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What is Man?

1. The world tends to view man in one of two idolatrous ways.


a. Materialism sees man as composed of nothing more than material components. His intellectual,
emotional, and spiritual aspects are nothing but products of his material nature acting according to
the rules of physics and biology.

Implications:

i. Man is not responsible for his behavior. The environment is to blame for unacceptable
behavior. (Leads to emphasis on social programs, big government)
ii. Man is not distinguishable from the other material of creation. Therefore, he has no dignity
or inherent worth. Animals (or even plants) have the same inherent worth as people.
iii. Man's identity is not in any way related to God. Therefore, man is in some sense ultimate,
which is idolatrous.
b. Idealism sees man as essentially a spiritual being, and his physical body is foreign to his essence.
The body is nothing but a shell for the spirit or the intellect.

Implications:

i. Man's body is neglected.


ii. Deeds done in the body do not pollute the essence of the person.
iii. Male/female identity is a biological accident.
c. The Christian view holds these two aspects - the material and the spiritual - together in perfect
harmony. But the Christian view goes beyond that.
2. The Bible presents man in the proper context of the Creator/creature relationship.
a. Man is created and sustained by God. Gen. 1:27, Acts 17:25,28
b. Man is a person and is therefore capable of making moral choices.
c. Man is made in the image of God. Gen. 1:27
3. The image of God is the key to man's identity.
a. Man is God's representative. Gen. 9:6
b. Man is a picture of God in some respects. Gen. 1:26-31
c. Christ, the God-man, is the perfect representative of what it means to image God. 2 Cor. 4:3-4, Col.
1:15
4. As a result of the fall, God's image in man is corrupted but not lost entirely. Ps. 58:3, Rom. 5:12, Rom. 8:7,8, 1
Cor. 2:14

Is man basically good or basically evil?

a. God's image is corrupted in every aspect of man's being.


b. God's image is not lost entirely. Gen. 9:6, James 3:9-12
c. God restrains sin through the operation of common grace. Gen. 20:6, Rom. 2:14,15
d. God's image is renewed through salvation in Christ. Rom. 8:29, Col. 3:9-10
5. The Christian view of man has implications.
a. Treatment of the weak and defenseless
b. The proper place of self-esteem
c. Critique of behavior
d. Critique of constructivist educational theories

Humans have a highly developed brain, capable of abstract reasoning, language, introspection, and problem solving. This
mental capability, combined with an erect body carriage that frees the hands for manipulating objects, has allowed
humans to make far greater use of tools than any other species. Mitochondrial DNA and fossil evidence indicates that
modern humans originated in Africa about 200,000 years ago.[5] With individuals widespread in every continent except
Antarctica, humans are a cosmopolitan species. As of May 2010, the population of humans was estimated to be about 6.8
billion.

AN ACT REGULATING THE PRACTICE OF PHARMACY IN THE PHILIPPINES, REPEALING FOR THE PURPOSE
REPUBLIC ACT NO. 5921, THE PHARMACY LAW, AS AMENDED, AND FOR OTHER PURPOSES.

Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Representatives of the Philippines in Congress assembled:
ARTICLE I
GENERAL PROVISIONS
Section 1. – Title. - This Act shall be known as the “Philippine Pharmacy Act of 2009”.
Sec. 2. – Statement of Policy. The state recognizes the vital role of pharmacists in quality healthcare delivery through their
services in providing safe, effective, and quality drugs or medicines; drug information, patient medication counseling, and
health promotion. The pharmacists’ professional service shall, therefore, be promoted as a component of the total
healthcare system, which shall ensure the physical well-being of the Filipinos.
Hence, the state shall develop and nurture competent, productive, morally upright, and well-rounded pharmacists whose
standards of professional practice and service shall be excellent, qualitative, world-class and internationally recognized,
globally competitive through regulatory measures, programs, and activities that foster their continuing professional
development.

Sec. 3. – Objectives. - This Act provides for, and shall govern:


(a) the standardization and regulation of pharmacy education,
(b) the examination for registration of graduates of schools and colleges of pharmacy,
(c) the supervision, control, and regulation of the practice of pharmacy in the Philippines
(d) the enhancement of professional competence through continuing professional development, research, and other
related activities and
(e) the integration of the pharmacy profession.

REPUBLIC ACT NO. 3720


“Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act”

AN ACT TO ENSURE THE SAFETY AND PURITY OF FOODS, DRUGS, AND COSMETICS BEING MADE AVAILABLE
TO THE PUBLIC BY CREATING THE FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION WHICH SHALL ADMINISTER AND
ENFORCE THE LAWS PERTAINING THERETO.

CHAPTER I
Title

SECTION 1. This Act shall be known as the "Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act."

CHAPTER II
Declaration of Policy

Sec. 2. It is hereby declared the policy of the State to insure safe and good quality of food, drug and cosmetic, and to
regulate the production, sale and traffic of the same to protect the health of the people.

Sec. 3. In the implementation of the foregoing policy, the Government shall in accordance with the provisions of this Act:

a. Establish standards and quality measures for food, drug, and cosmetic.

b. Adopt measures to insure pure and safe supply of food, drug, and cosmetic in the country.

CHAPTER III
Creation of the Food and Drug Administration

Sec. 4. To carry out the provisions of this Act, there is hereby created an office to be called the Food and Drug
Administration in the Department of Health. Said Administration shall be under the Office of the Secretary and shall have
the following functions, powers and duties;
a. To administer and supervise the implementation of this Act and of rules and regulation issued pursuant to the
same.

b. To provide for the collection of samples of food, drug and cosmetic.

c. To analyze and inspect food, drug and cosmetic in connection with the implementation of this Act.

d. To establish analytical data to serve as basis for the preparation of food, drug and cosmetic standards, and to
recommend standards of identity, purity, quality and fill of container.

e. To issue certificate of compliance with technical requirements to serve as basis for the issuance of license
and spot-check for compliance with regulations regarding operation of food, drug and cosmetic manufacturers
and establishments.
f. To levy, assess and collect fees for inspection, analysis and testing of products and materials submitted in
compliance with the provisions of this Act.

g. To certify batches of antibiotic and antibiotic preparations in compliance with the provisions of this Act.

Sec. 5. The Food and Drug Administration shall have the following Divisions:
a. Inspection and Licensing Division, which shall have charge of the inspection of food, drug and cosmetic
establishment engaged in their manufacture and sale.

b. Laboratory Division, which shall conduct all the tests analysis and trials of products covered by this Act.

Sec. 6. The Food and Drug Administration shall have a Food and Drug Administrator who shall be appointed by the
Secretary of Health subject to the Civil Service rules and regulations. The compensation of said official shall be
determined by the Secretary of Health.

Sec. 7. The Secretary of Health shall provide for the additional personnel needed to carry out the functions and duties of
the Food and Drug Administration.

Sec. 8. The powers, functions and duties of the Division of Food and Drug Testing of the Bureau of Research and
Laboratories and the Board of Food Inspection, all personnel in the Bureau of Health Services who are engaged in food
and drug control work, together with all their equipment, supplies, records, files, personnel and balance of appropriations
are transferred to the Food and Drug Administration. (Note: The Food and Drug Administration was abolished by Section
4 of Executive Order No. 851 dated December 2, 1982).

REPUBLIC ACT NO. 6675

AN ACT TO PROMOTE, REQUIRE AND ENSURE THE PRODUCTION OF AN ADEQUATE SUPPLY, DISTRIBUTION,
USE AND ACCEPTANCE OF DRUGS AND MEDICINES IDENTIFIED BY THEIR GENERIC NAMES.

Section. 1. Title. - This Act shall be known as the "Generics Act of 1988."

Sec. 2. Statement of Policy. - It hereby declared the policy of the State:


To promote, encourage and require the use of generic terminology in the importation, manufacture, distribution,
marketing, advertising and promotion, prescription and dispensing of drugs;

To ensure the adequate supply of drugs with generic names at the lowest possible cost and endeavour to make
them available free for indigent patients;

To encourage the extensive use of drugs with generic names through a national system of procurement and
distribution;

To emphasize the scientific basis for the use of drugs, in order that health professionals may become more
aware and cognisant of the therapeutic effectiveness; and

To promote drug safety by minimizing duplication in medications and/or use of drugs with potentially adverse
drug interactions.

Sec. 3. Definition of Terms. - The following terms are herein defined for purposes of this Act;
1. "Generic Name or Generic Terminology" is the identification of drugs and medicines by their scientifically
and internationally recognized active ingredients or by their generic names as determined by the Bureau of
Food and Drugs of the Department of Health.

2. "Active Ingredient" is the chemical component responsible for the claimed therapeutic effect of the
pharmaceutical product.

3. "Chemical Name" is the description of the chemical structure of the drugs and medicine and serves as the
complete identification of the compound.

4. "Drug Product" is the finished product form that contains the active ingredients, generally but not necessarily
in association with inactive ingredients.

5. "Drug Establishment" is any organization or company involved in the manufacture, importation, repacking
and/or distribution of drugs or medicines.

6. "Drug Outlets" means drugstores, pharmacist, and any other business establishment which sell drugs or
medicines.

7. "Essential Drug List" or "National Drug Formulary" is a list of drugs prepared and periodically updated by the
Department of Health on the basis of health conditions obtaining in the Philippines as well as in the
internationally accepted criteria. It shall consist of a core list or a complimentary list.

8. "Core List" is the list of drugs that meet the health care needs hundred eighty days upon the approval of this
Act.

9. "Complimentary List" is a list of alternative drugs used wherein no response to the core essential drug or
where there is hypersensitivity reaction to the core essential drug or when, for one reason or another, the core
essential drugs cannot be given.

10. "Brand Name" is the proprietary name given by the manufacture to distinguish its product from those of
competitors.

11. "Generic Drugs" are not covered by the patent protection and which are labelled solely by their international
non-proprietary or generic name.
Sec. 4. The Use of Generic Terminology for Essential Drugs and Promotional Incentives. - (a) In the promotion of the
generic names for pharmaceutical products, special consideration shall be given to drugs and medicines which are
included in the Essential Drug List to be prepared within one hundred eighty (180) days from approval of this Act and
updated quarterly by the Department of Health conditions obtaining in the Philippines as well as in the internationally
accepted criteria.

(b) The exclusive use of generic terminology in the manufacture, marketing and sales of drugs and medicines, particularly
those in the Essential Drug List, shall be promoted through such a system of Incentive as the Board of Investments jointly
with the Department of Health and other government agencies as maybe authorized by laws, within one hundred eighty
(180) days after approval of this Act.

Sec. 5. Posting and Publication. - The Department of Health shall publish annually in at least two newspapers of general
circulation in the Philippines the generic names, and the corresponding brand name under which they are marketed, of all
drugs and medicines available in the Philippines.

Sec. 6. Who shall use generic Terminology. - (a) All government agencies and their personnel as well as other
government agencies shall use generic terminology or generic names in all transactions related to purchasing,
prescribing, dispensing and administering of all drugs and medicines.

(b) All medical, dental and veterinary practitioners, including private practitioners, shall write prescriptions using generic
name. The brand name maybe included if so desired.

(c) Any organization or company involved in the manufacture, importation, repacking, marketing and/or distribution of
drugs and medicine shall indicate prominently the generic name of the product labels as well as in advertising and other
promotional materials.

(d) Drug Outlets, including drugstores, hospital and non-hospital pharmacies and non-traditional outlets such as
supermarkets and stores shall inform any buyer about all other drug products having the same generic name, together
with their corresponding prices so that the buyer may adequately exercise his option. Within one (1) year after approval of
this Act, the drug outlets referred to herein. Shall post in conspicuous places in their establishment, a list of drug products
with the same generic name and their corresponding prices.

Sec. 7. Provision on Quality, Manufacturer’s Identity and Responsibility. - In order to assure responsibility of drug quality
in all instances, the label of drugs and medicine shall have the following: name and country of manufacture, dates of
manufacture and expiration. The quality of such generically labelled drugs and medicines shall be duly certified by the
Department of Health.

Sec. 8. Required Production. - Subject to the rules and regulations promulgated by the Secretary of Health, every drug
manufacturing company operating in the Philippines shall be required to produce, distribute and make available to the
general public the medicine it produces, in the form of generic drug.

Sec. 9. Rules and Regulation. - The implementation of the provision of this Act shall be in accordance with the rules and
regulations to be promulgated by the Department of Health. Rules and regulations with penal sanctions shall be
promulgated within hundred eighty (180) days after approval of this Act.

Sec. 10. Authority to Import. - Within three (3) years from the effectivity of this Act, extendible by the president for another
two (2) years and during periods of critical shortage and absolute necessity, the Department of Health is hereby
authorized to import raw materials of which there is a shortage for the use of Filipino-owned or controlled drug
establishments to be marketed and sold exclusively under generic nomenclature. The President may authorize the
importation of raw materials tax and duty-free. The Secretary of Health shall ensure that the imported raw materials are
allocated fairly and efficiently among Filipino-owned or controlled drug establishment. He shall submit to the office of the
President and to the Congress a quarterly report of the quantity, kind and value of the raw materials imported.
Sec. 11. Education Drive. - The Department of Health jointly with the Department of Education, Culture and Sports,
Philippine Information Agency and the Department of Local Government shall conduct a continuous information campaign
for the public and a continuing education and training for the medical and allied medical professions on drugs with generic
names as an alternative of equal efficacy to the more expensive brand name drug. Such educational campaign shall
include information on the illnesses or symptoms which each generically named drug is suppose to cure or alleviate, as
well as its contradiction. The Department of Health with assistance of the Department of Local Government and the
Philippine Information Agency shall monitor the progress of the education drive, and shall submit regular reports to
Congress.

REPUBLIC ACT No. 8203

AN ACT PROHIBITING DRUGS, PROVIDING PENALTIES FOR VIOLATIONS AND APPROPRIATING FUNDS
THEREFOR.

Section 1. Title. - This act shall be known as the “Special Law on Counterfeit Drugs.”

Sec. 2. Declaration of Policy. - It is hereby the policy of the State of protect and promote the right of the people and instill
health consciousness among them as provided in Sec. 15, Article II of the Constitution.

It is also further declared the policy of the State that in order to safeguard the health of the people, the state shall provide
for their protection against counterfeit drugs.

Sec. 3. Definition of Terms. - For the purpose of this act, the terms:

(a) Drugs shall refer to any chemical compound or biological substance, other than food, intended for use in
the treatment, prevention of diagnosis of disease in man of animal, including but not limited to:

(1) any article recognized in the official United States Pharmacopoeia - National Formulary (USP-
NF), official Homeopathic Pharmacopoeia of the United States, Philippine National Drug Formulary,
British Pharmacopoeia, any National Compendium or any supplement to any of them;

(2) any article intended for use in the diagnosis, cure, mitigation, treatment, (b) intended for use in
the treatment of cure or mitigation of disease symptoms, injury or bodily defect in man; (c) other than
food, intended to affect the structure or any function of the body of man; (d) in finished or ready-to-
use dosage form; and (e) intended for use as a component of any of the articles specified in clauses
(a), (b), c), and (d).

(b) Counterfeit drug/medicine refers to medicinal products with the correct ingredients but not in the amounts
as provided hereunder, wrong ingredients, without active ingredients, with insufficient quantity of active
ingredient, which results in the reduction of the drug’s safety, efficacy, quality, strength or purity. It is a drug
which is deliberately and fraudulently mislabeled with respect to identity and/or source or with fake packaging,
and can apply to both branded and generic products. It shall also refer to:

(1) the drug itself, or the container or labeling thereof or any part of such drug, container or labeling
bearing without authorization the trademark, trade name or other identification mark or imprint or any
likeness to that which is owned or registered in the Bureau of Patent, Trademark and Technology
Transfer (BPTTT) in the name of another natural or juridical person;

(2) a drug product refilled in containers by unauthorized persons if the legitimate labels or marks are
used;

(3) an unregistered imported drug product, except drugs brought in the country for personal use as
confirmed and justified by accompanying medical records; and

(4) a drug which contains no amount of, or a different active ingredient, or less than eighty percent
(80%) of the active ingredient it purports to possess, as distinguished from an adulterated drug
including reduction or loss of efficacy due to expiration.

(c) Brokering shall refer to any act of facilitating the disposal or sale of counterfeit drugs, including acts of
agency.

(d) Bureau shall refer to the Bureau of Food and Drugs (BFAD) of the Department of Health (DOH).
(e) Department shall refer to the Department of Health.

(f) Business Establishment shall refer to any entity, whether a single proprietorship, partnership or corporation
engaged in, or doing business in the Philippines.

(g) Owner shall refer to a person or group of persons who is the registered owner of a license of operate a
business or business undertaking in the Philippines or the branch manager or operator, licensee, franchisee, or
any person acting on behalf of the corporate entity.

(h) Residence shall refer to a private dwelling or abode where a person lives, either as owner of lessee, or
usufructuary including, for purposes of this Act, its yard, garage, storage rooms or premises.

Sec. 4. Prohibited Drugs. - The following acts are declared unlawful and therefore prohibited:
(a) The manufacturer, sale, offering for sale, donation, distribution, trafficking, brokering, or importation or
possession of counterfeit drugs as defined in Sec. 3 hereof not otherwise by Republic Act No. 3720, as
amended. The presence or availability of such counterfeit drugs within the premises of any entity engaged in
the sale, manufacture of distribution of drugs and/or pharmaceutical products or in a private residence, or in
public vehicles, or in the premises not covered by a valid license to operate from the Bureau, shall constitute a
prima facie evidence of violation to this Act: Provided, however, That this presumption shall not apply to the
legitimate owners to trademarks, trade names or other identifying marks, or the legitimate or authorized
representatives or agents of such owners, who have in their possession counterfeit drugs which bear the
trademarks, trade names or marks if they can show the sales invoices or official receipts evidencing their
purchase from a drugstore, manufacturer or distributor suspected by them of dealing in counterfeit drugs
involving the trademarks, trade names and other similar identifying marks registered in their names: Provided,
further, That such counterfeit products shall be reported and immediately turned over to the Bureau: Provided,
finally, That compliance with the preceding proviso shall be made within a reasonable period from the date of
purchase of such counterfeit drugs as indicate in the sales invoice, official receipt, or other similar documents
abovementioned to the time the counterfeit drugs are reported and turned over to the Bureau;

(b) Possession of any such counterfeit drugs. However, any person found in possession of counterfeit drugs in
violation of this subSec. shall be expected from liability under the provisions of this Act after:

(1) presentation of sales invoices, official receipts, or other legally acceptable documents evidencing
his purchase thereof from a drugstore, distributor, manufacturer, hospital pharmacy or dispensary;
or any other person or place duly licensed to sell and/or dispense drugs or medicines, and indicating
therein the batch and lot numbers, as well as the expiry dates of such drugs; or

(2) presentation of certificates and other documents evidencing the importation or exportation of the
counterfeit drugs found in his possession as required by existing laws, including those documents
required in the preceding paragraph covering the commercial transactions involving counterfeit
drugs.

In both cases, the subject counterfeit drugs must not on their face, appear to be as such, or do not bear any
marking or any patently unusual characteristics sufficient to arouse the suspicion of a reasonable and prudent
that such drugs are counterfeit. Furthermore, the amount or volume of counterfeit drugs held is such that it
does not negate or is inconsistent with the averment that the same are for personal use, notwithstanding the
presentation by the possessor of medical records and other similar documents accompanying and justifying the
use of such drugs;

(c) Forging, counterfeit, simulating or falsely representing, or without proper authority , using any mark, stamp,
tag, label or other identification mark or device authorized or required by Republic Act No. 3720, as amended,
and/or the regulations promulgated under this Act;

(d) Photocopying, duplicating, alerting, printing, transferring, obliterating or removing the approved label or any
part thereof, lawfully belonging to another person, for the purpose of using such label or a part thereof on any
counterfeit drug: Provided, That if the person who committed any of the enumerated in this paragraph and the
person who used the labels produced thereby are not one and the same person and the former had knowledge
of the purpose for which labels are intended, the former shall also be liable under this Act notwithstanding the
failure of the latter to achieve the intended purpose; and

(e) Making, selling, or concealing any punch, plate or any other equipment or instrument designed to print,
imprint or reproduce the trademark, trade name or other identifying mark of another registered producer or any
likeness thereof, upon any drug product or device or its container or label without authority from the legitimate
owners of the trademark or trade name.
Sec. 5. Parties Liable. - The following persons shall be liable for violation(s) of this Act:
(a) the manufacturer, exporter or importer of the counterfeit drugs and their agents: Provided, That the agents
shall be liable only upon proof of actual or constructive knowledge that the drugs are counterfeit;

(b) the seller, distributor, trafficker, broker and their agents, upon proof of actual or constructive knowledge that
the drugs sold, distributed, offered or donated are counterfeit drugs;

(c) the possessor of counterfeit drugs as provided in Sec. 4 (b) hereof;

(d) the manager, operator or lessee of the laboratory or laboratory facilities used in the manufacture of
counterfeit drugs;

(e) the owner, proprietor, administrator of the drugstore, hospital pharmacy or dispensary, laboratory or other
outlets or premises where the counterfeit drug is found who induces, causes or allows the commission of any
act herein prohibited;

(f) the registered pharmacist of the outlet where the counterfeit drug is sold or found who, sells or dispenses
such drug to a third party and who has actual or constructive knowledge that said is counterfeit; and

(g) should the offense be committed by a juridical person, the president, general manager, the managing
partner, chief operating officer or the person who directly induces, caused or knowingly allows the commission
of the offense shall be penalized.

Sec. 6. Administrative Proceedings. - The Bureau is hereby further authorized to undertake the following actions:
(a) upon verified information on the existence of suspected counterfeit drugs in the possession of any
manufacturer, seller or distributor, the duly authorized officers of the Bureau or any officer deputized by the
Bureau for the purpose shall segregate, seal and, after having obtained a valid search warrant from a
competent court, seize such counterfeit drugs and take them into custody: Provided, That in case the
suspected counterfeit drugs are found in a private residence, as defined in Sec. 3 of this Act or in other
premises not covered by a valid license to operate issued by the Bureau, the duly authorized officer of the
Bureau or deputized officer thereof shall secure a search warrant for the purpose or seizing an taking into
custody such suspected counterfeit drugs;

(b) if, after the appropriate examination of the samples by the Bureau, the seized drugs are determined or
found to be found to be counterfeit, the Bureau shall, within fifteen (15) days from their seizure, issue an order
directing the preventive closure of the business establishment for a period not exceeding thirty (30) days.
Thereafter, administrative proceedings shall be limited by the Bureau against the parties concerned where they
shall have the opportunity to be heard present evidence on the behalf, and

(c) to ensure the effective enforcement of the forgoing, the Bureau may enlist the assistance of the national or
local law enforcement agencies.

Sec. 7. Administrative Sanctions. - Upon finding that the drugs examined are counterfeit and the determination of the
parties liable thereof, the Bureau shall impose any or all of the following sanctions:
(a) permanent closure of the establishment concerned and the revocation of its license to do business;

(b) a fine of not less than One hundred thousand pesos (P100,000) but not more than Five hundred thousand
pesos (P500,000);

(c) upon order of the Court, forfeiture, confiscation, and destruction of products found to be counterfeit and the
equipment, instruments, and other articles used in violation of this Act;

(d) filing of an appropriate proceedings against the registered pharmacist with the Professional Regulations
Commission for cancellation of professional license;

(e) filing of criminal charges against the violator(s), which can be instituted independently from the
administrative case: Provided, That the dismissal of the criminal case not lift the closure order, except when it
is a dismissal on the merits or for lack of basis: Provided further, That the withdrawal of the private criminal
complaint shall not be a ground for the dismissal of the administrative proceedings; and

(f) permanent disqualification of the person concerned, whether natural or juridical, from owning or operating an
established engaged in any business activity under the supervision of the Bureau.
Sec. 8. Penalties. - The commission of any of the acts prohibited under Sec.s 4 and 6 of this Act shall be punished by:
(a) imprisonment of not less than six (6) months and one (1) day, but not more than six (6) years for mere
possession of counterfeit drugs as provided for in Sec. 4 (b) hereof; or

(b) imprisonment of six (6) years and one (1) day, but not more than ten (10) years or a fine of not less than
One hundred thousand pesos (P100,000) but not more than Five hundred thousand pesos (P500,000) or both
such imprisonment and fine at the discretion of the court in any other case mentioned in Sec. 4 hereof; or

(c) imprisonment of not less than six (6) months and one (1) day, but not more than two (2) years and four (4)
months if the counterfeit drug is intended for animals; or

(d) imprisonment of not less than six (6) years and one (1) day, but not more than ten (10) years for any
manufacturer, seller or distributor who shall conceal, substitute, dispose or destroy any drug as may have
been segregated and sealed by the Bureau, or who shall break, alter or tamper any mark or seal by the Bureau
to identify those segregated drugs as provided for under Sec. 6 (a) of this Act. Any other person who breaks,
alters or tampers any mark or seal by the Bureau to identify the segregated drugs shall suffer the penalty of not
less than six (6) months and one (1) day, but not more than six (6) years imprisonment; or

(e) if, as a result of the use of the drugs found to be counterfeit, the illness sought to be cured is aggravated or
physical injury or suffering results therefrom, a punishment of imprisonment from twelve (12) years to fifteen
(15) years and a fine ranging from One hundred thousand pesos (P100,000) to Five hundred thousand pesos
(P500,000) shall be meted out; or

(f) should a counterfeit drug be the proximate cause of death of a victim, who unknowingly purchased and took
a counterfeit drug, the penalty of life imprisonment and a fine of Five hundred thousand pesos (P500,000) to
Five million pesos (P5,000,000) shall be imposed.

In case any act prohibited in Sec. 4 thereof is also punishable under other laws, the offender shall, if warranted
by the evidence, be prosecuted under the law prescribing the highest penalty.

Sec. 9. Appropriations. - The amount necessary to carry out the provisions of this Act shall be included in the General
Appropriations Act for the year following its enactment and every year thereafter.

Sec. 10. Implementation. - The Bureau of Food and Drugs of the Department of Health is hereby authorized to
administer and supervise the implementation of this Act.

Sec. 11. Implementing Rules and Regulations. - Within ninety (90) days from the approval of this Act, the Bureau of
Food and Drugs, in consultation of the Department of Health, shall promulgate the rules and regulations implementing the
provisions of this Act. The implementing rules and regulations issued pursuant to this Sec. shall take effect thirty (30)
days after its publication in two (2) national newspapers of general circulation.

Sec. 12. Separability Clause. - If for any reason, any portion of provision of this Act is subsequently declared
unconstitutional or invalid such declaration shall not nullify the other portions or provisions hereof.

Sec. 13. Repealing Clause. - All laws, executive or administrative orders, rules or regulations inconsistent with the
provisions of this Act are hereby repealed or modified accordingly.

Sec. 14. Effectivity. - This Act shall take effect fifteen (15) days after its publication in at least two (2) national newspapers
of general circulation.

Approved: September 09, 1996

Congress of the Philippines


Twelfth Congress
First Regular Session

REPUBLIC ACT NO. 9165 June 7, 2002

AN ACT INSTITUTING THE COMPREHENSIVE DANGEROUS DRUGS ACT OF 2002, REPEALING REPUBLIC ACT
NO. 6425, OTHERWISE KNOWN AS THE DANGEROUS DRUGS ACT OF 1972, AS AMENDED, PROVIDING FUNDS
THEREFOR, AND FOR OTHER PURPOSES
Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Representatives of the Philippines in Congress

Section 1. Short Title. – This Act shall be known and cited as the "Comprehensive Dangerous Drugs Act of 2002".

Section 2. Declaration of Policy. – It is the policy of the State to safeguard the integrity of its territory and the well-being of
its citizenry particularly the youth, from the harmful effects of dangerous drugs on their physical and mental well-being,
and to defend the same against acts or omissions detrimental to their development and preservation. In view of the
foregoing, the State needs to enhance further the efficacy of the law against dangerous drugs, it being one of today's
more serious social ills.

Toward this end, the government shall pursue an intensive and unrelenting campaign against the trafficking and use of
dangerous drugs and other similar substances through an integrated system of planning, implementation and
enforcement of anti-drug abuse policies, programs, and projects. The government shall however aim to achieve a balance
in the national drug control program so that people with legitimate medical needs are not prevented from being treated
with adequate amounts of appropriate medications, which include the use of dangerous drugs.

It is further declared the policy of the State to provide effective mechanisms or measures to re-integrate into society
individuals who have fallen victims to drug abuse or dangerous drug dependence through sustainable programs of
treatment and rehabilitation.

Begun and held in Metro Manila, on Monday, the twenty-seventh day of July, two thousand nine.

Republic Act No. 9994

AN ACT GRANTING ADDITIONAL BENEFITS AND PRIVILEGES TO SENIOR CITIZENS, FURTHER AMENDING
REPUBLIC ACT NO. 7432, AS AMENDED, OTHERWISE KNOWN AS "AN ACT TO MAXIMIZE THE CONTRIBUTION
OF SENIOR CITIZENS TO NATION BUILDING, GRANT BENEFITS AND SPECIAL PRIVILEGES AND FOR OTHER
PURPOSES"

Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Representatives of the Philippines in Congress assembled:

Section 1. Title. - This Act Shall be known as the "Expanded Senior Citizens Act of 2010."

Section 2. Section 1 of Republic Act No. 7432, as amended by Republic Act No. 9257, otherwise known as the
"Expanded Senior Citizens Act of 2003", is hereby further amended to read as follows:

"SECTION 1. Declaration of Policies and Objectives. - As provided in the Constitution of the Republic of the Philippines, it
is the declared policy of the State to promote a just and dynamic social order that will ensure the prosperity and
independence of the nation and free the people from poverty through policies that provide adequate social services,
promote full employment, a rising standard of living and an improved quality of life. In the Declaration of Principles and
State Policies in Article II, Sections 10 and 11, it is further declared that the State shall provide social justice in all phases
of national development and that the State values the dignity of every human person and guarantees full respect for
human rights.

"Article XIII, Section 11 of the Constitution provides that the Sate shall adopt an integrated and comprehensive approach
to health development which shall endeavor to make essential goods, health and other social services available to all the
people at affordable cost. There shall be priority for the needs of the underprivileged, sick, elderly, disabled, women and
children. Article XV, Section 4 of the Constitution Further declares that it is the duty of the family to take care of its elderly
members while the State may design programs of social security for them.

"Consistent with these constitutional principles, this Act shall serve the following objectives:

"(a) To recognize the rights of senior citizens to take their proper place in society and make it a concern of the
family, community, and government;

"(b) To give full support to the improvement of the total well-being of the elderly and their full participation in
society, considering that senior citizens are integral part of Philippine society;

"(c) To motivate and encourage the senior citizens to contribute to nation building;
"(d) To encourage their families and the communities they live with to reaffirm the valued Filipino tradition of
caring for the senior citizens;

"(e) To provide a comprehensive health care and rehabilitation system for disabled senior citizens to foster their
capacity to attain a more meaningful and productive ageing; and

"(f) To recognize the important role of the private sector in the improvement of the welfare of senior citizens and
to actively seek their partnership.

"In accordance with these objectives, this Act shall:

"(1) establish mechanisms whereby the contributions of the senior citizens are maximized;

"(2) adopt measures whereby our senior citizens are assisted and appreciated by the community as a whole;

"(3) establish a program beneficial to the senior citizens, their families and the rest of the community they serve:
and

"(4) establish community-based health and rehabilitation programs for senior citizens in every political unit of
society."

Section 3. Section 2 of Republic Act No. 7432, as amended by Republic Act No. 9257, otherwise known as the Expanded
Senior Citizens Act of 2003", is hereby further amended to read as follows:

REPUBLIC ACT NO. 7394


THE CONSUMER ACT OF THE PHILIPPINES
TITLE I
GENERAL PROVISIONS
Article 1. Short Title. - This Act shall be known as the "Consumer Act of the Philippines."

Art. 2. Declaration of Basic Policy. - It is the policy of the State to protect the interests of the consumer, promote his
general welfare and to establish standards of conduct for business and industry. Towards this end, the State shall
implement measures to achieve the following objectives:

(a) protection against hazards to health and safety;

(b) protection against deceptive, unfair and unconscionable sales acts and practices;

(c) provision of information and education to facilitate sound choice and the proper exercise of rights by the consumer;

(d) provision of adequate rights and means of redress; and

(e) involvement of consumer representatives in the formulation of social and economic policies.
Art. 3. Construction. - The best interest of the consumer shall be considered in the interpretation and implementation of
the provisions of this Act, including its implementing rules and regulations.

Republic Act No. 7581


THE PRICE ACT
May 27, 1992
AN ACT PROVIDING PROTECTION TO CONSUMERS BY STABILIZING THE PRICES OF BASIC
NECESSITIES AND PRIME COMMODITIES AND BY PRESCRIBING MEASURES AGAINST UNDUE
PRICE INCREASES DURING EMERGENCY SITUATIONS AND LIKE OCCASIONS
Sec. 1. Short Title. - This Act shall be referred to as the "Price Act."
Sec. 2. Declaration of Basic Policy. - It is the policy of the State to ensure the availability of basic
necessities and prime commodities at reasonable prices at all times without denying legitimate business a
fair return on investment. It is also a declared policy of the State to provide effective and sufficient
protection to consumers against hoarding, profiteering and cartels with respect to the supply, distribution,
marketing and pricing of said goods, especially during periods of calamity, emergency, widespread illegal
price manipulation and other similar situations. To these ends, the State shall:
(1) Develop, adopt and promulgate measures to promote productivity in basic necessities and prime
commodities;
(2) Develop an improved and efficient transport and distribution system;
(3) Develop, adopt and promulgate measures to stabilize prices at reasonable levels;
(4) Institute appropriate penalties for illegal price manipulation and other violations of this Act; and
(5) Establish a mechanism that will readily protect consumers from inadequate supply and
unreasonable price increase on occasions of calamities, emergencies and like occurrences.
PHARMACIST CODE OF ETHICS

Pharmacists are health professionals who assist individuals inmaking the best use of medications. This Code, prepared
and supported by pharmacists, is intended to state publicly theprinciples that form the fundamental basis of the roles and
responsibilities of pharmacists. These principles, based on moralobligations and virtues, are established to guide
pharmacists in relationships with patients, health professionals, and society.

I. A pharmacist respects the covenantal relationship between the patient and pharmacist.

Considering the patient-pharmacist relationship as a covenant means that a pharmacist has moral obligations in response
to thegift of trust received from society. In return for this gift, a pharmacist promises to help individuals achieve optimum
benefitfrom their medications, to be committed to their welfare, and to maintain their trust.

II. A pharmacist promotes the good of every patient in acaring, compassionate, and confidential manner.

A pharmacist places concern for the well-being of the patient atthe center of professional practice. In doing so, a
pharmacist considers needs stated by the patient as well as those defined byhealth science. A pharmacist is dedicated to
protecting the dignity of the patient. With a caring attitude and a compassionate spirit,a pharmacist focuses on serving the
patient in a private and confidential manner.

III. A pharmacist respects the autonomy and dignity ofeach patient.

A pharmacist promotes the right of self-determination andrecognizes individual self-worth by encouraging patients to
participate in decisions about their health. A pharmacistcommunicates with patients in terms that are understandable. In
all cases, a pharmacist respects personal and cultural differencesamong patients.

IV. A pharmacist acts with honesty and integrity inprofessional relationships.

A pharmacist has a duty to tell the truth and to act withconviction of conscience. A pharmacist avoids
discriminatorypractices, behavior or work conditions that impair professionaljudgment, and actions that compromise
dedication to the bestinterests of patients.

V. A pharmacist maintains professionalcompetence.

A pharmacist has a duty to maintain knowledge and abilities asnew medications, devices, and technologies become
available and ashealth information advances.

VI. A pharmacist respects the values and abilities ofcolleagues and other health professionals.

When appropriate, a pharmacist asks for the consultation ofcolleagues or other health professionals or refers the patient.
Apharmacist acknowledges that colleagues and other healthprofessionals may differ in the beliefs and values they apply
tothe care of the patient.

VII. A pharmacist serves individual, community, andsocietal needs.

The primary obligation of a pharmacist is to individualpatients. However, the obligations of a pharmacist may at
timesextend beyond the individual to the community and society. In thesesituations, the pharmacist recognizes the
responsibilities thataccompany these obligations and acts accordingly.

VIII. A pharmacist seeks justice in the distribution ofhealth resources.

When health resources are allocated, a pharmacist is fair andequitable, balancing the needs of patients and society.

*adopted by the membership of the American Pharmacists Association October 27, 1994.

Oath of a Pharmacist

At this time, I vow to devote my professional life to the service of all humankind through the professionof pharmacy.
I will consider the welfare of humanityand relief of human suffering my primary concerns.

I will apply my knowledge, experience, and skills to the best of my ability to assure optimal drug therapy outcomes for the
patients I serve.

I will keep abreast of developments and maintain professional competency in my profession of pharmacy. I will maintain
the highest principles of moral, ethical and legal conduct.

I will embrace and advocate change in the profession of pharmacy that improves patient care.

I take these vows voluntarily with the full realization of the responsibility with which I am entrusted by the public.

REPUBLIC ACT NO. 6675

AN ACT TO PROMOTE, REQUIRE AND ENSURE THE PRODUCTION OF AN ADEQUATE SUPPLY, DISTRIBUTION,
USE AND ACCEPTANCE OF DRUGS AND MEDICINES IDENTIFIED BY THEIR GENERIC NAMES.

Section. 1. Title. - This Act shall be known as the "Generics Act of 1988."

EXECUTIVE ORDER NO. 49

MODIFYING THE RATES OF DUTY ON CERTAIN IMPORTED ARTICLES AS PROVIDED FOR UNDER THE TARIFF
AND CUSTOMS CODE OF 1978, AS AMENDED, IN ORDER TO IMPLEMENT THE 2001-2003 PHILIPPINE SCHEDULE
OF TARIFF REDUCTION UNDER THE BOLD ECONOMIC MEASURE INITIATIVES OF THE ACCELERATED
COMMON EFFECTIVE PREFERENTIAL TARIFF (CEPT) SCHEME FOR THE ASEAN FREE TRADE AREA (AFTA)
AND THE TRANSFER OF PRODUCTS FROM THE UNPROCESSED AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTS TEMPORARY
EXCLUSION LIST (UAP-TEL) AND GENERAL EXEMPTION (GE) LIST TO THE CEPT INCLUSION LIST (CEPT-IL)

GENERAL GUIDELINES FOR ESTABLISHING THE PHILIPPINE NATIONAL DRUG FORMULARY


Drug selection must be based on the following
1. Relevance to disease – indicated in the treatment of prevalent diseases
2. Efficacy and safety – based on adequate pharmacologic studies especially among Filipinos (Expanded
Phase II clinical trials and/or additional Phase III studies)
3. Quality – must meet adequate quality control standard including stability and when necessary
bioavailability.
General guidelines (Cont’d)
- compliance with WHO Certification Scheme on the Quality of Pharmaceutical Products Moving in
International Commerce – product manufactured in accordance with CGMP and records whether or not the
product has been approved for marketing in the country of origin.
4. Cost of treatment regimen
5. Appropriateness to the capability of health workers at different levels of health care.
6. Local health problems
7. Benefit/Risk ratio
8. Preferential factors for evaluating therapeutically equivalent drugs
8.1 most thoroughly investigated – beneficial properties and limitations
8.2 clinical utility for the treatment of more than one condition or disease
8.3 most favorable pharmacokinetic properties for improved compliance and minimize risk in pathophysiological
states
8.4 dosage form that is easy to dispense or easily or safely administered to patient
8.5 greater acceptability by most patients
8.6 favorable stability under anticipated local conditions for which storage facilities exist