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ON FUZZY SEMI α-OPEN SETS AND FUZZY SEMI α-


CONTINUOUS MAPPINGS

A. HAKEEM*, S. LATA** and G. NAVALAGI***


*
Department of Studies in Mathematics, University of Mysore,
Manasagangotri,Mysore-5700 06, Karnataka , INDIA
e-mail : hakim_albdoie@yahoo.com
**
Department of Mathematics, Yuvaraja's College, Unversity of Mysore,
Mysore – 5700 06,Karnataka. INDIA
e-mail : drlatha@gmail.com
***
Department of Mathematics, K.L.E.Society's G. H. College
HAVERI -581110, Karnataka (INDIA)
e-mail: gnavalagi@hotmail.com

Abstract

In this paper,we extend the notion of semi α-open sets of General topology
to fuzzy topology, and study some notions based on this new concept in fuzzy
topology. Also, we study the relations between fuzzy semi α-open sets and other
types of fuzzy open sets. We also introduce the concept of fuzzy semi α-
continuous mapping and other weaker forms of fuzzy semi α-continuous mapping
and discuss their relations with fuzzy continuous mappings and other weaker
forms of fuzzy continuous mappings. Counter examples are given to show the
non-coincidence of these mappings.

Key words and Phrases : fuzzy semi α-open set; fuzzy semi α-closed set fuzzy semi α-
continuous mapping; fuzzy semi α-open mapping; fuzzy semi α-closed mapping.

2000 Mathematics Subject Classification. 54A40.

1. Introduction
In [8], Navalagi has introduced the concept of semi α-open sets in general
topology. Several notions based on semi α-open sets have been studied by
Hakeem [4]. In [9], Zadeh has introduced the important concept of fuzzy sets. The
notion of fuzzy subsets naturally plays a signification role in the study of fuzzy
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topology which was introduce by Chang [3].In this paper, we study the several
properties of semi α-open sets in fuzzy setting.
2. Preliminaries
Throughout this paper by ( X, τ ) or simply by X we mean a fuzzy topo- logical
space ( fts, shorty) and ƒ : X ⎯→ Y means a mapping ƒ from fuzzy topological
space X to a fuzzy topological space Y. If A is a fuzzy set and p is a fuzzy point in
X then N(p), Int A, clA, Ac will denote respectively, the neighbourhood system of
p, the interior of A, the clousure of A and complement of A.
Now we recall some of the basic definitions in fuzzy topology:
DEFINITION 2.1 [9] : Let ƒ : X ⎯→ Y be a mapping from a set X to another set Y.

if λ is a fuzzy set of X, we defined ƒ(λ) as :

{
−1
supλ ( x ) if f (y ) ≠ Φ
f (λ )( y ) = 0
x ∈ f −1 ( y )
otherwise for each y ∈Y

If µ is fuzzy set of Y, then ƒ-1(µ) is a fuzzy set of X defined as :

ƒ-1(µ)(x) = µ (ƒ(x)), for each x ∈ X .

DEFINITION 2.2 [3] : Let X be a non empty set and τ be a family of fuzzy sets of X.
Then τ is called a fuzzy topology on X if it satisfies the following conditions :

(i) 0x and 1x belong to τ


(ii) Any union of members of τ is in τ

(iii) A finite intersection of members of τ is in τ.

DEFINITION 2.3 : A fuzzy set A in a fts X is called :


(i) Fuzzy feebly open set if there is a fuzzy open set U such that U ≤ A ≤ sclU
where scl A is fuzzy semi closure A, is defined by the intersection of all fuzzy
semiclosed sets containing A.
(ii) Fuzzy α-open set [2] if A ≤ int cl int A.
(iii) Fuzzy preopen set [2] if A ≤ int cl A.
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(iv) Fuzzy β-open set [7] if A ≤ cl int cl A.


(v) Fuzzy semi-preopen set [9] if there exsits a fuzzy preopen set U such that
U ≤ A ≤ cl U
(vi) Fuzzy regular open set [1] if A = int cl A .

DEFINITION 2.4 : For a mapping ƒ : X ⎯→ Y from a fts X into a fts Y is said


to be:
(i) Fuzzy continuous [3] if ƒ−1(B) is fuzzy open ( fuzzy closed ) set in X for
each fuzzy open ( fuzzy closed ) set B in Y.
(ii) Fuzzy α-continuous [10] if ƒ−1(B) is fuzzy α-open ( fuzzy α-closed ) set in
X for each fuzzy open ( fuzzy closed ) set B in Y.
(iii)Fuzzy precontinuous [2] if ƒ−1(B) is fuzzy preopen ( fuzzy preclosed ) set
in X for each fuzzy open ( fuzzy closed ) set B in Y.
(iv) Fuzzy almost continuous [3] if ƒ−1(B) is fuzzy open ( fuzzy closed ) set in
X for each fuzzy regular open ( fuzzy regular closed ) set B in Y.
(v) Fuzzy weakly continuous [1] if for each fuzzy open set B in Y, ƒ−1 ( B ) ≤
int ƒ−1 ( cl B ).
3. Fuzzy Semi α-Open Sets
DEFINITION 3.1 : A subset A of a fuzzy topological space X is called " fuzzy semi α-
open set" if there exists a fuzzy α-open set U in X such that U ≤ A ≤ cl U. The family of
all fuzzy semi α-open sets of X is denoted by FSαO(X).
DEFINITION 3.2 : The complement of fuzzy semi α-open set is called " fuzzy semi α-
closed set" the family of all fuzzy semi α-closed sets of X is denoted by FSαC(X).
THEOREM 3.3 : For any fuzzy subset A of fts X. A is called " fuzzy α-open set" if and
only if there exists a fuzzy open set G such that G ≤ A ≤ int cl G
PROOF : Necessity : If A be a fuzzy α-open set ⇒ A ≤ int cl int A.
Hence G ≤ A ≤ int cl G, where G = int A
Sufficiency : obvious. ■
THEOREM 3.4: For any fuzzy subset of fts X, the following properties are equivalent:
(i) A ∈ FSαO(X).
(ii) There exists a fuzzy open set say G such that G ≤ A ≤ cl int cl G.
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(iii)A ≤ cl int cl int A


(iv) cl A = cl int cl int A
PROOF: (i)⇒ (ii). Let A ∈ FSαO(X), there exists a fuzzy α-open set U in X such that U
≤ A ≤ cl U.Hence there exists G fuzzy open set such that G ≤ U ≤ int cl G ( by theorem
3.3).Therefore cl G ≤ cl U ≤ cl int cl G .Then G ≤ U ≤ A ≤ cl U ≤ cl int cl G. Therefore G
≤ A ≤ cl int cl G for some G fuzzy open sets.
(ii) ⇒ (iii). Suppose that there exists a fuzzy open set say G such that G ≤ A ≤ cl int cl G.
Hence cl G ≤ cl int A ⇒ int cl G ≤ int cl int A .Therefore cl int cl G ≤ cl int cl int
A.Then ( by hypothesis ) A ≤ cl int cl int A.

(iii) ⇒ (iv). Obvious .

(iv)⇒ (i). Let cl A = cl int cl int A then A ≤ cl int cl int A . To prove A ∈


FSαO(X).Since int cl int A ≤ int cl A, therefore cl int cl int A ≤ cl int A ⇒ A ≤
cl int A. let U = int A Hence there exists a fuzzy open set U such that U ≤ A ≤ cl
U .On othere hand , U is a fuzzy α-open set .Hence A ∈ FSαO(X).■
COROLLARY 3.5: For any fuzzy subset of fts X, the following properties are
equivalent
(i) A ∈ FSαCX).
(ii) There exists a fuzzy closed set F such that int cl int F ≤ A ≤ F
(iii) int cl int cl A ≤ A
(iv) int cl int cl = int A
PROOF: It is analogous theorem 3.4. ■
THEOREM 3.6 [1]: Let X and Y be fts's such that X is product related to Y. Then for a
fuzzy set λ of X and a fuzzy set µ of Y:
(i) cl (λ ×µ ) = cl λ × cl µ
(ii) int (λ ×µ ) = int λ × int µ
THEOREM 3.7: Let X and Y be fts's that X is product related to Y. Then the product λ
×µ of a fuzzy semi α-open set λ in X and fuzzy semi α-open set µ in Y, is a fuzzy semi α-
open set in the fuzzy product space.
PROOF: Since λ and µ are fuzzy semi α-open set λ ≤ int cl int cl λ and µ ≤ int cl int cl
µ. Then we have λ ×µ ≤ int cl int cl λ × int cl int cl µ = int cl int cl (λ ×µ ) ( by theorem
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(3.6 ). which show that λ ×µ is fuzzy semi α-open set .■


COROLLARY 3.8: Let X and Y be fts's that X is product related to Y. Then the product
λ ×µ of a fuzzy semi α-closed set λ in X and fuzzy semi α-closed set µ in Y, is a fuzzy
semi α-closed set in the fuzzy product space.
PROOF: It is analogous theorem 3.7. ■
THEOREM 3.9: (i) Any union of fuzzy semi α-open sets is fuzzy semi α-open set
(ii) Any intersection of fuzzy semi α-closed sets is fuzzy semi α-closed set.
PROOF:(i) Let {Ai } be a collection of fuzzy semi α-open sets of fuzzy space X.
Then there exists a Gi fuzzy α-open sets such that Gi ≤ Ai ≤ cl Gi for each i.
Thus, ∪ Gi ≤ ∪ Ai ≤ ∪ cl Gi ≤ cl (∪ Gi ) and ∪ Gi is α-open sets .
show that ∪ Ai is fuzzy semi α-open set.
(ii) It is analogous (i) ■
REMARK 3.10: The Intersection (Union ) of any two fuzzy semi α-open (fuzzy semi α-
closed ) sets need not be fuzzy semi α-open (fuzzy semi α-closed ) set.
The following example show that.
EXAMPLE 3.11: Let X = {a, b, c} and v1 , v2 , v3 and v4 be fuzzy sets of X defined as:
v1 (a) = 0 v1 (b) = 0 v1 (c) = 0.4
v2 (a) = 0.9 v2 (b) = 0.6 v2 (c) = 0
v3 (a) = 0 v3 (b) = 0.3 v3 (c) = 0.4
v4(a) = 0.9 v4(b) = 0.7 v4 (c) = 0.2
Let τ = {o, v1 , v2 , v1 ∪ v2 , 1 } clearly τ is a fts on X and by easy
computation, it follows that, v3 ≤ (v1 ∪ v2 )c = cl int cl int v3 . v4 ≤ v1c = cl int
cl int v4 , that is v3 and v4 are fuzzy semi α-open sets . But (v3 ∩ v4 ) 0 Which
show that v3 ∩ v4 is not a fuzzy semi α-open set.

Also, we find that v3c and v4c are fuzzy semi α-closed sets . But v3c ∪ v4c = (v3 ∩
v4 )c is not a fuzzy semi α- closed set, because (v3 ∩ v4 ) is not a fuzzy semi α-
open set.
THEOREM 3.12: Let A be a fuuzy semi α-open set in fts X, if B is a fuzzy set
satisfying : A ≤ B ≤ cl A . Then B is fuzzy semi α-open set in X.
PROOF: Since A ≤ B then int A ≤ int B ⇒ cl int cl int A ≤ cl int cl int B ---- (1)
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But B ≤ cl A . Since A is fuzzy semi α-open set . Hence cl A = cl int cl int A .


cl B ≤ cl A = cl int cl int A ---- (2)
From (1) and (2) B ≤ cl B ≤ cl int cl int B .
Therefore B is fuzzy semi α-open set. ■
COROLLARY 3.13: Let A be a fuzzy semi α-open set in fts X, if B is a fuzzy set
satisfying : int A ≤ B ≤ A, then B is fuzzy semi α-open set
PROOF: It is analogous theorem 3.12. ■
THEOREM 3.14: A fuzzy set A in a fts X is fuzzy semi α-open set if and only if for
every fuzzy point p ∈ A there exists a fuzzy semi α-open set Mp ≤ A such that p ∈ Mp .
PROOF: Necessity:If A is a fuzzy semi α-open set , then we may take Mp = A for every
p∈A
Sufficiency: We have A = ∪p∈A{p} ≤ ∪p∈A Mp ≤ A and hence A = ∪p∈A Mp .
This show that A is fuzzy semi α-open set by theorem (3.9 ). ■

From the definitions 2.3 and 3.1, the following “Implication Diagram -1” illustrates the
relation of different classes of fuzzy open sets.

Fuzzy regular
open Fuzzy preopen

Fuzzy open Fuzzy α-open

Fuzzy semi preopen


Fuzzy feebly open

Fuzzy semi α-open Fuzzy β-open

Diagram(1)
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REMARK 3.15: We can see the converse of these relations need not be true, in general
as shown by the following examples .
EXAMPLE 3.16: Let X = {a, b, c} and v1 , v2 , v3 and v4 be fuzzy sets of X defined as:
v1 (a) = 0.5 v1 (b) = 0.3
v2 (a) = 0.5 v2 (b) = 0.6
v3 (a) = 0.6 v3 (b) = 0.3
v4(a) = 0.6 v4(b) = 0.7
Consider the fts 's τ1 and τ2 where τ1 = {0, v1, 1 } and τ2 = { 0, v2, 1 }.

(1) With respect to τ1, v2 is fuzzy semi α-open set which is neither fuzzy α-
open set nor fuzzy preopen set .
(2) With respect to τ1, v3 is fuzzy preopen set which is neither fuzzy α-open
set nor fuzzy semi α-open set, also neither fuzzy open set and nor fuzzy
fuzzy regular open set.
(3) With respect to τ2, v4 is fuzzy α-open set which is not fuzzy open set .

EXAMPLE 3.17: Let X be a fuzzy indiscret space, each fuzzy set of X are fuzzy β-open
set and fuzzy preopen set which is neither fuzzy semi α-open set nor fuzzy α-open set
EXAMPLE 3.18: Let X = {a, b, c} and v1 and v2 be fuzzy sets of X defined as :
v1 (a) = 0.5 v1 (b) = 0.3
v2 (a) = 0.5 v2 (b) = 0.6
and let τ = {o, v1, 1 }, then v2 is fuzzy β-open set which is neither fuzzy α-open
set nor fuzzy preopen set .
4. Fuzzy Semi α-Continuous Mappings and
Fuzzy α-Open (Fuzzy α-Closed ) Mappings

DEFINITION 4.1: For a mapping ƒ : X ⎯→ Y from a fts X into a fts Y is said


to be :
(i) Fuzzy semi α-continuous if and only if ƒ−1(B) is fuzzy semi α-open ( fuzzy
semi α-closed ) set in X for each fuzzy open ( fuzzy closed ) set B in Y.
(ii) Fuzzy semi α*-continuous if and only if ƒ−1(B) is fuzzy semi α-open ( fuzzy
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semi α-closed ) set in X for each fuzzy semi α- open (fuzzy semi-α-closed ) set B
in Y.
(iii) Fuzzy semi α**-continuous if and only if ƒ−1(B) is fuzzy open ( fuzzy
closed ) set in X for each fuzzy semi α-open ( fuzzy semi α-closed ) set B in Y.

THEOREM 4.2: Let ƒ : X ⎯→ Y where X and Y are fts's . Then the following
statements are equivalent :
(i) ƒ is a fuzzy semi α-continuous .
(ii) For every p ∈ X and every M ∈ N (ƒ (p) ), there exists a fuzzy semi α-open set A
such that p ∈ A and A ≤ ƒ−1( M ) .
(iii)For every p ∈ X and every M ∈ N (ƒ (p) ), there exists a fuzzy semi α-open set A
such that p ∈ A and ƒ ( A ) ≤ M .
(iv) The inverse image of each fuzzy closed set in Y is fuzzy semi α-closed set in X.
(v) ƒ ( int cl int cl U ) ≤ cl ƒ ( U ), for each U ∈ X .
(vi) int cl int cl (ƒ−1( B ) ) ≤ ƒ−1( cl B ), for each B ∈ Y.
PROOF:(i)⇒ (ii). Let p ∈ X and M ∈ N (ƒ (p) ), there exists a fuzzy open set U in Y
such that ƒ (p) ∈ U ≤ M . Since A = ƒ−1( U ) is fuzzy semi α-open set and we have p ∈
ƒ−1( U ) = A ≤ ƒ−1( M ) .
(ii)⇒ (iii). Let p∈X and M ∈ N (ƒ (p) ), there exists a fuzzy semi α-open set A such that
p∈A and A ≤ ƒ−1( M ). So we have p ∈ A , ƒ ( A ) ≤ ƒ ( ƒ−1( M ) ) ≤ M .
(iii)⇒ (i). Let M be a fuzzy open set in Y and let us take p ∈ ƒ−1( M ). This shows that ƒ
(p) ∈ ƒ ( ƒ−1( M ) ) ≤ M . Since M is fuzzy open set, we have M ∈ N (ƒ (p) ). There exists
a fuzzy semi α-open set A such that p ∈ A and ƒ ( A ) ≤ M . This show that :
p ∈ A ≤ ƒ ( ƒ−1( A ) ) ≤ ƒ−1( M ) ( by theorem (3. 14 ), it follows that ƒ−1( M ) is fuzzy
semi α-open set in X and hence ƒ is fuzzy semi α-continuous.
(i)⇒ (iv). Let B be fuzzy closed set in Y .This implies that Iy-B is fuzzy open set .Hence
ƒ−1(Iy-B ) is fuzzy semi α-open set in X i.e (IX - ƒ−1 ( B ) ) is fuzzy semi α-open set in
X.Thus ƒ−1 ( B ) is a fuzzy semi α-closed set in X.
(iv)⇒ (v). Let U be a fuzzy subset of Y then cl ƒ (U ) fuzzy closed set in Y. So that
ƒ−1 (cl ƒ (U ) ) semi α-closed set in X. Thus we have ƒ−1 (cl ƒ (U ) ) ≥ int cl int cl ƒ−1 (cl
9

ƒ (U ) ) ≥ int cl int cl U or cl ƒ (U ) ≥ ƒ (in cl int cl U ) .


(v)⇒ (vi). Since B ∈ Y, ƒ−1 ( B ) ∈ X so by hypothesis we have int cl int cl ƒ−1 ( B ) ≤
cl ƒ ( ƒ−1( M ) ) ≤ cl B, that is int cl int cl ƒ−1 ( B ) ≤ ƒ−1 ( cl B ) .
(vi)⇒ (i). Let U be a fuzzy open subset of Y .Let B = Iy – U and U = ƒ−1 ( B ) by ( 5 )
we have int cl int cl (ƒ−1 ( B ) ) ≤ cl B = B. That is int cl int cl ƒ−1 (Iy – U ) ≤
ƒ−1 (Iy – U ) . Or cl int cl int (ƒ−1 ( U ) ) ≥ ƒ−1 ( U ).Hence ƒ−1 ( U ) is a fuzzy semi α-
open set in X and thus ƒ is fuzzy semi α-continuous. ■
REMARK 4.3: If ƒ : X ⎯→ Y is semi α-continuns mapping and g : Y ⎯→ Z is

semi α-continuns mapping, then goƒ : X ⎯→ Z may not be a semi α-continuns


mapping, this can be show by the followonig example .
EXAMPLE 4.4: Let X = {a, b, c} and v1 , v2 , v3 and v4 be fuzzy sets of X defined as:
v1 (a) = 0.4 v1 (b) = 0.6 v1 (c) = 0.5
v2 (a) = 0.6 v2 (b) = 0.4 v2 (c) = 0.4
v3 (a) = 0.4 v3 (b) = 0.6 v3 (c) = 0.6
v4 (a) = 0.7 v4 (b) = 0.7 v4 (c) = 0.8
v5 (a) = 0.7 v5 (b) = 0.8 v5 (c) = 0.8

Consider the fts's τ1 , τ2 and τ3 where τ1 = {o, v1 , v2 , v1 ∩ v2 , v1 ∪ v2 , 1 } ,

τ2 = {o, v3 , 1 } and τ3 = {o, v4 , 1 } and the mapping ƒ : ( X , τ1 ) ⎯→ ( X , τ2 )


and g : ( X , τ2 ) ⎯→ ( X , τ3 ) defined as : ƒ(a) = a ƒ(b) = b ƒ(c) = c and

g(a) = a g(b) = c g(c) = c .It is clear that ƒ and g are fuzzy semi α- continuous
mapping . But goƒ : ( X , τ1 ) ⎯→ ( X , τ3 ) is not a fuzzy semi α-continuous mapping.
This is because (goƒ )-1 ( v4 ) = v5 and v5 is not fuzzy semi α-open set and hence goƒ is
not semi α-continuous mapping.
THEOREM 4.5:If ƒ : X ⎯→ Y is fuzzy semi α-continuous mapping and g :Y ⎯→ Z is
fuzzy continuous, then goƒ : X ⎯→ Z is fuzzy semi α-continuous mapping.

PROOF: Let v be a fuzzy set of Z . Then (goƒ )-1 ( v ) = ƒ−1 ( g-1 ( v ) ). And because
g is fuzzy continuous this implies that g-1 ( v ) is a fuzzy open set of Y and hence
ƒ−1 ( g-1 ( v ) ) is a fuzzy semi α-open set in X. Therfore goƒ is a fuzzy semi α-
10

continuous mapping. ■
DEFINITION 4.6: For a mapping ƒ : X ⎯→ Y from a fts X into a fts Y is said
to be :
(i) Fuzzy semi α-open (fuzzy semi α-closed ) if and only if ƒ(A) is fuzzy semi α-
open (fuzzy semi α-closed ) set in Y for each fuzzy open ( fuzzy closed ) set
A in X.
(ii) Fuzzy semi α*-open (fuzzy semi α*-closed ) if and only if ƒ(A) is fuzzy semi
α-open (fuzzy semi α-closed ) set in Y for each fuzzy semi α-open ( fuzzy
semi α-closed ) set A in X.
(iii)Fuzzy semi α**-open (fuzzy semi α**-closed ) if and only if ƒ(A) is fuzzy
open (fuzzy closed ) set in Y for each fuzzy semi α-open ( fuzzy semi α-
closed ) set A in X.

THEOREM 4.7: A mapping ƒ:X ⎯→ Y is fuzzy semi α-open if and only if for

every fuzzy set A in X, ƒ ( int A ) ≤ cl int cl int ƒ ( A ).

PROOF: Necessity:For any fuzzy set A in X, ƒ ( int A ) is fuzzy semi α-open set
in Y this implies that ƒ ( int A ) ≤ cl int cl int ƒ ( int A ).Hence ƒ ( int A ) ≤
cl int cl int ƒ ( A ).
Sufficiency:For any fuzzy open set A in X, we have by hypothesis
ƒ ( int A ) ≤ cl int cl int ƒ ( A ).So ƒ ( A ) is fuzzy semi α-open set in Y and hence
ƒ is a fuzzy semi α-open mapping. ■
THEOREM 4.8: A mapping ƒ:X ⎯→ Y is fuzzy semi α-closed if and only if for

every fuzzy set A in X, int cl int cl ƒ ( B ) ≤ ƒ ( cl B ).

PROOF: This is an immediate consequence of theorem 4.6. ■

REMARK 4.9: Let ƒ : X ⎯→ Y and g : Y ⎯→ Z be two mapping, then the


following statements are true :
(i) If ƒ and g are fuzzy semi α-open mapping, then goƒ : X ⎯→ Z may not be a
fuzzy semi α-open mapping.
(ii) If ƒ and g are fuzzy semi α-closed mapping, then goƒ : X ⎯→ Z may not be a
fuzzy semi α-closed mapping.
11

These can be shown by the following example :


EXAMPLE 4.10: Let X = {a, b, c} and v1 , v2 and v3 be fuzzy sets of X defined as:
v1 (a) = 0.4 v1 (b) = 0.7 v1 (c) = 0.5
v2 (a) = 0.6 v2 (b) = 0.5 v2 (c) = 0.4
v3 (a) = 0.4 v3 (b) = 0.4 v3 (c) = 0.5
Consider the fts's τ1 , τ2 and τ3 where τ1 = {o, v1 , 1 } , τ2 = {o, v2 , 1 } and τ3 =
{o, v3 , 1 } and the mapping ƒ : ( X , τ1 ) ⎯→ ( X , τ2 ) and g : ( X , τ2 ) ⎯→ ( X , τ3 )
defined as :
(i) ƒ(a) = a ƒ(b) = a ƒ(c) = b and g(a) = b g(b) = c g(c) = a

It is clear that ƒ and g are fuzzy semi α-open mapping .

But goƒ : ( X , τ1 ) ⎯→ ( X , τ3 ) is not fuzzy semi α-open mapping.This is because

(goƒ ) ( v1 ) = v1 and v1 is not fuzzy semi α-open set.

(ii) ƒ(a) = c ƒ(b) = a ƒ(c) = b and g(a) = b g(b) = c g(c) = a

It is clear that ƒ and g are fuzzy semi α-closed mapping .

But goƒ : ( X , τ1 ) ⎯→ ( X , τ3 ) is not a fuzzy semi α-closed mapping. This is because


(goƒ ) ( v1c) = v1c and v1 is not fuzzy semi α-closed set.

THEOREM 4.11: Let ƒ : ( X , τ1 ) ⎯→ ( Y , τ2 ) and g : ( Y , τ2 ) ⎯→ ( Z , τ3 ) be


two mapping, then the following statements are true :

(i) goƒ is semi α-open mapping if ƒ is fuzzy open mapping and g is semi α-open
mapping.

(ii) goƒ is semi α-closed mapping if ƒ is fuzzy closed mapping and g is semi α-closed
mapping.

PROOF: (i) Let A be fuzzy open set of X, then ƒ ( A ) is fuzzy open set in Y .Thus,

( goƒ ) ( A ) = g (ƒ (A ) is a fuzzy semi α-open set of Z .Hence goƒ is semi α-

open mapping.

(iii)It is analogous ( 1 ). ■
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From Definition 4. 1 and Definition 4.6, we can have the following “


Implication Diagram -2 ” diagrams the relation between different classes of fuzzy
semi α-continuous ( fuzzy semi α-open ) mappings.

Fuzzy semi α**-continuity Fuzzy semi α**-openness

Fuzzy semi α*-continuity Fuzzy semi α*-openness

Fuzzy semi α-continuity Fuzzy semi α-openness

Diagram (2)

The following “Implication Diagram-3” illustrates the relation between different classes
of fuzzy continuous mapping .

F. s.α-c

F.c F.α-c F. p.c

F. w.c F. a. c

Diagram (3)
Where , F.s. α.-c = Fuzzy semi α-continuity, F.c = Fuzzy continuity
F. α-c = Fuzzy α-continuity , F.a.c = Fuzzy almost continuity
F.p.c = Fuzzy precontinuity, F.w.c = Fuzzy weak continuity
13

REMARK 4.12: We can see the converse of these relations need not be true, in general
as shown by the following examples .
EXAMPLE 4.13: Let ƒ be injective mapping from a fuzzy indiscrete space to a fuzzy
discrete space is a fuzzy precontinuous mapping, which is neither a fuzzy α-continuous
nor fuzzy semi α-continuous mapping.
EXAMPLE 4.14: Let X = {a, b, c} and v1 and v2 be fuzzy sets of X defined as :
v1 (a) = 0.3 v1 (b) = 0.6
v2 (a) = 0.5 v2 (b) = 0.6
Consider the fts's τ1 and τ2 where τ1 = {o, v1 , 1 } and τ2 = {o, v2 , 1 }. The identity
mapping ƒ : ( X , τ1 ) ⎯→ ( X , τ2 ) is a fuzzy semi α-continuous mapping which is
neither fuzzy α-continuous mapping nor fuzzy precontinuous mapping.
EXAMPLE 4.15: Let X = {a, b, c} and v1 and v2 be fuzzy sets of X defined as :
v1 (a) = 0 v1 (b) = 2/3 v1 (c) = 0.5
v2 (a) = 1 v2 (b) = 0 v2 (c) = 0
Consider the fts's τ1 and τ2 where τ1 = {o, v1 , v2 , 1 } and τ2 = {o, v2 , 1 }. The identity
mapping ƒ : ( X , τ1 ) ⎯→ ( X , τ2 ) is a fuzzy weakly continuous mapping which is not
fuzzy almost continuous mapping.

The following “ Implication Diagram -4 ” illustrates the relation between different classes
of fuzzy open and fuzzy closed mappings .
F.s. α-o. (F.s. α-c.)

F. o. (F.c.) F. α-o. (F.α-c.)

F. p.o. (F.p.c.)
Diagram (4)
Where , F.s. α.-o.(F.s. α-c.). = Fuzzy semi α-openness(Fuzzy semi α-closedness),
F.o.(F.c.) = Fuzzy openness(Fuzzy closedness)
F. α-o.( F. α-c.) = Fuzzy α-openness(Fuzzy α-closedness)
F.p.o.(F.p.c..) = Fuzzy preopenness( Fuzzy preclosedness)
14

REMARK 4.16: We can see the converse of these relations need not be true, in general
as shown by the following examples .
EXAMPLE 4.17: By referring to example 4.13. We can see ƒ are a fuzzy preopen
mapping and fuzzy preclosed maping which is neither fuzzy α-open mapping nor fuzzy
α-closed mapping.
EXAMPLE 4.18: Let X = {a, b, c} and v1 and v2 be fuzzy sets of X defined as :
v1 (a) = 0.5 v1 (b) = 0.6 v1 (c) = 0.7
v2 (a) = 0.5 v2 (b) = 0.6 v2 (c) = 0.6
Consider the fts's τ1 and τ2 where τ1 = {o, v1 , 1 } and τ2 = {o, v2 , 1 }. The identity
mapping ƒ : ( X , τ1 ) ⎯→ ( X , τ2 ) are a fuzzy α- open maping and fuzzy α-closed
mapping which is neither fuzzy open mapping nor fuzzy closed mapping.
EXAMPLE 4.19: Let X = {a, b, c} and v1 , v2 and v3 be fuzzy sets of X defined as:
v1 (a) = 0.4 v1 (b) = 0.6 v1 (c) = 0.5
v2 (a) = 0.6 v2 (b) = 0.5 v2 (c) = 0.4
v3 (a) = 0.4 v3 (b) = 0.4 v3 (c) = 0.5
Consider the fts's τ1 and τ2 where τ1 = {o, v2 , 1 } and τ2 = {o, v3 , 1 } and the
mapping ƒ : ( X , τ1 ) ⎯→ ( X , τ2 ) defined as : ƒ(a) = b ƒ(b) = c ƒ(c) = a .
It is clear that ƒ are a fuzzy semi α- open maping and fuzzy semi α-closed mapping
which is neither fuzzy α-open mapping nor fuzzy α-closed mapping.

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Thesis , Al-Mustansiriya University, IRAQ (2004).
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