identifying hazards and


deducing Barriers.

Auditing Criteria:

Auditors should look for a systematic approach to identifying site and process
hazards followed by a logical framework for defining effective barriers.

The auditor should be wary of approaches to Barrier definition that depend too
much on procedures or practices, as well as over dependency on 1st and Emergency
Response. Also, some hazards may not be adequately understood by the site,
leading to incorrect and potentially dangerous assumptions.

Draft 2, June 1999 Page 54 of 90 © MISHC, 1999


Comment:

Draft 2, June 1999 Page 55 of 90 © MISHC, 1999


PB1 Prevention

Prevention Barriers are intended to prevent a loss or unwanted energy release.


They can involve many different approaches. The following Safety Precedence
Sequence offers a good framework for deducing the optimal Prevention
Barriers.

1. Eliminate the hazard or energy source


(do not use the energy)

2. Minimise the hazard or energy source


(reduce the amount of energy to a less damaging level)

3. Control the hazard or energy using engineered devices


(ex. lock outs, chemical containers, mechanical roof support, gas
monitors, etc.)

4. Control the hazard or energy by using physical barriers


(ex. machine guarding, warning signs, etc.)

5. Control the hazard or energy with procedures


(ex. isolation procedures, standard operating procedures, etc.)

6. Control the hazard or energy with personal protective equipment


(ex. hard hats, boots with toe caps, gloves, safety glasses, welding
gear, etc.)

7. Control the hazard or energy with warnings and awareness


(ex. posters, labels, stickers, verbal warnings, etc.)

Every unacceptable risk at the site should have defined Prevention Barriers. The
above Safety Precedence Sequence is useful to determine the optimal Barrier.
Effectiveness of Barriers decreases in the order suggested by the list. The most
effective Barrier involves totally removing the hazard. The least effective is a
warning.

Implications to Minerals Industry Engineering Education:

Engineers must understand the Safety Precedence Sequence approach to


deriving Prevention Barriers, as well as best practice Prevention Barriers for
minerals industry hazards.

Draft 2, June 1999 Page 56 of 90 © MISHC, 1999


Auditing Criteria:

Auditors should look for optimal Prevention Barriers for the unacceptable risks
at the site. Examination of Prevention Barriers for the highest site risks should
be the priority for the auditor, followed by identification of the site approach to
deducing hazards and Prevention barriers.

Comment:

Draft 2, June 1999 Page 57 of 90 © MISHC, 1999


PB2 Monitoring

Monitoring Barriers are intended to check the status of a hazard or energy to


identify any variation of change that may indicate that the hazard is out of
control.

Two basic types of monitoring are used as barriers, process monitoring and
outcome monitoring. Process monitoring checks the status of the work process
as an indicator of potential problems. For example, monitoring the execution of
Isolation Procedures may indicate adherence problems for a key Prevention
Barrier. Monitoring the roof support methods may indicate problems that could
lead to fall of ground.

Outcome monitoring checks the results of the process to indicate if the


Prevention Barrier is working and/or if the hazard is different from expected.
Gas monitoring, either manual or automatic, is one example. Two other
examples are tell tales on roof support and vehicle systems that gather speed
and/or load data.

Clearly, well-designed automatic monitoring is more reliable than manual


monitoring. In general, process monitoring gives earlier warnings of failed
Prevention Barriers than outcome monitoring.

Implications to Minerals Industry Engineering Education:

Engineers must understand the importance of effectively monitoring hazards


through process and outcome approaches. Many minerals hazards, especially
related to mining, are difficult to predict. Therefore, Monitoring for changes
from assumptions becomes a key part of their management.

Engineers should also be aware of best practice Monitoring technology and


methods for hazards inherent in the minerals industry.

Auditing Criteria:

Auditors should look for optimal Monitoring Barriers for the unacceptable risks
at the site. Examination of Monitoring Barriers for the highest site risks should
be the priority for the auditor, followed by identification of the site approach to
deducing hazards and Monitoring barriers.

Auditors should carefully identify the degree to which monitoring is executed to


the required standard. For example, gas monitors may be in place but data may
not be gathered and trended to use the system effectively.

Draft 2, June 1999 Page 58 of 90 © MISHC, 1999


Comment:

Draft 2, June 1999 Page 59 of 90 © MISHC, 1999


PB3 1st Response

1st Response Barriers are intended to identify and address an unwanted event in
very early stages. Often these Barriers involve automatic detection and action.
For example, a sprinkler, foam or dust system, triggered by heat or smoke, is
intended to extinguish a heat source or fire in its early stages. Gas monitors that
detect high explosive gas levels and shut down heat sources are also 1st
Response barriers.

There are also manual 1st Response barriers such as the combination of fire
training and the local availability of portable fire fighting equipment.
Procedures and expertise to re-secure bad roof, and eye washes or acid
neutralisers in laboratories are also 1st Response.

The main issue with 1st Response Barriers is their availability when and where
the unwanted event occurs. Some automatic 1st Response Barriers may trigger
spuriously or, by design, seemingly unnecessarily at a hazard level that has a
high safety factor (1.25% CH4 when 5 to 10% is ignitable). This may lead to
compromising the Barriers by deliberate shutdown or some other form of
action.

Implications to Minerals Industry Engineering Education:

Engineers must understand the importance of 1st Response Barriers. They


should have an orientation toward careful selection and design of 1st Response
Barriers, with automated systems being the ideal for major hazards.

Engineers should also be aware of best practice 1st Response technology and
methods for hazards inherent in the minerals industry.

Auditing Criteria:

Auditors should look for optimal 1st Response Barriers for the unacceptable
risks at the site. Examination of 1st Response Barriers for the highest site risks
should be the priority for the auditor, followed by identification of the site
approach to deducing hazards and 1st Response barriers.

Auditors should carefully identify the degree to which 1st Response Barriers are
in place as per the required standard. For example, gas monitoring alarms may
be in place but turned off.

Draft 2, June 1999 Page 60 of 90 © MISHC, 1999


Comment:

Draft 2, June 1999 Page 61 of 90 © MISHC, 1999


PB4 Amelioration

Amelioration Barriers are intended to minimise the consequence of a major


event by removing the people from the event and minimising damage to people
through appropriate response, rescue, treatment and other activities.

Aspects of Amelioration include the following.

• Prevention of a second accident


• Emergency action & Rescue
• Medical services, including first aid, transport, personnel and equipment
• Medical treatment
• Rehabilitation
• Relations with employees, officials, public and the media

Like the other Barriers, they should be tailored to suit the risks, in this case the
major event outcomes of those risks. The site Emergency Response Plan should
document the sum of all Amelioration requirements (see MD10 –Emergency
Response Process).

Implications to Minerals Industry Engineering Education:

Engineers must understand the importance of effective Amelioration, and the


process of determining an adequate Emergency Response Plan.

Engineers should also be aware of best practice Amelioration technology and


methods for hazards inherent in the minerals industry.

Auditing Criteria:

Auditors should look for optimal Amelioration Barriers for the unacceptable
risks at the site. Examination of Amelioration Barriers for the highest site risks
should be the priority for the auditor, followed by identification of the site
approach to deducing hazards and Amelioration barriers.

Auditors should carefully identify the degree to which site personnel are aware
of the Emergency Response Plan and trained in relevant aspects of the plan.

Comment:

Draft 2, June 1999 Page 62 of 90 © MISHC, 1999


PA2 Controls

Controls are the ongoing, day-to-day mechanisms that are used to ensure that the
Work Process occurs to the expected standard. The 9 major control areas listed
below represent the key Control areas for the Work Process (see P – Work Process
Factors for more information).

• Hazards Status Information


• Equipment Operability
• Materials Quality
• Maintenance Status
• Inspection / monitoring by observation
• Work procedures
• Supervision
• Environment Operability
• Personnel Performance

The Management System factors (see M) provide the inputs to the Work Process
through quality engineering and management decision making. In a sense, the
Work Process is designed by the Management System. However, failures can
occur because the Work Process does not occur as the Management System
intended.

The 9 areas listed above must be effective for all tasks at all times.

Implications to Minerals Industry Engineering Education:

Engineers should differentiate between the Management System and the work
process. They should recognise that they have roles related to the Management
System as designers, planners, purchasers, etc. However, they should also
recognise that they have roles in the Work Process as supervisors, controllers of
resources immediate to the task and as individuals who perform tasks in the
minerals / mining process.

Auditing Criteria:

Auditors should look for activities in the 9 specific areas of Work Process
Controls, including documentation but, equally important, observed activities or
situations that demonstrate the existence of the Controls.

Draft 2, June 1999 Page 63 of 90 © MISHC, 1999


Comment:

Draft 2, June 1999 Page 64 of 90 © MISHC, 1999


From D
PA2

Controls

PB6 PB8 PB12


PB10

Equipment Maintenance Work Environmental


Operability Status Procedures Operability

PB5 PB7 PB9 PB11 PB13

Inspection /
Hazard Materials Personnel
Monitoring by Supervision
Status Info Quality Performance
Observation

To F To F

Draft 2, June 1999 Page 65 of 90 © MISHC, 1999


PB5 Hazard Status Info

The Management System Process titled “Technical Information (re: Hazards)”


(MB2) notes the requirement for the site to be aware of relevant hazards and
have available information that describes the hazard and its status.

“Communication Process” (MD4) should ensure that the relevant people are
aware of any changes to the hazard that may affect the risk.

“Competency Process” (MD9) describes the need to have a systematic approach


to developing competency, including knowledge and skills related to relevant
site hazards, thereby ensuring that the individual knows how to control a hazard.

Under Barriers, “Monitoring” (PB2) involves having methods to check the


status of hazards to ensure they are at expected levels.

“Hazard Identification” (MF1) defines the requirements for a process of


identifying hazards and acting to reduce the risk in a task to an acceptable level.

These five elements should ensure that, on the day, there is a clear awareness of
the existence and magnitude of a hazard.

This element of the model, PB5 – Hazards Status Info, suggests that all persons
involved in the specific work process (or task) should be aware of any hazards.
Each individual should be told about any new information about hazards. In
addition, he/she should apply Hazard Identification methods on the day as the
last step in identifying hazards and avoiding losses due to lack of recognition of
their existence or magnitude.

Implications to Minerals Industry Engineering Education:

Engineers should recognise how the Management System factors feed the Work
Process. They should understand how the 4 Management System elements
optimise the likelihood that the individual will be aware and competent in
relation to expected hazards.

Engineers should also recognise that despite the upstream elements, systematic,
informal Hazard Identification before any task is necessary.

Auditing Criteria:

The auditor should look for practical demonstration that the individual is aware
and competent related to all expected hazards in his/her tasks. There should also

Draft 2, June 1999 Page 66 of 90 © MISHC, 1999


be clear demonstration that a systematic method of informally looking for and
acting on hazards is present in the individual’s approach to work.

Comment:

Draft 2, June 1999 Page 67 of 90 © MISHC, 1999


PB6 Equipment Operability

The Management System Process titled “Design and Modification Process”


(MD5) notes the requirement for a process of considering hazards in the design,
modification and acquisition of plant and equipment.

Various methods of deducing risks related to equipment or plant are defined in


“Risk Assessment” (ME1) and “Human Factors Review” (ME2).

Under “Barriers” (PA1) the specific plant or equipment requirements for


preventing unwanted events, monitoring hazards or responding to unwanted
events are defined.

These three elements should ensure that, on the day, the plant or equipment
required for the task is “fit-for-purpose”, capable of the work required and
designed to minimise relevant risks.

“Communication Process” (MD4) should ensure that the relevant people are
aware of any changes to the plant or equipment that may affect the risk.

“Competency Process” (MD9) describes the need to have a systematic approach


to developing competency, including knowledge and skills related to relevant
site hazards. Thereby ensuring that the individual knows how to operate the
plant or equipment.

This element of the model, PB6 – Equipment Operability, suggests that the
assigned equipment on the day must be fit-for-purpose. Within the Work
Process there must be work organisation and scheduling that ensures that the
right plant and equipment is available for the task.

Implications to Minerals Industry Engineering Education:

Engineers should understand how the above listed Management System and
other elements optimise the likelihood that the individual will have fit-for-
purpose plant and equipment to do the task.

Engineers should also recognise that despite the upstream elements, adequate
work organisation and scheduling must exist to ensure the plant and equipment
is available when and where required.

Auditing Criteria:

The auditor should look for practical demonstration that the correct plant and
equipment is used for the task. Issues such as use of incorrect plant or

Draft 2, June 1999 Page 68 of 90 © MISHC, 1999


equipment due to lack of availability should be explored to understand the cause
from a management systems standpoint.

Comment:

Draft 2, June 1999 Page 69 of 90 © MISHC, 1999


PB7 Materials Quality

The Management System Process titled “Materials” (ME7) notes the


requirement for a process of considering hazards in the acquisition of materials.

Various methods of deducing risks related to materials, especially hazardous


chemicals, are defined in “Risk Assessment” (ME1) and “Human Factors
Review” (ME2).

Under “Barriers” (PA1) the specific materials requirements for preventing


unwanted events, monitoring hazards or responding to unwanted events are
defined.

These three elements should ensure that, on the day, the materials required for
the task is “fit-for-purpose”.

“Communication Process” (MD4) should ensure that the relevant people are
aware of any changes to the materials that may affect the risk.

“Competency Process” (MD9) ensures that the individual knows how to use the
materials. Knowledge of Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS) information is
included in this process.

This element of the model, PB7 – Materials Quality, suggests that the supplied
materials on the day must be fit-for-purpose. Within the Work Process supplies
must be organised to ensure that the right materials are available for the task.

Implications to Minerals Industry Engineering Education:

Engineers should understand how the above listed Management System and
other elements optimise the likelihood that the individual will have fit-for-
purpose materials to do the task.

Engineers should also recognise that despite the upstream elements, adequate
supply operations must exist to ensure the materials are available when and
where required.

Auditing Criteria:

The auditor should look for practical demonstration that the correct materials
are used for the task. Storage, transportation, containers, access for loading /
unloading, application and clean up are some example areas to be observed.
Special attention should be paid to chemicals on the site with significant hazards
as indicated by MSDS information.

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Comment:

Draft 2, June 1999 Page 71 of 90 © MISHC, 1999


PB8 Maintenance Status

The Management System Process titled “Maintenance Process” (MD6) notes


the requirement for a process of systematically planning maintenance, including
“insurance” spares and maintenance Standard Operating Procedures (SOP).

Various methods of deducing risks related to maintenance are defined in “Risk


Assessment” (ME1) and “Job Safety Analysis” (ME3).

These two Management elements should ensure that, on the day, the plant or
equipment required for the task is adequately maintained so that it is “fit-for-
purpose”.

This element of the model, PB8 – Maintenance Status, suggests that the
assigned plant or equipment, on the day, must be maintained to the required
standard, as determined by the Maintenance Plan.

Implications to Minerals Industry Engineering Education:

Engineers should understand how the above listed Management System


elements optimise the likelihood that the individual will have plant and
equipment that is adequately maintained for the task.

Engineers should also recognise that despite the upstream elements, adequate
maintenance involves scheduling equipment out of production and ensuring
maintenance is done to the desired standards.

Auditing Criteria:

The auditor should look for practical demonstration that the correct maintenance
is being done, as per the site Maintenance Plan. Maintenance records as well as
the execution of maintenance tasks should be observed versus the “standard”.

Comment:

Draft 2, June 1999 Page 72 of 90 © MISHC, 1999


PB9 Inspection / Monitoring by Observation

The Management System Process titled “Inspection / Monitoring Process”


(MB2) notes the requirement for the site to have a systematically derived
process of inspecting and monitoring key plant, equipment and activities to
ensure that performance is as expected.

Under Barriers, “Monitoring” (PB2) involves having methods to check the


status of hazards and barriers to ensure they are as expected.

These two elements should ensure that, on the day, there is a clear image of the
inspection and monitoring requirements.

“Competency Process” (MD9) describes the need to have a systematic approach


to developing competency, including knowledge and skills related to inspecting
or monitoring.

Management, engineering and supervisory personnel may be involved in the


required tasks described in the Inspection and Monitoring Process (MD7).
However, this element of the model, PB9 – Inspection / Monitoring by
Observation, suggests that these persons must also undertake the role of
observer, informally inspecting and monitoring the work site.

A key control in the day-to-day work process involves supervisory initiative to


stop or delay the work and address a lack of adherence to “standards”, whether
it is deliberate or unintentional. Failure to do so condones bad practices.

Implications to Minerals Industry Engineering Education:

Engineers should recognise how the Management System and other elements
influence control of the work process “standards”.

Engineers should also recognise that despite the upstream elements, frequent
informal observations and effective input to the work process is desirable.

Auditing Criteria:

The auditor should look for practical demonstration that engineers, managers
and supervisors informally observe the work processes of the site. In addition,
the auditor should look for situations where adherence issues exist and comment
is made to rectify the situation by site personnel.

Draft 2, June 1999 Page 73 of 90 © MISHC, 1999


Comment:

Draft 2, June 1999 Page 74 of 90 © MISHC, 1999


PB10 Work Procedures

The Management System Process titled “Documentation Process” (MC8) notes


the requirement for the site to have a systematical process of developing
required Standard Operating Procedures (SOP) work procedures for the site.

Under “Barriers” (PA1) the specific procedures for preventing unwanted events,
monitoring hazards or responding to unwanted events are defined.

“Competency Process” (MD9) describes the need to have a systematic approach


to developing competency, based on the relevant work procedures.

“Communication Process” (MD4) should ensure that the relevant people are
aware of any changes to the required procedures that may affect the risk.

These four elements should ensure that, on the day, there is a clear image of the
safe, correct method for the task.

This element of the model, PB10 – Work Procedures, suggests that the
appropriate work method on the day must be adequate to control the risks.
Within the Work Process there must be short term work planning and
organisation that ensures the correct Work Procedure is selected. In the minerals
industry, rapidly changing and complex work environments often require
modification of an existing SOP or determination of a new unique work method.
There must be mechanisms to ensure quality short term work planning is done.

Implications to Minerals Industry Engineering Education:

Engineers should understand how the above listed Management System and
other elements optimise the likelihood that the individual will have a good work
procedure for the task.

Engineers should also recognise that despite the upstream elements, adequate
short term work planning must exist to ensure the best work method is available
for the current conditions.

Auditing Criteria:

The auditor should look for practical demonstration that the correct SOP is used
for the task. Issues such as use of incorrect work method because the SOP is
incorrect should be explored to understand the cause from a management
systems standpoint.

Draft 2, June 1999 Page 75 of 90 © MISHC, 1999


Comment:

Draft 2, June 1999 Page 76 of 90 © MISHC, 1999


PB11 Supervision

The Management System Process titled “Competency Process” (MD9)


describes the need to have a systematic approach to developing competency of
all site personnel, including supervisors.

“Communication Process” (MD4) should ensure that the supervisors are aware
of any issues or changes that may affect the risk.

These two Management elements should ensure that, on the day, there is
competent, knowledgable supervisory input for the task.

This element of the model, PB11 – Supervision, suggests that leadership on the
day must also be adequate to control the risks. The supervisory role is the most
visible indicator of corporate and site commitment to safety and health risk
management. If the visible image is “production first”, for example, the
effectiveness of the entire risk management system can be greatly reduced.
Clear leadership based on the “Safe Production” goal and site policy is the aim.

Implications to Minerals Industry Engineering Education:

Engineers should understand how the above listed Management System


elements optimise the likelihood that the supervision will be adequate for the
task.

Engineers should also recognise that despite the upstream elements, strong,
committed supervisory leadership is important to risk management.

Auditing Criteria:

The auditor should look for practical demonstration that supervisors are
competent and knowledgable in the work they control. In addition, the auditor
should try to observe supervisor behaviour that indicates commitment to safety
and health risk management, as per the company or site policy.

Comment:

Draft 2, June 1999 Page 77 of 90 © MISHC, 1999


PB12 Environment Operability

The Management System Process titled “Design and Modification Process”


(MD5) and “Mine / Site” (ME4) note the requirement for a process of
considering hazards in mine design, including aspects such as ventilation,
lighting, transport needs, services, etc. This process should produce a safe and
good quality work environment.

Various methods of deducing risks related to the mine or site environment are
defined in “Risk Assessment” (ME1).

Under “Barriers” (PA1) the specific environmental requirements for preventing


unwanted events, monitoring hazards or responding to unwanted events are
defined.

These three elements should ensure that, on the day, the work environment for
the task is adequate, free from unacceptable risks.

“Communication Process” (MD4) should ensure that the relevant people are
aware of any changes to the work environment that may affect the risk.

This element of the model, PB12 – Environment Operability, suggests that the
work environment on the day must be adequate for planned operations, ensuring
that there are no unacceptable related risks. In the minerals industry, rapidly
changing conditions often reduce the quality of work environments. There must
be mechanisms to ensure quality short term planning considers the work
environment and addresses the issues.

Implications to Minerals Industry Engineering Education:

Engineers should understand how the above listed Management System and
other elements optimise the likelihood that the individual will have good quality
work environment for the task.

Engineers should also recognise that despite the upstream elements, adequate
short term planning must exist to ensure that changes to the environment are
identified and adjustments made to suit the changed conditions.

Auditing Criteria:

The auditor should look for practical demonstration that the correct work
environment exists for the task, including air quality, traffic control, lighting,
accessibility, etc. Issues such as failure to address a required change in work

Draft 2, June 1999 Page 78 of 90 © MISHC, 1999


environment requirements should be explored to understand the cause from a
management systems standpoint.

Comment:

Draft 2, June 1999 Page 79 of 90 © MISHC, 1999


PB13 Personnel Performance

The Management System Process titled “Competency Process” (MD9)


describes the need to have a systematic approach to selection and competency
development for all site personnel.

“Communication Process” (MD4) should ensure that all relevant personnel are
aware of any issues or changes that may affect the risk.

These two Management elements should ensure that, on the day, there are
competent, knowledgable personnel for the task.

This element of the model, PB13 – Personnel Performance, suggests that


execution of tasks on the day is also dependent on factors other than knowledge
and skill.

The following elements affect the quality of personnel performance.

• Task Assignment
• Task Preparation
• Task Execution

Implications to Minerals Industry Engineering Education:

Engineers should understand how effective Personnel Performance is the result


of two major components, adequate consideration of people in the Management
System, and the day-to-day approach to controlling the Work Process.

Auditing Criteria:

The auditor should look for practical demonstration of the issues identified in
the following elements.

Comment:

Draft 2, June 1999 Page 80 of 90 © MISHC, 1999


From F From F
PB13
PB11

Personnel
Supervision
Performance

PC1 PC2 PC3

Task Task Task


Assignment Preparation Execution

PD1 PD2 PD3 PD4

Fitness for Culture


work Competency Motivation

Draft 2, June 1999 Page 81 of 90 © MISHC, 1999


PC1 Task Assignment

The first stage in ensuring effective Personnel Performance involves


adequate Task Assignment. In theory, the individual must be made aware of
the task to be performed and the expected outcomes. This may include the
method, equipment, timing and other resources.

Task Assignment should also include communication between the supervisor


and the personnel identifying hazards that are unusual or might be otherwise
unexpected by the individual.

Very often Task Assignment is informal with little or no input from


supervision concerning the issues mentioned above. Human error may be
initiated at this point in the task in several ways.

Slip Lapse - the person may inadvertently err due to inattentiveness or


distraction where better Task Assignment would have warned
the person of the hazards, increasing attentiveness
Mistake - the person may select an action that is incorrect for the
situation because he/she is not aware of the requirements
Violation - the person may not recognise that a rule is relevant or that a
generally accepted site violation of a rule is not appropriate for
this task

Implications to Minerals Industry Engineering Education:

Engineers should recognise the importance of effective Task Assignment, as


well as the types of errors that may indicate a need to improve Task
Assignment.

Auditing Criteria:

The auditor should look for practical demonstration of effective Task


Assignment. This can be done by observing pre-task supervisor discussions
or by asking personnel if they received clear direction for the task at hand.

Comment:

Draft 2, June 1999 Page 82 of 90 © MISHC, 1999


PC2 Task Preparation

The second stage in ensuring effective Personnel Performance involves


adequate Task Preparation. This includes preparation of materials,
equipment, the work site and other personnel. It also includes application of
the Hazard Identification technique mentioned in MF1 - Hazard
Identification and PB5 – Hazard Status Info.

Task Preparation can be haphazard. Human error may be initiated at this


point in the task in several ways.

Slip Lapse - the person may inadvertently err due to inattentiveness or


distraction when the individual has not identified the hazards
correctly
Mistake - the person may select an action that is incorrect for the
situation because he/she has not prepared for the job by
acquiring the right equipment, etc.
Violation - the person may not recognise that a generally accepted site
violation of a rule is not appropriate for the hazards in this task

Implications to Minerals Industry Engineering Education:

Engineers should recognise the importance of effective Task Preparation, as


well as the types of errors that may indicate a need to improve Task
Preparation, including Hazard Identification.

Auditing Criteria:

The auditor should look for practical demonstration of effective Task


Preparation. This can be done by observing personnel before they start a task
to see if they prepare adequately, as well as use Hazard Identification
techniques.

Comment:

Draft 2, June 1999 Page 83 of 90 © MISHC, 1999


PC3 Task Execution

The third stage in ensuring effective Personnel Performance involves


adequate Task Execution. This involves the actual method of undertaking a
well assigned and adequately prepared for task.

There are 4 areas that affect the quality of Task Execution, related to
Personnel Performance.

• Fitness for work


• Competency
• Culture
• Motivation

Implications to Minerals Industry Engineering Education:

Engineers should recognise the importance of these 4 areas in Task


Execution.

Auditing Criteria:

The auditor should look for practical demonstration of effective Task


Execution in the following 4 areas.

Comment:

Draft 2, June 1999 Page 84 of 90 © MISHC, 1999


PD1 Fitness for Work

Fitness for Work refers to the state of the individual in relation to the
requirements of the task. It includes anatomical, physiological,
biomechanical and psychological fitness.

Management System Element “Selection” (ME8) addresses the process of


selecting persons suitable for employment at the site. Day-to-day Fitness
for Work refers to issues after the person is employed.

The following factors can affect Fitness for Work

• Aging Factors
• Health Problems
• Past Injuries
• Alcohol and Drugs
• Mental Stress
• Shift work effects

Any of the above can lead to errors in a task.

Implications to Minerals Industry Engineering Education:

Engineers should recognise the aspects of Fitness for Work which are
important to Personnel Performance, both from a supervision and an
engineering design perspective.

Auditing Criteria:

The auditor should look for practical demonstration that the establishment
of Fitness for Work is part of the site management system. Demonstrated
methods to address issues suggested by the 6 listed examples would be
desirable.

Comment:

Draft 2, June 1999 Page 85 of 90 © MISHC, 1999


PD2 Competency

Competency refers to the knowledge and skills of the individual in


relation to the requirements of the task.

Management System Element “Competency Process” (MD8) covers the


upstream system.

Successful Task Execution requires competency relevant to the task at


hand. Human error may be initiated due to lack of competency in several
ways.

Slip Lapse - the person may inadvertently err due to inattentiveness or


distraction because he is unaware of the hazards
Mistake - the person may select an action that is incorrect for the
situation because he/she is not competent in the requirements
Violation - the person may not recognise that a rule is relevant or that a
generally accepted site violation of a rule is not appropriate for
this task

Implications to Minerals Industry Engineering Education:

Engineers should recognise that Competency is important to Personnel


Performance, as well as the types of errors that may indicate a need to
improve Competency.

Auditing Criteria:

The auditor should look for practical demonstration of competency for the
task. This can be done by observing personnel in a task to see if they
preform adequately, as well as asking about the basis of their
competency.

Comment:

Draft 2, June 1999 Page 86 of 90 © MISHC, 1999


PD3 Culture

Simply defined, culture is the set of norms in a social group. Workplace


safety and health culture is the set of norms present in a workplace related
to safety and health issues. Colloquially, this type of culture may be
thought of as “the way we do things around here” to address safety and
health risks. There can be organisational and work group cultural issues.

Even an ideal textbook risk management system is unlikely to succeed if


the culture is not supportive. For example, if existing work practices
conflict with new risk assessment based SOP “standards”, a negative
culture may lead to high resistance to change. Even in engineering and
management there may be cultural resistance to documenting and
following the processes described under MC2 – “Safety Design
Processes”.

Some aspects of this model should support a positive culture. These


include the systematic approach to management and, specifically, the
requirement for involvement in risk assessments and development of
“standards” documentation. The many feedback loops in the various
processes should also increase personnel input and ownership in the mine
or site.

It is important to recognise that negative cultures that try to put in place a


new Risk Management System may need to utilise overt approaches such
as the following.

• Involvement of as many personnel as possible in development phases


of the new system
• involvement of labour representation in regular decisions
• direct communication of progress and issues to all personnel
• use of a no blame approach to incidents, accidents and near miss
events (unless negligence is absolutely clear)
• promotion of the new system with items such as giveaways (stickers,
prizes, etc.)

Measuring the workplace health and safety culture can be done by survey
or interview techniques that ask a cross-section of personnel to give
honest opinions about various safety and health issues. Issues that can be
queried include perceptions of management commitment, adherence to
safety rules, availability of safety related equipment, effectiveness of
initiatives to improve safety and the impact of communication initiatives.

Draft 2, June 1999 Page 87 of 90 © MISHC, 1999


Implications to Minerals Industry Engineering Education:

Engineers should be aware of the “culture factor” in the operation of a


mine or site. They should recognise the reasons for positive and negative
cultures.

Also, as part of their understanding of the entire Risk Management Model,


they should recognise that culture must be considered in change
management when introducing a more effective risk management
approach, or any other new factor at the site.

Auditing Criteria:

Auditors will get a feel for the safety and health culture of a mine or site
as they observe some of the Work Process areas described previously.

Auditors can also take a basic survey of culture by asking a cross section
of personnel to provide their honest (confidential) perceptions of issues
like those listed above.

Comment:

Draft 2, June 1999 Page 88 of 90 © MISHC, 1999


PD4 Motivation

Motivation is a term generally used to describe the psychological reasons


why people behave or act as they do. For example, a person is motivated
to do something. Sometimes we ask about a person’s motivation after they
have acted in an unexpected way.

Motivation and attitude are major areas of research and modeling. The
Minerals Industry is only beginning to incorporate some of this
information into day-to-day operations.

One model that may be helpful to the Minerals Industry involves the
“ABC’s of Behaviour”.

A – antecedents to the behaviour


B – the behaviour
C – the consequences

This model suggests that behaviours occur because of antecedents and


consequences.

Antecedents are conditions that exist or are perceived to exist which


influence the individual's decisions on how to act. For example, failures in
the Work Process outlined previously can be antecedents to incorrect
behaviour.

• Lack of information about the hazard


• Incorrect equipment
• Poor quality materials
• Poorly maintained equipment
• Inappropriate procedures
• Poor work environment

Consequences are the real or perceived rewards for doing the task. There
may be positive and negative rewards for doing the task (or behaving) as
the site requires. There may be positive and negative rewards for doing
the task in an incorrect way.

The following list identifies some examples of the various rewards.

Positive rewards for doing it “right”

• Appreciation of my supervisor
• Knowing I have done the work correctly (safely)

Negative rewards for doing it “right”

Draft 2, June 1999 Page 89 of 90 © MISHC, 1999


• Taking more time than I think I need to take
• More physical effort than I think I need to make
• Chastising from my peers

Positive rewards for doing it “wrong”

• Easier to do the task


• Faster to do the task
• Less disruption to production (and bonus?)

Negative for doing it “wrong”

• Getting caught
• Getting hurt

The individual weighs the pros and cons of the consequences in some
way to decide on the action to be taken.

Motivation can be analysed and understood. The ABC model can be


helpful in reviewing motivational issues around a task pro-actively or
reactively.

Implications to Minerals Industry Engineering Education:

Engineers must recognise the importance of understanding motivational


issues. Models such as ABC offer a mechanism to develop a basic
understanding.

Engineers should understand how their actions affect and are affected by
motivation so that they recognise the need to consider human factors in
their tasks.

Auditing Criteria:

Individual motivation is not usually an area for system auditing. The


auditor should use the overall results of the audit to conclude whether the
antecedents and consequences are generally appropriate for the site.

Comment:

Draft 2, June 1999 Page 90 of 90 © MISHC, 1999