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Anda di halaman 1dari 15

Tunable in the 50–130-MHz Range

Bernabé Linares-Barranco, Teresa Serrano-Gotarredona, Juan Ramos-Martos, Joaquín Ceballos-Cáceres,

José Miguel Mora, and Alejandro Linares-Barranco

uous-time sinusoidal operational transconductance amplifiers

quadrature oscillator fabricated in a standard double-poly 0.8- m

CMOS process. The oscillator is tunable in the frequency range

from 50 to 130 MHz. The two phases produced by the oscillator

show a low-quadrature phase error. A novel current-mode am-

plitude control scheme is developed that allows for very small

amplitudes. Stability of the amplitude control loop is studied as

well as design considerations for its optimization. Experimental

results are provided.

Index Terms—Amplitude control, analog very large-scale inte-

gration (VLSI), , impedance probe, multiphase oscillators,

operational transconductance amplifiers (OTA)-C, oscillator sta-

bility, phase noise, quadrature oscillators, sinusoidal oscillators,

transconductance-capacitance oscillators.

many signal-processing circuits for telecommunica-

tion and instrumentation applications. Many times,

frequency over a very wide range [1]–[4]. Consequently, we

will consider the possibility of designing a sinusoidal quadra-

square-wave quadrature oscillators are satisfactory. However, ture oscillator tunable over the required frequency range. In the

and specifically for instrumentation, most of the times, one scheme shown in Fig. 1 one phase is applied to the impedance

requires two continuous-time sinusoidal signals at 90 phase bridge, while both phases multiply the resulting voltages

shift, and with extremely low error in the phase difference. The and of the impedance bridge, producing error signals

quadrature oscillator described in this paper was developed and . In a properly constructed auto-nulling system [6], the

for its possible use within a soil-impedance measurement “signal-processing” block will generate two control signals

system. Soil characteristics such as humidity and salinity and (which control the internal and calibrated resistor and

can be inferred from the reactive and resistive components capacitor ), such that and become identical. At this

of its impedance, when measured at frequencies in the range point, the value of resistance equals the resistive component

of 50–100 MHz [1]–[4]. Furthermore, other characteristics, of the external unknown impedance for the present frequency,

properties, and even composition can be inferred by measuring while the value of capacitance provides the reactive part for

an impedance profile as a function of frequency. this frequency. Repeating this for different frequencies provides

Small and cheap soil-impedance probes can be used to spread a resistive and reactive impedance profile of the present soil.

over large agricultural fields can be used to sense and monitor Soil probes should be very compact. Consequently, one

the soil characteristics over time and optimize the use of (many would like to include all the sensing, processing, and commu-

times limited) water resources. A soil-impedance probe can be nication circuitry within a single very-large-scale integration

realized using a conventional impedance bridge, as shown in (VLSI) chip. Power consumption is important, but not ex-

Fig. 1. The scheme uses two sinusoidal signals with a 90 phase tremely critical: the probes would stay normally in a “stand-by”

shift. Such a phase shift can be obtained from a single sinu- or ”sleep” mode and perform an impedance measurement

soid by applying it to a passive network that would introduce during a few (or a fraction of) seconds once every few hours.

the extra 90 phase shift [5]. However, this can be done for a For a VLSI continuous-time quadrature sinewave oscillator

fixed frequency only. In our case, we would like to sweep the in the 50–100-MHz frequency range, the ideal circuit de-

sign technique is operational transconductance amplifiers

(OTA)-C [7]–[9]. OTAs provide good frequency response

Manuscript received February 20, 2003; revised November 13, 2003. This above 100 MHz at reasonable power consumptions, and do not

paper was recommended by Associate Editor A. Baschirotto. require the use of resistors for assembling oscillators [13], [14].

The authors are with the Instituto de Microelectrónica de Sevilla, 41012

Seville, Spain (e-mail: bernabe@imse.cnm.es). The time constants of OTA-C oscillators and filters depend

Digital Object Identifier 10.1109/TCSI.2004.823673 on the ratio between a transconductance gains and capacitances.

1057-7122/04$20.00 © 2004 IEEE

650 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON CIRCUITS AND SYSTEMS—I: REGULAR PAPERS, VOL. 51, NO. 4, APRIL 2004

us call this impedance

(2)

that of on , except for a change in sign

(3)

Consequently

(4)

Such a ratio suffers from important temperature and process parasitics or nonidealities, as long as everything is symmetric.

variations for VLSI implementations (up to 20%–30%, for stan- The solutions for (4) are either or

dard CMOS processes). Consequently, if precise time constants

are required, it becomes necessary to resort to locking-to-refer- (5)

ence signals for oscillators [13] or to add frequency tuning loops

for filters [8]–[13]. In the past decades, important contributions Therefore, the arrangement of Fig. 2(a) will guarantee a 90

to tuning of OTA-C circuits have been made, and a variety of phase shift between voltages and , and also between cur-

solutions are readily available in the literature [8]–[12]. In this rents and .

paper, we will just describe how to implement a current-con- Using the OTA model of (1) in the oscillator structure of

trolled quadrature oscillator but without including any time-con- Fig. 2(a) yields the following frequency-domain characteristics

stant tuning technique. equation for the oscillator

The paper is organized as follows. Section II describes the

quadrature oscillator structure capable of producing precise

90 shifted signals over a wide frequency range. In Section III,

an efficient and fast amplitude tuning loop is shown that can

control the amplitude of oscillations to very small amplitudes.

Section IV analyzes the conditions under which the amplitude (6)

control is stable. Section V describes the circuit blocks and

Section VI shows experimental results. where

(7)

The objective is to obtain a sinusoidal oscillator with two

phases at 90 difference, tunable in the range 50–100 MHz, and When the oscillator produces stable amplitudes, then, ,

capable of producing small amplitudes to minimize distortion. which implies that

The chosen circuit design technique is OTA-C [7]–[13] and a

proper oscillator structure is shown in Fig. 2(a). The output cur-

rent of an OTA [see Fig. 2(b)] can be expressed in the fre-

quency domain as [13], [14] (8)

tomatic-gain-control (AGC) scheme that tunes the bias current

(1)

of OTA3 and OTA4 to set continuously and main-

tain constant amplitude oscillations. The AGC loop will make

where is its dc transconductance gain and a high-fre- transconductance be a function of the oscillator amplitude,

quency zero that models phase shift effects. Both parameters through

and will depend on the OTA bias current . Note that

for the structure in Fig. 2(a) the OTA1 and OTA2 output currents (9)

LINARES-BARRANCO et al.: PRECISE 90 QUADRATURE OTA-C OSCILLATOR 651

through . Assuming this function is instantaneous,1 it

must satisfy the following conditions to yield a stable amplitude

AGC loop [15].

1) There is an amplitude for which . This will

be the steady-state oscillation amplitude.

2) For , it must be , so that the poles of (6)

have positive real part and the oscillator self-starts.

3) Function must be a monotonic increasing function

in the range from to , the maximum

possible expected amplitude.

4) At the derivative of with respect to should

be strictly positive

(10)

Term depends on through , which is controlled by .

Assuming that is linear with , with a positive proportion-

ality constant, and the OTAs made with conventional differen-

tial pairs with being their tail current ( is proportional

to ); then, is monotonically increasing with . Under

these circumstances, the condition in (10) can also be stated as

(11)

ally given in (8). Using (6) in (11) results in the condition

(12)

obtain a stable amplitude AGC loop for the oscillator structure

in Fig. 2(a).

Fig. 3. Conventional differential pair. (a) Schematics. (b) Simulated output

III. OSCILLATOR AMPLITUDE CONTROL LOOP current. (c) Derivative or large-signal transconductance.

When one uses the differential pair tail bias current to tune

the OTA transconductance (and consequently, the oscillator fre- saturates to . The linear range of the OTA can be consid-

quency), it turns out that the available linear range of the OTA ered to be a fraction of this voltage. In our case, we decided to set

input-to-output transfer curve is highly dependent on that cur- the amplitude in the current domain by adjusting the OTA output

rent (if it is biased in strong inversion). Using the MOS square current amplitude to be 1/5 of bias current . Consequently,

law transistor model [16] for transistors and in Fig. 3(a), the voltage linear range can be obtained by setting

yields in (13) and solving for with

(13) (14)

where and . For This way, when the oscillating waveforms stabilize, the OTA

, the output current saturates at . Conse- experiences current excursions in the same fraction of the

quently, the range is dependent on the tail bias cur- curves in Fig. 3(b), independently of the actual value,

rent, which also controls . Fig. 3(b) shows versus for thus assuring always the same nonlinearity contribution.

different values of , while Fig. 3(c) shows the corresponding This will keep, in principle, the distortion at the same value,

derivatives, i.e., . These figures have been obtained by simu- independently of frequency.

lations with the AMS 0.8- m CMOS models for an NMOS dif- Equation (14) refers to the linear range of OTA1 and OTA2

ferential pair of size 20 m, 0.8 m, while sweeping in Fig. 2(a). For OTA3 and OTA4, we need to substitute the

the tail bias current from 5 A to 40 A. In Fig. 3(b), the slope of oscillations peak voltage in (14) into the I/V transfer curve of

versus becomes zero at . At this point, OTA3 and OTA4

1As we will see in Section III, this function is not instantaneous and further

stability conditions need to be addressed.

(15)

652 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON CIRCUITS AND SYSTEMS—I: REGULAR PAPERS, VOL. 51, NO. 4, APRIL 2004

to obtain the peak output current for these OTAs. Using (8) with control loop.

(14) and (15), yields

IV. STABILITY OF AMPLITUDE CONTROL LOOP

Consider the time-domain version of (6)

(16)

(17)

which is also a constant number, independent of frequency and where can be any of the four current phases in Fig. 5.

transconductances. The extra freedom degree of allows to set Note that (17) can be used to describe any generic second order

this fraction to a sufficiently low value (like 1/5) so that OTA3 continuous-time oscillator. If is constant, the solution

and OTA4 also stay always within the same fraction of nonlin- to (17) is

earity, introducing a constant distortion like OTA1 and OTA2.

(18)

In summary, the oscillator amplitude control loop needs to do

the following: with and

a) extract the peak output currents of OTA1 and OTA2; (19)

b) maintain it equal to 1/5 of bias current which sets the

The amplitude increases or decreases exponentially (depending

oscillation frequency.

on the sign of ), except if in which case it remains

In order to achieve these goals, we provided OTA1 and OTA2 stable at its initial value. On the other hand, if is controlled

with two extra output currents: a copy of its original output by some means such that changes at a much slower rate than

current and an inverted copy. This way, we will have four cur- and such that it suffers very small variations around ,

rents of the same frequency and amplitude but with phases 0 , then, we may assume that the oscillator amplitude is kept

90 , 180 , and 270 . These four phases’ current signals can around a constant value , and that the oscillating frequency

then be fed to a four-input current-mode MAX circuit to ex- can be considered constant for practical purposes. Under these

tract the instantaneous envelope of the oscillating signal, as il- conditions, substituting (18) into (17) yields the following coef-

lustrated in Fig. 4. The output of the MAX circuit can then ficients for the cosine and sine terms, which must be identically

be compared against a reference current to gen- zero:

erate an error signal that controls until oscillations stabilize

at amplitude . The oscillator with this amplitude con-

trol scheme is depicted in Fig. 5. The difference between the

MAX circuit output and is integrated onto capacitor (20)

, whose voltage controls the gate of transistors and From the second it follows that

. The drain current of these transistors contributes to OTA3

and OTA4 bias current . Also, a fraction of the MAX circuit (21)

output contributes to control current . This

introduces a zero in the integration operation of for stability Let us choose such that . When the amplitude

purposes [13], [17], [18], which is explained in more detail in is close to (either for a stable or unstable AGC loop),

the Section IV. then, is very close to zero, as well as the integral in (21).

LINARES-BARRANCO et al.: PRECISE 90 QUADRATURE OTA-C OSCILLATOR 653

its first-order Taylor series expansion

(22)

quency domain will be

Fig. 6. Conventional peak detector circuit. (a) Schematics. (b) Input and output

(23) waveforms.

are positive for worst case , , and . In summary,

write in the domain (i.e., with a linear system description) the

the stability conditions are

inherently complicated and nonlinear relationship between

and amplitude of in (17). To our knowledge, this result

was already known at least in 1974 by Vannerson and Smith

[19], although derived in a more rudimentary way and with more (29)

restrictive assumptions.

The output of the MAX circuit has a continuos component The top inequality is amplitude independent, while the bottom

and a ripple component (see Fig. 4). Let us assume the ripple one needs to be adjusted for maximum oscillator amplitude .

component is filtered out by the AGC circuitry. Then, in general, Note that depending on the circuit chosen for the envelope de-

the continuos component can be separated into the steady-state tector (or MAX circuit), and may be also functions of .

dc part and a small-signal time varying part . This Making yields an unstable control loop. Therefore, the

small-signal part ( in the -domain) will be a delayed “zero” in integrator is required for stability. In the case of

and attenuated version of the instantaneous oscillator amplitude the circuit in Fig. 5 this “zero” is introduced by adding a scaled

( in the domain) version of to .

Section V.D includes simulations illustrating the AGC perfor-

(24)

mance, including estimations of the different parameters. Also,

where is the attenuation and time constant Appendix A develops on further considerations that provide

characterizes the delay. hints on how to optimize the different AGC loop parameters for

The input signal of an amplitude control loop is the one that optimum transient responses. The principles in this Section have

sets the amplitude externally. In our case, this signal is . Con- also been applied to the gigahertz range RF oscillators [17].

sequently, at capacitor we can write

V. DESCRIPTION OF CIRCUIT BLOCKS

(25)

A. Four-Phase MAX Circuit Envelope Detector

If transistors and are described by their small-signal

transconductance , then An ideal envelope detector circuit should provide the enve-

lope of an oscillating signal with zero delay and zero error in am-

(26) plitude value: if the oscillating signal is

The dependence of term in (23) with can be obtained the envelope detector output should be . Traditional

from (6), where is expressed in terms of , the transconduc- peak detectors compare the instantaneous signal amplitude

tance of OTA3 and OTA4 controlled by . Transconductance against a peak value stored on a capacitor (see Fig. 6). If the

is proportional to the square root of (for a conventional amplitude exceeds the stored value, extra charge is added to the

differential pair based OTA biased in strong inversion satura- capacitor until ts voltage equals the present instantaneous

tion). For small signals, will be proportional to , amplitude . This will allow the peak detector to follow a

and so will be sudden increase in amplitude. In order for the circuit to be able

to follow a decrease in amplitude, the capacitor is permanently

(27) discharged at a slower rate. The lower this rate, the less the

ripple available at the output, but the slower its response to a de-

Equations (23)–(27) describe completely in the domain crease in amplitude. Also, if the signal frequency changes, ripple

(small signal) the amplitude control loop of the circuit in Fig. 5. changes as well as time response to an amplitude decrease, un-

Solving these equations yields less is changed accordingly with signal frequency. Also,

note that in the optimum case, the minimum delay is equal to

one signal period because until the next peak arrives the circuit

is not aware of a change in peak value.

An interesting envelope detector alternative for multi phase

oscillators are those that select the maximum of all available

(28)

phases [19]. These circuits respond within a fraction of the pe-

where . Stability is guaranteed for and riod and detect equally fast an increase or decrease in ampli-

. Parameters and have to be chosen so that and tude, and independently of the size of the amplitude step or

654 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON CIRCUITS AND SYSTEMS—I: REGULAR PAPERS, VOL. 51, NO. 4, APRIL 2004

sequently, this max branch transistor will drive current .

For the other branches, since their transistor source voltage

is lower, it will be injecting a higher current thus maintaining

the node voltage sufficiently high to avoid set-on delays. The

circuit was designed for .

In order to minimize power consumption of the complete os-

cillator, the MAX circuit bias current was made to depend

linearly with the current that controls the oscillator frequency.

More precisely, if is the current controlling the differential

pairs of OTA1 and OTA2 in Fig. 2 then, in Fig. 7 was set

to . This way, for lower oscillating frequencies the

MAX circuit is biased with less current since lower speed is re-

quired. On the other hand, for precise operation of the MAX

circuit it is desirable to keep the four phases input signal ampli-

tudes sufficiently high. For this purpose, the two extra outputs

of OTA1 and OTA2 have a gain of 10 with respect to the original

one, as we will see in the next Subsection. Consequently, if the

oscillator amplitude control loop will set the amplitude to

Fig. 7. (a) MAX circuit schematics. (b) Detail of regulator circuit.

then the four inputs to the MAX circuit will have peak ampli-

tudes of value 2 . Therefore, in practice in Fig. 5 needs

signal frequency. Since our oscillator can provide four phases, to be set to .

we can use a four-input MAX circuit. The MAX circuit used is Since the oscillation frequency is also a function of , it re-

shown in Fig. 7. It is based on the classic Lazzaro [20] winner- sults that both amplitude and frequency of the four phase inputs

takes-all circuit. Assume NMOS transistors - are OFF. to the MAX circuit are determined by (once the oscillator

The four-input currents - make transistors - com- amplitude control loop has stabilized). To illustrate the proper

pete for bias current . The maximum current will make the operation of the MAX circuit we use the relationship between

gate-to-source voltage of its input branch transistor adjust and signal frequency obtained experimentally in Section VI

to drive all (or most) of . The corresponding feedback tran- and simulated the resulting average and ripple values for the

sistor will drive this maximum current and be biased output of the MAX circuit, while sweeping . For an ideal

in saturation. Since the gate of transistors - is common four-phase MAX circuit, as shown in Fig. 4, the dc component

and biased for the maximum current, this implies that for the of the output signal can be shown to be 90% of the input peak

nonmaximum branches transistors will be biased amplitude, while the ripple amplitude is 29%. Fig. 8 shows the

in ohmic region, thus producing a small drain-to-source voltage, simulated values for the average [Fig. 8(a)] and ripple [Fig. 8(b)]

which turns OFF the corresponding input transistors . Since values in percentage as a function of . Both stay reasonably

the gate of - is set for the maximum input current, this close to the theoretical ideal values. Fig. 9 shows the simulated

current is copied by transistors - . input and output current waveforms for four different values

The MAX circuit composed of - , - , and of (and frequency): 1) 7.0 A, 50 MHz; 2)

[20] works fine, except that it is slow. Note that the input cur- 16.0 A, 80 MHz; 3) 26.0 A, 105 MHz;

rents can be positive and negative. This will cause large 4) 37.0 A, 130 MHz.

voltage excursions at the input nodes when the current changes

from negative to maximum and back again, which will cause un- B. Frequency Controlling OTAs

desirable delays and limit the maximum possible frequency of

the input sinusoids. To avoid this, NMOS transistors - In the oscillator of Fig. 2(a), the frequency is set by the

have been introduced. These transistors should provide a very transconductance of OTA1 and OTA2, as given in (8).

small negligible current when the corresponding input branch These OTAs need to provide a sufficiently high transcon-

is driving the maximum, and provide a sufficiently high current ductance to produce the desired frequencies between 50 and

for the other branches to avoid large voltage excursions. This is 130 MHz, and at the same time, provide two extra current

achieved by biasing the gate of the NMOS transistors - outputs of the opposite sign with ten times more current

with the regulator circuit in Fig. 7(b). This circuit replicates one gain. The schematics of these OTAs are shown in Fig. 10.

of the MAX circuit input branches ( and ), biased with The circuit is based on a conventional differential pair OTA

a copy of current and using an input current which is a copy with cascode current mirrors [16]. The two extra outputs with

of the maximum . Consequently, the voltages at the gates of current gain 10 are implemented by the cascade of current

and copy those of the branch with maximum input. A mirrors shown in Fig. 10(b). All PMOS transistors are of

small fraction of the bias current is used to drive transistors size m m and all NMOS transistors of size

and , while making their gate and source voltages m m. This approach introduces a little extra

equal. The gate voltage is used to bias the gate of transistor load at nodes , , and in Fig. 10(a), thus deteriorating

- in Fig. 7(a). The source voltage of and very slightly the frequency response of OTA1 and OTA2 (at

LINARES-BARRANCO et al.: PRECISE 90 QUADRATURE OTA-C OSCILLATOR 655

Fig. 8. Simulated performance of MAX circuit. (a) DC level of output in percent. (b) Ripple amplitude in percent.

Fig. 9. Simulated input-output waveforms for the four-phase MAX circuit at different operating frequencies. (a) 50 MHz. (b) 80 MHz. (c) 105 MHz. (d) 130 MHz.

output ), while providing two high current gain outputs with output. On the other hand, a mismatch in the delays of the

tolerable extra delay. Note that the delay introduced by the four amplifying outputs of OTA1 and OTA2 will cause the

cascade of mirrors in Fig. 10(b) does not affect the achievable four phases in Fig. 4 to not be exactly at 90 phase difference.

oscillating frequency, because this frequency is limited by This will produce a higher ripple at the output of the MAX

the frequency response of the OTAs at their nonamplifying circuit, which is not very critical for the proper operation of

656 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON CIRCUITS AND SYSTEMS—I: REGULAR PAPERS, VOL. 51, NO. 4, APRIL 2004

, where the dependence has

been obtained experimentally, as shown in Section VI. As can

be seen, for this trajectory, the value of stays fairly constant

between 100 fF and 150 fF.

The amplitude control of oscillations is achieved by adjusting

dynamically the transconductance of OTA3 and OTA4, as ex-

plained in Sections III and IV, and depicted in Fig. 5. For OTA3

and OTA4, the same OTA structure shown in Fig. 10(a) was used

but without the extra current gain circuits.

Fig. 13 shows simulation results for the designed amplitude

controlling OTA. The relationship between dc transconductance

and bias current is shown in Fig. 13(a) (for all eight cor-

ners), while the dependence of the effective capacitance with

operating frequency and bias current is shown in Fig. 13(b).

This surface has been computed from the simulated phase re-

sponse of the OTA in the same way than explained previously

Fig. 10. (a) Circuit schematics for frequency controlling OTAs, (b) details of for the frequency controlling OTA. During operation of the os-

current amplifier circuit. cillator, there will be a trajectory in this surface as well, crossing

it from the minimum to the maximum frequency. As can be seen,

the value of will not change much (in the worst case, it would

change from 150 to 200 fF).

Note that for both effective capacitances and , their

values do not change much (considering that frequency changes

almost a factor of 3, a factor of 3, and almost a factor of 7).

Consequently, for design purposes, one may assume that both

and stay approximately constant, and use their values in

(8) to predict frequency and transconductance ranges.

Fig. 11. Circuit used for providing NMOS cascode bias voltages.

Extensive simulations were performed to validate the proper

operation of the oscillator, specially the proposed amplitude

the oscillator (remember we are assuming the ripple will be control loop. In Section IV stability conditions were derived that

filtered out). resulted in mathematical relationships between parameters ,

The cascode bias voltage is obtained through the use of , , , and . Parameter , which is

the circuit shown in Fig. 11 [21]. This circuit provides an appro- the ratio between the main envelope detector output and the two

priate cascode bias voltage whether transistors operate in strong, secondary outputs (see Fig. 5), is set to 1/5. Time constant

moderate or weak inversion. Its operation is based on the ex- is the time delay associated to the envelope detector. This delay

ploitation of the properties of transistor channel voltage at a rel- can be characterized by simulating the envelope detector with an

ative distance from its source terminal, and a MOS transistor amplitude step in the four phases current inputs and observing

formulation valid in all modes of operation [22], [23]. The cas- the delay time constant at the output. This simulation needs to

code voltage for the PMOS transistors is obtained with a be performed sweeping the possible input frequency range, the

symmetrical version of the circuit shown in Fig. 11. input current amplitudes, and the corresponding bias current .

Simulation results for this OTA structure are shown in Fig. 12. It was observed that the resulting time constant was always

Fig. 12(a) shows the obtained relationship between dc transcon- less than 5 ns. Regarding time constant , the

ductance and bias current , for all eight corner analysis integrating capacitance (see Fig. 5) was set to 5 pF, and

simulation. The central thicker line corresponds to the “typical” the transconductance of transistors and remained less

corner. Fig. 12(b) shows the simulated values for the effective than 100 over the whole operating range. Consequently,

capacitance (see (7)). The the minimum value for time constant was 50 ns. In what con-

surface is computed from the simulated phase re- cerns the dc gain of the envelope detector , from Fig. 8(a) we

sponse of the transconductance for different can see that it can change between 0.90 and 1.0. The most com-

bias levels . According to the transconductance model given plicated parameter to estimate is . From (23) and (27)

in (1), and should be related by the following equation we know that

(30) (31)

LINARES-BARRANCO et al.: PRECISE 90 QUADRATURE OTA-C OSCILLATOR 657

Fig. 12. Simulations for frequency controlling OTAs. (a) transconductance g versus bias current I , (b) effective capacitance C versus bias current I and

operating frequency.

Fig. 13. Simulations for amplitude controlling OTAs. (a) transconductance g versus bias current I , (b) effective capacitance C versus bias current I and

operating frequency.

which defines the oscillator AC current amplitude as the Using the worst case limits of all these parameters in the sta-

integral of the AC control current component , with in- bility conditions of (29), results in

tegration time constant . The gain in (31) can be es-

timated by injecting a sinusoidal component in parallel with worst case

in Fig. 5 and observing the modulated current amplitude at

the output of OTAs . This is illustrated Fig. 14 where the worst case

MHz

oscillator is operating at 65 MHz with A plus an

(32)

added AC signal of 1 A peak-to-peak amplitude and 1 MHz

frequency (see lower trace in Fig. 14). As a result of this added Figs. 15–17 illustrate the transient behavior of the AGC loop

AC component, the output current amplitude is modulated as through some simulations. In Fig. 15 a step in current (see

shown in upper trace of Fig. 14. Note the phase shift be- Fig. 5) was introduced to force the AGC loop to adjust to a

tween both signals, which is the result of one being the integral new oscillating amplitude. The upper trace (a) is the oscillator

of the other as indicated in (31). In this particular case, the am- voltage at one of the capacitors , the middle trace (b) shows

plitude ratio between both AC signals in Fig. 14 is the evolution of the voltage at capacitor , and the lower trace

A , which according to (31) yields (c) shows the step in reference current . Fig. 16 shows a

MHz MHz. Repeating similar simula- simulation for which the value of parameter was set to a very

tions or the whole frequency range provides a variation interval small value (1/50). As a result, the AGC loop turned out to be

for from 28 MHz to 150 MHz. unstable. The figure shows the oscillator voltage amplitude at

658 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON CIRCUITS AND SYSTEMS—I: REGULAR PAPERS, VOL. 51, NO. 4, APRIL 2004

Fig. 16. Illustration of unstable AGC behavior when gain factor m is set to a

Fig. 14. Simulated relationship between I (s) (upper trace) and I (s) (lower very small value (m = 1=50).

trace).

Fig. 15. Oscillator response to a step in the amplitude control signal I . Fig. 17. Oscillator response to a step in the frequency control signal I . (a)

(a) Oscillator voltage output, (b) voltage at node V , (c) amplitude reference voltage at node V , (b) oscillator voltage output, (c) current I .

current I .

one of the capacitors . Fig. 17 shows a simulation where a

step in the frequency controlling current was introduced. The A complete oscillator prototype was fabricated in the AMS

upper trace (a) shows the evolution of voltage (see Fig. 5), 0.8- m CMOS process. The oscillator used an active area of

the middle trace (b) shows the oscillator output voltage at one 0.20 mm . Most of it (0.15 mm ) was used by the cascade of

of the capacitors, and the lower trace shows a scaled replica current mirrors within the frequency controlling OTAs. Fig. 18

(1/5) of control current . shows a microphotograph of the oscillator, indicating the main

LINARES-BARRANCO et al.: PRECISE 90 QUADRATURE OTA-C OSCILLATOR 659

quadrature oscillator, as a function of oscillation frequency.

current I .

building blocks. For OTA1 and OTA2 the dashed line separates

the current amplifying cascade of mirrors (larger area) from the

rest of the OTA (smaller area). Fig. 21. Measured phase noise as a function of frequency, expressed as the

The frequency was tunable between 48 MHz to 132 MHz, standard deviation of the zero crossings in degrees.

through the OTA1 and OTA2 transconductance bias current .

The dependence between the measured oscillation frequency transconductance of the OTAs. For the transistor sizes used in

and bias current is shown in Fig. 19. the design, the standard deviation of the transconductances was

The oscillations at nodes and (see Fig. 2) were moni- around 9%. Using this value in (43) and (46) of Appendix B

tored by two voltage buffers and driven off-chip to verify their (and neglecting capacitances mismatch, which was below 1%)

phase shift as a function of frequency. Fig. 20 shows the mea- results in phase error with standard deviation

sured phase difference between both signals, in degrees, versus ( rad).2 .

the frequency of oscillation. The oscillator operates at small amplitudes (less than

The cause of quadrature phase error is mismatch between 100 mV). For such amplitudes, phase noise contribution cannot

transconductances and capacitances. Note that perfect sym- be neglected. In order to estimate the phase noise, the voltage

metry in the oscillator yields perfect quadrature phase shift. waveforms were recorded for several hundreds of cycles

Consequently, any source of asymmetry will increase phase at 0.2-ns sampling rate. The zero crossings were computed

error between the two quadrature components. We had avail- by performing linear interpolations on the two consecutive

able a very reduced number of samples, all of which produced samples before and after a transition from negative to positive

similar results. However, in order to have a statistical estimate (or from positive to negative). The phase noise is obtained

of the phase error, we performed Monte Carlo simulations by computing the standard deviation on these zero crossings,

based on mismatch parameters provided by the manufacturer. expressed in degrees. The result is shown in Fig. 21, as a

Those simulations yielded phase errors of standard deviation function of oscillation frequency.

around 2 . Appendix B includes a mathematical analysis

that estimates phase error based on component mismatch. 2In our simulations, we observed that if mismatch is relatively high the AGC

Monte Carlo simulations of the different oscillator components could loose track and amplitude would be controlled by elements nonlinearities

reveals that the main source of phase error is the mismatch in [18], resulting in larger amplitudes and much higher distortions.

660 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON CIRCUITS AND SYSTEMS—I: REGULAR PAPERS, VOL. 51, NO. 4, APRIL 2004

An OTA-C topology for implementing a quadrature oscillator

in the range 50–130 MHz has been presented. The topology ex- (38)

ploits symmetry to produce the two phases at 90 phase shift.

The circuit also produces four extra current signals at phases 0 , which will make the final pole real part equal to

90 , 180 , 270 , which are used in a high-speed current-mode . Here, we also have assumed

MAX circuit to extract a quasi-instantaneous envelope of the os- the worst case . For critically damped

cillations, in the current domain. This envelope is used in a prop- transient response one can further adjust the factor of the

erly stabilized amplitude control loop to set the oscillating am- poles , which means

plitude at 1/5 of the current excursion range of the main OTAs, that . If this is adjusted

to minimize distortion. The influence of transconductance phase for , then . This,

shift of the OTAs is considered and properly modeled and esti- together with (36), yields

mated in the design. A complete oscillator prototype has been

fabricated and tested in the AMS 0.8- m CMOS process.

Phase noise has also been characterized. Appendix C ana- (39)

lyzes the impact of quadrature phase error on the performance of

the impedance probe mentioned in the introduction. Ironically, The designer will usually try to make as small as possible

for such specific application, the system is not sensitive to phase (fast envelope detection). The values for and are

error nor phase noise. usually given. Since the designer has more control on parame-

The fabricated prototype does not include a frequency tuning ters and , these two can be made to satisfy the constraint

loop for making its frequency independent of temperature and in (39) for optimum critically damped transient response, while

process variations. Such tuning loops have been developed in maintaining the conditions in (29), (34), (36) and (38).

the past for voltage controlled oscillators [13] and can be di- Also, keep in mind that all this analysis is based on a set of

rectly included in the present prototype. assumptions and approximations (for example, modeling delays

with zeros) which renders the resulting expressions and condi-

APPENDIX A tions as approximate. They will not be satisfied exactly. How-

For the amplitude control loop described in Sections III and ever, they turn out to be very helpful during the design process

IV, the speed of the amplitude control loop can be optimized by guiding the choice of parameters.

adjusting the poles of (28)

APPENDIX B

(33) For mismatch analysis, let us use parameters , , ,

, and ( , 2), instead of without

where we assume subscript as used in Section II. Then, the mismatch parameters

under consideration will be ,

(34)

, , , and

. The relationship between voltages and

To maximize speed, we need to make the real part of as large

will be now

as possible

(35) (40)

For example, we can make the denominator zero (or ) for instead of (5) in Section II. Using (8) in (40) and assuming rel-

the maximum required amplitude . This would yield3 [See atively small mismatch results in

(29)]

(36) (41)

where

(37)

3Of course, this is an upper bound that should never be reached because other-

wise s in (33) may end up with a positive real part, and consequently producing

an unstable system. To play safe, just consider i to be larger than the max- (42)

imum possible value.

LINARES-BARRANCO et al.: PRECISE 90 QUADRATURE OTA-C OSCILLATOR 661

The first coefficient is always less or equal than 0.5. Conse- The closed control loop in Fig. 1 will make both low-pass fil-

quently, the standard deviation of will be such that tered error signals equal to zero, thus solving

(50)

(51)

(44)

whose solution is and . Consequently, if the

signal-processing block and control loop are stable, then in the

and the phase between and at the steady

steady state both voltages and will be identical, in-

state will be

dependently of the specific value of , as long as it is nonzero.

Therefore, for the specific system in Fig. 1 it is not necessary to

(45)

have a quadrature oscillator with very little phase error.

Regarding the influence of noise, note that the system oper-

or equivalently, for small and ates using the dc components of the error signals. Since noise

is not folded into the dc level of the error signals, the system is

(46) also insensitive to noise in the oscillator.

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ed. New York: Oxford Univ. Press, 2002. Spain, after completing all her research at Seville

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back loop for VCO stable amplitude tuning of RF integrated filters,” in National Microelectronics Center (CNM), Spanish

Proc. 2002 IEEE Int. Symp. Circuits and Systems (ISCAS’02), vol. 1, Research Council (CSIC), Seville, Spain, in 1992

May 2002, pp. 521–524. and 1996, respectively, and the M.S. degree in

[18] B. Linares-Barranco and A. Rodríguez-Vázquez, “Harmonic oscilla- electrical and computer engineering from the Johns

Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD, (where she was

tors,” in Encyclopedia of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, J. G.

sponsored by a Fulbright Fellowship), in 1997.

Webster, Ed. New York: Wiley, 1999, vol. 8, pp. 632–642.

She was on a sabbatical stay in the Electrical Engineering Department,Texas

[19] E. Vannerson and K. C. Smith, “Fast amplitude stabilization of an RC

A&M University, College Station, during Spring 2002. She was an Assistant

oscillator,” IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits, vol. SC-9, pp. 176–179, Aug. Professor at the University of Seville from 1998 until 2000. Since June 2000,

1974. she is a Tenured Scientist at IMSE. Her research interests include analog cir-

[20] J. Lazzaro, R. Ryckebush, M. A. Mahowald, and C. A. Mead, “Winner- cuit design of linear and nonlinear circuits, VLSI neural-based pattern-recogni-

take-all networks of O(N) complexity,” Adv. Neur. Inf. Processing Syst., tion systems, VLSI implementations of neural computing and sensory systems,

vol. 1, pp. 703–711, 1989. transistor parameters mismatch characterization, address-event-representation

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Lett., vol. 31, no. 9, pp. 690–691, 1995. 1998).

[22] C. C. Enz, F. Krummernacher, and E. A. Vittoz, “An analytical MOS Dr. Serrano-Gotarredona was corecipient of the 1997 IEEE TRANSACTIONS

transistor model valid in all regions of operation and dedicated to low- ON VERY LARGE-SCALE INTEGRATION SYSTEMS Best Paper Award for the paper,

voltage and low-current applications,” Anal. Integr. Circuits Signal Pro- “A Real-Time Clustering Microchip Neural Engine,” and of the IEEE CAS Dar-

cessing J., vol. 8, pp. 83–114, 1995. lington Award for the paper “A General Translinear Principle for Subthreshold

[23] C. Galup-Montoro, M. C. Schneider, and A. I. A. Cunha, “A MOS Transistors.”

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in Low-Voltage/Low-Power Integrated Circuits and Systems, E.

Sánchez-Sinencio and A. G. Andreou, Eds. New York: IEEE Press,

1998, ch. 2.

degree in physics and the M.Sc. degree in electronics

engineering from the University of Seville, Seville,

Spain, and the Philips Institute of Technological

Studies, Eindhoven, The Netherlands, in 1973 and

1976, respectively.

After working with two electronic companies

Bernabé Linares-Barranco received the B.S. start-ups (one in Spain, and the other in Switzer-

degree in electronic physics, the M.S. degree in land), he joined Compañía Sevillana de Electricidad,

microelectronics, and the Ph.D. degree in high-fre- first as Operations and Maintenance Director of

quency operational transconductance amplifiers the Small Solar Power System, an experimental

oscillator design from the University of Seville, solar power station, Tabernas, Spain, and later at the company’s engineering

Seville, Spain, in 1986, 1987, and 1990, respectively, department, Seville, Spain, participating in the deployment of a new Energy

and the Ph.D degree in analog neural network design Management System and in Control and Telemetry applications. In 1991, he

from Texas AM University, College Station, in 1991. joined the Seville Microelectronics Institute (IMSE), an institute of the National

From 1991 to 2003, he was a Tenured Scientist Microelectronics Center (CNM), Spanish Research Council (CSIC), Seville,

at the Seville Microelectronics Institute (IMSE), an Spain, as the Manager of industrial relations while also performing research

institute of the National Microelectronics Center work on microsensors interfacing. He has participated in several European

(CNM), Spanish Research Council (CSIC), Seville, Spain, where, in 2003, projects in that field. He has also been executive manager for the dissemination

he was promoted to Tenured Researcher, and in 2004, to Full Professor. activities of the mixed- signal design cluster of the European Commission. His

From September 1996 to August 1997, he was a Postdoctoral Fellow on current interests are in mixed-signal analog integrated circuits for industrial

sabbatical in the Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Johns applications and interface circuits for inertial capacitive microsensors.

Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD. During Spring 2002, he was a Visiting

Associate Professor in the Electrical Engineering Department, Texas A&M

University, College Station. He has been involved with circuit design for

telecommunication circuits, very large-scale integration (VLSI) emulators of

biological neurons, VLSI neural-based pattern-recognition systems, hearing

aids, precision circuit design for instrumentation equipment, bio-inspired

VLSI vision processing systems, transistor parameters mismatch character-

ization, address-event-representation VLSI, RF circuit design, and real-time

vision-processing chips. He is coauthor of the book Adaptive Resonance Joaquín Ceballos-Cáceres received the B.S. degree

Theory Microchips (Norwell, MA: Kluwer, 1998). in electronic physics and the M.S. degree in micro-

Dr. Linares-Barranco was corecipient of the 1997 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON electronics, from the University of Seville, Seville,

VERY LARGE-SCALE INTEGRATION SYSTEMS Best Paper Award for the paper, Spain, in 1993 and 1999, respectively.

“A Real-Time Clustering Microchip Neural Engine,” and of the 2000 IEEE Since April 1996, he is a Member of the Technical

CAS Darlington Award for the paper “A General Translinear Principle for Staff at the Seville Microelectronics Institute

Subthreshold MOS Transistors.” He organized the 1994 Nips Post-Conference (IMSE), an institute of the National Microelectronics

Workshop “Neural Hardware Engineering.” From July 1997 until July Center (CNM), Spanish Research Council (CSIC),

1999, he was an Associate Editor of the IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON CIRCUITS Seville, Spain, where he is currently an Assistant

AND SYSTEMS—II: ANALOG AND DIGITAL SIGNAL PROCESSING, and since Manager of the Research and Development section.

January 1998, is an Associate Editor of the IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON NEURAL His main areas of interest include the design and

NETWORKS and was its Chief Guest Editor for the Special Issue on Neural testing of analog and mixed integrated circuits. He has been in the design teams

Hardware Implementations. of different research projects dealing with integrated circuits and systems.

LINARES-BARRANCO et al.: PRECISE 90 QUADRATURE OTA-C OSCILLATOR 663

José Miguel Mora received the BSc. degree and Alejandro Linares-Barranco received the B.S.

the M.Sc. degree in telecommunication engineering, degree in computer engineering, the M.S. degree in

specializing in microelectronics, from the Technical industrial computer science, and the Ph.D. degree

University of Madrid, Madrid, Spain, in 1990 and in computer science (specializing in computer inter-

1992, respectively. faces for bioinspired systems) from the University

Since April 1992, he is a Member of the Technical of Seville, Seville, Spain, in 1998, 2002, and 2003,

Staff at the Seville Microelectronics Institute (IMSE), respectively.

an institute of the National Microelectronics Center From January 1998 to June 1998, he was Second

(CNM), Spanish Research Council (CSIC), Seville, Lieutenant in the Spanish Airforce working as system

Spain, where he is currently an Assistant Manager administrator and software developer. During 1998,

of the Research and Development section. His main he also worked at the Colors Digital Communications

areas of interest include the design and testing digital and mixed integrated cir- S.L. Company, Seville, Spain. From November 1998 to February 2000, he was a

cuits and field-programmable gate arrays, design of test structures for multichip Member of the Technical Staff at the Seville Microelectronics Institute (IMSE),

modules. He has been in the design teams of different research projects dealing an institute of the National Microelectronics Center (CNM), Spanish Research

with integrated circuits and systems. Council (CSIC), Seville, Spain. From March 2000 to February 2001, he was a

Development Engineer in the Research and Development Department, SAINCO

company, Seville, Spain, working on VHDL-based field programmable gate

array (FPGA) systems for the INSONET European project on power line com-

munications. Since March 2003, he is an Assistant Professor of Computer Ar-

chitecture and Technology at the University of Seville. His research interests

include VLSI and FPGA digital design, vision processing systems, bus emula-

tion, and computer architectures.

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