com
Received 29 November 2007; received in revised form 16 October 2008; accepted 2 March 2009
Available online 5 April 2009
Abstract
The aim of the paper is to present the inﬂuence of the solar radiation variation on the performances of a stand alone photovoltaic
pumping system which consists of photovoltaic generator, dc–dc converter, dc–ac inverter, an immersed group motor-pump and a stor-
age tank that serves a similar purpose to battery storage. Hence a theoretical analysis (modelling and control) of the system is needed.
Attention has been paid to the command of the power converters using MPPT and variable Vf laws. The MPPT control allows the extrac-
tion of the maximal output power delivered by the PV generator. The inverter ensures the PWM control of the asynchronous motor and
a sine wave form of output signals. From the obtained simulation results, we will show that the decrease of the solar radiation degrades
performances (the global eﬃciency and the ﬂow rate) of the PV pumping system. The analysis is validated by simulation and experimen-
tal results.
Ó 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
0038-092X/$ - see front matter Ó 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
doi:10.1016/j.solener.2009.03.006
1336 N. Hamrouni et al. / Solar Energy 83 (2009) 1335–1344
Nomenclature
2
Ipv Lpv Idc xr
Cr ¼ kp 1 :x2s ð10Þ
xs
α Where kp is a constant which depends on pump nominal
Vpv Cpv D Vdc data.
The ﬂow head characteristic of a centrifugal pump is
given by the following expression (Lavoisier, 1986):
Fig. 4. Buck converter. H n ¼ a1 x2 þ a2 xQ þ a3 Q2 ð11Þ
a1, a2 and a3 are geometric parameters characterizing the
pump.
The motor speed is expressed as follow (Saadi and
Moussi, 2002):
xr
x¼ 1 :xs ð12Þ
xs
The pump eﬃciency is deﬁned as the ratio of the hydrau-
lic power imparted by the pump to the ﬂuid to the shaft
mechanical power. It is expressed by the following equa-
tion (Saadi and Moussi, 2002):
QHn
w
gp ¼ 3 ð13Þ
k p 1 xxrs :x3s
Fig. 5. ASM representation.
3. Control
/ ¼ LI ð7Þ
The SIMULINK model diagram of the global system is
L is a matrix which includes parameters of the ASM (Lr, Ls,
given by Fig. 6. It includes all the elementary models previ-
and M) (Hamrouni et al., 2005).
ously developed as well as the Vf and the MPPT control
dX laws.
C Cr ¼ J ð8Þ
dt
3.1. Maximal power point tracking law (MPPT)
2p 4p
C ¼ 3pM ias ibr sin h þ ibs iar sin h
3 3 The coupling of a load at constant power, without using
ðias iar þ ibs ibr Þ sin h ð9Þ battery, does not ensure an optimal operation. Then, it is
essential to envisage an adapter of power to extract the
maximum power from the PV generator. The solar cell
2.5. The pump modules can only provide this maximum at speciﬁc voltage
and current levels. So for the PV array there is a unique
The centrifugal pump torque Cr is assumed to be pro- point on its I–V curve at which the power is at its maxi-
portional to the square of the rotor speed (Saadi and mum value and for optimum utilization, the equilibrium
Moussi, 2002; Jraidi, 2005). operating point of the PV array should coincide with this
N. Hamrouni et al. / Solar Energy 83 (2009) 1335–1344 1339
Ta(t) Vpv
f
1500
Variable Vf control will be best adopted for PV pumping
1000 system (Liaw and Tsong, 1992). The traditional Vf com-
mand will not be constant during the functioning of the
500
system. It varies versus the climatic conditions in order to
0
ensure a maximal PV pumping operation during the day.
0 100 200 300 400 500 600
The Vf ratio can be regulated in a constant or variable
Vpv (V)
way, according to requirements of drive. It varies with
Fig. 7. P–V curve of the PV generator. the climatic conditions. For example, for lower irradiances,
1340 N. Hamrouni et al. / Solar Energy 83 (2009) 1335–1344
w
vas*
before 09 h:00 or after 17 h:00, the inverter frequency is
g*ws
1/s theta lower than 10 Hz. In order to start or to maintain the func-
vbs* tioning of the system the V/f ratio changes instantaneously
V/f = equation 15 Vs (Betka and Moussi, 2003).
vcs*
Then we obtain for a lower irradiance, the couple (volt-
Fig. 9. V/f command diagram of the dc–ac inverter.
age and frequency) permitting the functioning of the sys-
tem. The V/f law is deﬁned as (Jraidi, 2005):
Fig. 10. Power adaptation: (a) Several irradiances (25 °C), (b) several ambient temperatures (1000 W/m2).
a 3 b 4
3.5 5 °C
2.5
15 °C
3 25 °C
Pump flow (m3/h)
Pump flow (m3/h)
35 °C
2
2.5 45 °C
55 °C
65 °C
2 75 °C
1.5
1.5
1
1
0.5
0.5
0 0
0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 4 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
time (s) time (s)
Fig. 11. Pump ﬂow rate variation: (a) several irradiance (25 °C), (b) Several ambient temperatures (1000 W/m2).
3.5
3
V/f (V/Hz)
alpha
2.5
1.5
0 300 600 900 1200
time (s) Solar radiation (W/m²)
Fig. 12. V/f ratio and duty cycle (Alpha) versus the solar radiation.
N. Hamrouni et al. / Solar Energy 83 (2009) 1335–1344 1341
1.5 2
0.5 1
0 0.5
0 500 1000
Solar radiation (W/m²) 0
7 12 17
3 time (h)
2.5 3
Pump flow rate (m3/h)
2
Pump flow rate (m3/h)
1.5 2
0.5 1
0
200 600 1000
0
Solar radiation (W/m²) 7 12 17
time (h)
4.5
5
4
Global efficiency (%)
3.5
4
Global efficiency (%)
2.5 3
2
1.5 2
1
1
0.5
0
0
200 700 1200
7 12 17
Solar radiation (W/m²) time (h)
Fig. 13. Characteristics of the PV pumping system versus the solar Fig. 14. PV system characteristics versus the time for disturbance
radiation. meteorological parameters.
1342 N. Hamrouni et al. / Solar Energy 83 (2009) 1335–1344
Table 2 15 25
Parameters of the Louata PV pumping plant.
ηpv η global Q
Parameter Value
12 20
Photovoltaic power 2.1 kWp
Total height 65 m ηpv, ηglobal (%)
Water demand 2 m3/day 9 15
Q (m3/day)
Global eﬃciency 3%
Necessary PV power 1.7 kW
6 10
Pump ﬂow (1000 W/m2) 2.5 m3/h
Hydraulic power 320 W
Inclination angle 35°210 3 5
Latitude of region 60 m
Date of experiment 1994
0 0
1 4 7 10 13 16 19 22 25 28 31
time (days)
4.2. Inﬂuence of the solar radiation changing
Fig. 17. Experimental results versus days of the PV pumping system of
2 Louata (January 1994).
For an irradiance variation between 100 and 1000 W/m
and a constant ambient temperature (25 °C), we have rep-
resented, respectively, variations versus the solar radiation linearly dependent on the irradiance, except for small val-
of the maximal output PV generator power, the pump ﬂow ues due to the non linear characteristics. The PV generator
and the global eﬃciency of the PV pumping system. power increases as the solar radiation increases, therefore,
Fig. 13 shows the obtained simulation results versus the the pump ﬂow rate. As a result, the global PV system eﬃ-
solar radiation. The power generated by the PV plants is ciency increases and still constant equal to 3%. The global
12 2500
Ppv (W), G(W/m²), HP (W)
10
ηpv (%),ηglobal (%), Q (m3/h)
2000
8
1500
6
1000
4
500
2
0 0
0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22
Global efficiency (%) time(h)
Pump flow (m3/h)
Solar radiation (W/m²)
PV efficiency (%)
PV power (W) Hydraulic Power (W)
Fig. 16. Experimental results versus hours of the PV pumping system of Louata.
N. Hamrouni et al. / Solar Energy 83 (2009) 1335–1344 1343
Q (m3/day)
9 15
the principal characteristics of this plant.
The collected data obtained with a MODAS 1220
6 10
(Deutsche Aerospace AG., 1994), have been analysed and
treated in order to evaluate the performances and the char-
3 5 acteristic parameters of these systems and to interpret pre-
cisely their evolution. We have illustrated by the following
0 0 ﬁgures the typical variations of the Louata PV pumping
1 4 7 10 13 16 19 22 25 28
time (days)
system in order to validate our developed models and com-
mands investigated in previously parts. Then, we interpret
Fig. 18. Experimental results versus days of the PV pumping system of inﬂuences of the irradiance and temperature variations on
Louata (July 1994).
the performances of the real system.
Fig. 16 shows the important characteristics of the exper-
eﬃciency depends of the irradiance, the ambient tempera- imental PV pumping system. The optimum pump ﬂow
ture and the performance of command laws. (2,5 m3/h), the global eﬃciency (3%) and the PV power
For disturbance meteorological parameters (solar radia- (1900 W) are obtained at midday corresponding to
tion and ambient temperature) we recorded the same sim- 1000 W/m2. In the beginning of the day there is no energy
ulation results for a transition of a cloud between 14 h:00 generation by the photovoltaic generator until the solar
and 15 h:00 PM (Fig. 14). radiation reaches about (200 W/m2). During this time the
For disturbance meteorological parameters, due to the dc–dc converter performs an MPPT search. When the irra-
transition of a cloud, the diﬀerent characteristics of the diance decreases at the end of the day a lower dc power is
PV pumping system are decreased. The maximum PV gen- generated at the same irradiance.
erator is decreased to 1000 W, consequently the pump ﬂow Figs. 17 and 18 show some characteristics of the PV
rate is decreased to 1,6 m3/h. The total eﬃciency of the PV pumping system of Louata represented, respectively, in
pumping system oscillates round 3%. January and July (1994). They show the daily quantity of
the pumping water, the PV and the global eﬃciency. Those
parameters have been changed from season to another.
5. Experimental results They depend on the climatic conditions (irradiance and
ambient temperature).
Within the frame of the German–Tunisian Cooperation The average quantity of water generated per day is equal
for the promotion of renewable energies, 14 photovoltaic to 7,7 m3/day in winter and 14,7 m3/day in summer. The
pumping systems (2.1 and 2.8 kWp) have been installed global eﬃciency ﬂuctuates between 3% and 4%. According
in Tunisia (Deutsche Aerospace AG., 1994) in order to to the previously ﬁgures, we can noticed a fall of ﬂow (Jan-
demonstrate the reliability of this technology and to evalu- uary 19 and July 25). This is due to the stop of the PV
ate the conditions for an economic competition. In fact, it pumping system.
can contribute to the improvement of the water supply in Fig. 19 shows both; the simulating and experimental
rural regions of Tunisia. These systems have been equipped results of the global eﬃciency and pump ﬂow rate. The
by several data acquisition systems collecting meteorologi- comparison between experimental and simulating curves
a b 3
5
2.5
4
2
3
Q (m 3 /h)
ηglb (%)
1.5
2
1
1 sim sim
0.5 exp
exp
0
0
0 300 600 900 1200
0 300 600 900 1200
(W/m²) (W/m²)
reﬂect clearly a good optimization of the simulation results Deutsche Aerospace AG., 1994. SPTP 42–3/ 42–30 of Bouaissi plant,
that is obtained thanks to the dynamic aspect of the mod- Exploitation manual of PV pumping Project in Tunisia.
Hamrouni, N., Jraidi, M., Cherif, A., Dhouib, A., 2005. Modelling,
eling and the real time controlling of the PV pumping Simulation and Control of PV Pumping System. Electrimacs, Hamm-
system. amet – Tunisia.
Jayanta, D.M., Yigzaw, G.Y., Brian, N., 2007. The impact of array
6. Conclusions inclination and orientation on the performance of the grid connected
photovoltaic systems. Renewable Energy 32, 118–140.
Jraidi, M., 2005. Modélisation et commande d’un système de pompage
The goal achieved via this study is the investigation of photovoltaı̈que. Thèse de doctorat, High Engineering Faculty of Tunis
the inﬂuence of the solar radiation changing eﬀects on (ENIT).
the system performances. We have analysed both experi- Jraidi, M., Hamrouni, N., Cherif, A., Dhouib, A., 2004. Modélisation et
mental and simulating PV pumping systems. For the theo- Simulation des Systèmes de Pompage Photovoltaı̈que avec de nouv-
retical study we have developed the model and the elles stratégies de commande. JTEA, Hammamet – Tunisie.
Kim, I.S., 2007. Robust maximum power point tracker using sliding mode
appropriate commands permitting the optimization and controller for three phase grid connected photovoltaic system. Solar
power conversion. We have shown through obtained Energy 81, 405–414.
results the inﬂuence of the solar radiation changing on Liaw, C.M., Tsong, C.W., 1992. High performance speed controller for
the global eﬃciency and the pump ﬂow. voltage source inverter fed induction motor drives. IEEE Proceedings
It has been concluded that these performances are max- B 139 (3), 1122–1127.
LI-Song, Kim, 2006. Robust maximum power point tracker using sliding
imal at midday, but they are degraded when meteorological mode controller for the three-phase grid-connected photovoltaic
parameters disturb. system. Solar Energy 81, 405–414.
In the last part of the paper, we have present several Miyazato, M., Agawa, T.T., Sahara, K., Morishita, H., 1991. Develop-
results of an experimental PV pumping system for a normal ment of photovoltaic generator systems under the sunshine project of
day in January and in July. For a normal functioning Japan. In: Proceedings of the Biennial Congress of the International
Solar Energy Society. Denver, Colorado USA, pp. 327–330.
mode, all ﬁgures show good concordance and similarity Seguier, G., 1987. Les convertisseurs de l’électronique de puissance, la
between experimental and simulating results. conversion continu-alternatif. Technique et Documentation (Lavoi-
sier), France.
References Saadi, A., Moussi, A., 2002. Etude de l’eﬀet des ﬂuctuations de
température sur les techniques d’optimisations des systèmes de
Annan, R.H., Herwig, L.O., 1991. Photovoltaic industry and electric pompage photovoltaı̈que. CEE’2002, Batna, Alegria, pp. 232–237.
utility roles in the US photovoltaic program. In: Proceedings of the Sugimoto, H., Dong, H., 1997. A new scheme for maximum photovoltaic
Biennial Congress of the International Solar Energy Society. Denver, power tracking control. IEEE Power Conversion Conference Proceed-
Colorado USA, pp. 315–320. ings, vol. 2, pp. 691–696.
Betka, A., Moussi, A., 2003. Cell Temperature and Head Eﬀects on the Technique et Documentation Lavoisier, 1986. Association générale des
Performances of a Direct Photovoltaic Pumping System Driven by an hygiénistes et techniciens municipaux. Les stations de pompage d’eau.
Induction Motor. Revue des Energies Renouvelables, ICPWE, pp. 47– Veerachary, M., Yadaiah, N., 2000. Based peak power tracking for PV
52. supplied DC motors. Solar Energy 69 (4), 343–350.
Chokmavioroj, S., 2006. Performance of a 500 kWp grid connected Won, C., 1994. A new maximum power point tracker of photovoltaic
photovoltaic System at Mae Hong Son Province Tailand. Renewable array using fuzzy controller, IEEE PESC Record, vol. 1, pp. pp. 396–
Energy 31, 19–28. 403.