Anda di halaman 1dari 7

c 



à 
 

 
   
 
  
  
  
 
! 
 
"#$  
  
à  # %
  
&'   (#%
  
&'    %
 
 "(#%
 
)à*%
  
+  , 
   , 
  -
. 
&   /%
 
+ .,#" 0
  
1"  "2 

à '  3%à4
 
5*.
 
6,'   
  # #6

   

& 7 *
 
& ," #
  
1" ," #
 
2 
  
8"2 
  
à , (#%
 
à * , (#%
  
à , (#%
  
9,   
 
9, # 
&   "2
  
: 2' #2
 
9,#,
 

O   O



& 7 *8;
 
9,  # 
9,    
  
: '    
. 
: '"2 
  
à : 
  
È      
4 28  < . 1
=  <  . 1
4' = <<;15 5=   

1>5  ''  

(
 
 
="' 2<  .4
: %: '"6<  6%  /
="''"  " 
 <  4
: %: '''(<  6%  

È  Re denotes Earth radii, 6,378 km

(
  
 
&' "<,
&'  #<  %
& 2 2< 
1  ' "2< * 
1  '2#"2< * 
8( " <0 !

= "  <0 0!

/ "<%
à  ? 2<  %
8"2" ,#(-# 
<
à 7< @6  6
- @9*#  9
-
à ""
<8  8
. A! , =*!9
.
6 6
. ABB
. A!B. 
0#" 0
. AB#  B
. 
6,  "* #@ ''    #
/ 2 2#(  ,-#" # " ,@

(  
ïor information on the Moon, see the Moon ïact Sheet

Notes on the factsheets - definitions of parameters, units, notes on sub- and


superscripts, etc.
Planetary ïact Table - metric units
Planetary ïact Table - U.S. units
Planetary ïact Table - Earth ratio

Earth Page
Directory to o

Discovered By Known by the Ancients

Date of Discovery Unknown

Average Distance from the Sun Metric: 149,597,890 km


English: 92,955,820 miles
Scientific Notation: 1.4959789 x 108 km (1.000 A.U.)

Perihelion (closest) Metric: 147,100,000 km


English: 91,400,000 miles
Scientific Notation: 1.471 x 108 km (0.983 A.U.)

Aphelion (farthest) Metric: 152,100,000 km


English: 94,500,000 miles
Scientific Notation: 1.521 x 108 km (1.017 A.U.)

Equatorial Radius Metric: 6,378.14 km


English: 3,963.19 miles
Scientific Notation: 6.37814 x 103 km
By Comparison: 1 x Earth's

Equatorial Circumference Metric: 40,075 km


English: 24,901 miles
Scientific Notation: 4.0075 x 104 km

Volume Metric: 1,083,200,000,000 km3


English: 259,900,000,000 mi3
Scientific Notation: 1.0832 x 1012 km3
By Comparison: 1 x Earth's

Mass Metric: 5,973,700,000,000,000,000,000,000 kg


Scientific Notation: 5.9737 x 1024 kg

Density Metric: 5.515 g/cm3

Surface Area Metric: 510,065,700 km2


English: 196,937,500 square miles
Scientific Notation: 5.100657 x 108 km2

Equatorial Surface Gravity Metric: 9.766 m/s2


English: 32.041 ft/s2

Escape Velocity Metric: 40,248 km/h


English: 25,009 mph
Scientific Notation: 11,180 m/s
Sidereal Rotation Period (Length of Day) 0.99726968 Earth days
23.934 hours

Sidereal Orbit Period (Length of Year) 1.0000174 Earth years


365.24 Earth days

Mean Orbit Velocity Metric: 107,229 km/h


English: 66,629 mph
Scientific Notation: 29,785.9 m/s

Orbital Eccentricity 0.01671022

Orbital Inclination to Ecliptic 0.00005 degrees

Equatorial Inclination to Orbit 23.45 degrees

Orbital Circumference Metric: 924,375,700 km


English: 574,380,400 miles
Scientific Notation: 9.243757 x 108 km

Minimum/Maximum Surface Temperature Metric: -88/58 (min/max) °C


English: -126/136 (min/max) °F
Scientific Notation: 185/331 (min/max) K

Atmospheric Constituents Nitrogen, Oxygen


Scientific Notation: N2, O2
By Comparison: N2 is 80% of Earth's air and is a crucial element in DNA

ther Planetary ïact Sheets

      9.78 m/s^2

12,753 km (7,926     


  
   24 hrs
miles)  !  
5.98x10^24
    
   23 hrs 56


 kilograms


  min
(6.5e21 tons)
       365 days 5

 5,515 kg/m^3
!  " hrs
   
 146 million km
(   #
 23o 27"
   (91 million miles)
-89o C to
#  
 152 million km 57.7oC
( 
   (94.5 million miles) (-128o ï to
136o ï)
   $ 
1.0 AU  ( %287K
#

  
 1 (the Moon)
ð 

a   
*  Î     



a    


     * 
  
 

* 
  
*
 a a a    


  
 
     




   ! aa     "  # $
  

 a  " ##   


  " 
## $
   $ 
  

 
   
 
#  %   %
    

The North Star, also called the Pole Star or Polaris, is the star that the
earth's axis points toward in the Northern sky. For many years, people have
been fascinated with this star and the fact that it doesn't seem to move in
the sky. Some have created legends explaining why the star stands still. As
more detailed scientific instrumentation has become available, scientists
have begun to study more about Polaris. Surprisingly, it is a rich subject
consisting of a binary star system.

v v 
    

For many years, the North Star has been used as a navigation aid and to
chart navigational maps. It has also been used to measure astronomical
latitude since we map latitudes to the equivalent sky positions: the North
Pole equates to +90 degrees latitude on Earth as does its projection into the
sky. In addition to these functional uses, over time many cultures have built
folklore around the North Star. Even people with little interest in astronomy
or mapmaking know about the North Star, and some have created stories
explaining why it seemingly never moves.

The most famous story about the North Star is the Native American myth
explaining why the North Star stands still. In this story, a brave son Na-Gah
tried to impress his father by climbing the tallest cliff he could find. Through
difficult conditions he persisted until he found himself at the top of a very
high mountain. The mountain was so tall that Na-Gah looked down on all the
other mountains. Unfortunately, there was no way down. When his father
came looking for him, he found Na-Gah stuck high above. Not wanting his
son to suffer for his bravery, he turned Na-Gah into a star that can be seen
and honored by all living things.

P 
    

Today the Earth's axis points within one degree of Polaris, the brightest star
in the constellation Ursa Minor (also called the Little Bear or the Little
Dipper). Polaris appears to be in a fixed position in the sky throughout the
year. All other stars and constellations seem to revolve around the North
Star.

To find Polaris in the sky, locate the Big Dipper and follow the two stars at
the end of the basin upward. This should lead you directly to Polaris. It is the
last star in the tail of the Little Dipper.

v      

Over the course of time, the North Star changes. Right now Polaris is within
one degree of true north, but at other times the North Star has been and will
again be Thuban (the brightest star in the constellation Draco), Vega (the
brightest star in the constellation Lyra), and Alpha Cephei (the brightest star
in the constellation Cepheus).

The North Star changes over time because the direction of the earth's axis
changes slowly over time. Since by definition the North Star is the star most
closely aligned with the earth's axis, as the axis moves the nearest star
changes too.

This type of axis movement is similar to that of a spinning top. As the top
slows, the axis of rotation changes as the top draws out each rotation; that
is to say that the stem of the top itself traces out a circular pattern rather
than pointing at a single spot or staying mostly still. If you draw an
imaginary line of the earth's axis and continue it up to the sky, it will make a
similar path. This type of axis rotation is called precession.

In the case of the earth, precession is caused by the gravitational pull of the
sun and the moon. The earth's axis makes one complete rotation over the
course of approximately 26,000 years. If you trace the path of the axis in
the sky, you will find that Polaris, Vega, Thuban, and Alpha Cephei all fall on
or very close to it. So when the earth's axis is at a point on the path near
Vega, Vega becomes the North Star while Thuban is the North Star when the
axis is near it on the path.

Five thousand years ago, Thuban was the North Star. Five thousand years
from now, the North Star will be Alpha Cephei. Seven thousand years after
that, it will be Vega. Nine thousand years after that, Thuban will be the
North Star again. At these dates, the various stars will be at the closest to
absolute north. For some time before, the relevant star will be approaching
due north and it will be receding for some time after the time listed. In these
interim times, the North Star is whichever star is closest to north.

Î |     


     
        
   
              
   
                    Î