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SULIT 4551/2

SECTION A For
examiner
Bahagian A
use

[60 marks]
[60 markah]

Answer all questions in this section.


Jawab semua soalan dalam bahagian ini.

1. Diagram 1 shows the structure of the plasma membrane that is involved in the
movement of substances.
Rajah 1 menunjukkan struktur membran plasma yang terlibat dalam pergerakan
bahan-bahan.
.

Diagram 1
Rajah 1

(a) Name the parts of the plasma membrane labelled L, M and N in Diagram 1.
Namakan bahagian membran plasma berlabel L, M dan N dalam Rajah 1.

L : ……………………………………………………………………………………

M : …………………………………………………………………………………… 1(a)

N : …………………………………………………………………………………….
[ 3 marks / 3 markah ]

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(b) Based on Diagram 1, explain how water and calcium ions are transported across the
plasma membrane into the cell.
Berdasarkan Rajah 1, terangkan bagaimanakah air dan ion kalsium diangkut
merentas membran plasma ke dalam sel.

Water / air:

…..……………………………………………………………………………..……………

….…………….…………………………………………………………..…………………
[ 3 marks / 3 markah ]

Calcium ions / Ion kalsium

…..……………………………………………………………………………..……… 1(b)

….…………….…………………………………………………………..……………
[ 3 marks / 3 markah ]

(c) Explain the effects of high blood sugar level on the red blood cells of a person with
diabetes mellitus.
Terangkan kesan aras gula darah yang tinggi ke atas sel darah merah orang yang
mengidap kencing manis

…..……………………………………………………………………………..……………

….…………….…………………………………………………………..…………………
1(c)
…..……………………………………………………………………………..……………

…..……………………………………………………………………………..……………
[ 3 marks / 3 markah ]

(d) Explain what happens to a marine fish if it will enter into the fresh water.
Terangkan apa yang berlaku kepada ikan laut jika ia akan masuk ke dalam air
tawar.

…..……………………………………………………………………………..……………
1(d)
….…………….…………………………………………………………..…………………

…..……………………………………………………………………………..……………
[ 3 marks / 3 markah ]

TOTAL

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2. Diagram 2(a) shows human respiratory system.


Rajah 2(a) menunjukkan sistem respirasi manusia.

M: Trachea / Trakea

N: Bronchus / Bronkus

O: Alveolus / Alveolus
P
Q

Diagram 2(a) / Rajah 2

(a) Name the structure labelled P and Q.


Namakan struktur berlabel P dan Q.

P:...................................................................................................................................
2(a)
Q:...................................................................................................................................

[2 marks / 2 markah]

(b) Explain the adaptation of the human respiratory system for maximum respiration.
Terangkan adaptasi ke atas sistem respirasi manusia untuk respirasi yang
maksimum.

.....................................................................................................................................

....................................................................................................................................
2(b)
....................................................................................................................................

...................................................................................................................................

[4 marks / 4 markah]

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(c) Explain how the carbon dioxide is transported in the blood.


Terangkan bagaimana karbon dioksida diangkut di dalam darah.

.......................................................................................................................................

......................................................................................................................................

.................................................................................................................................. … 2(c)

.....................................................................................................................................
[3 marks / 3 markah]
(d) Diagram 2(b) shows respiratory centre in human brain.
Rajah 2(b) menunjukkan pusat respirasi di otak manusia.

Chemoreceptor in medulla/ Kemoreseptor di medula

Respiratory centre / Pusat respirasi


To brain / Ke otak

Carotid body / Badan karotid


To brain / Ke otak

Aotic body / Badan aotik


Spinal cord / Saraf tunjang
Aorta

Heart / Jantung

Peripheral nerve / Saraf periferal

Stretch receptos in muscle


Reseptor regang dalam otot
Stretch receptos in tendon
Reseptor regang dalam tendon

Diagram 2(b) / Rajah 2(b)

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Explain the regulatory mechanism when partial pressure of carbon dioxide increases
during vigorous activity.
Terangkan mekanisme kawal atur apabila tekanan separa karbon dioksida
meningkat semasa aktiviti cergas.

......................................................................................................................................

.......................................................................................................................................
2(d)
.......................................................................................................................................
[3 marks/ 3 markah]

TOTAL

3 Diagram 3 shows a type of organelle which is found in a green leaf. Photosynthesis


process occurs in the organelle.
Rajah 3 menunjukkan satu jenis organel yang dijumpai di dalam daun hijau. Proses
Fotosintesis berlaku di dalam organel tersebut.

Lipid globul
Globul lipid

Starch granule
Granul kanji

Diagram 3
Rajah 3

(a) Name the parts labeled X and Y in Diagram 3.


Namakan bahagian yang berlabel X dan Y dalam Rajah 3.

X : …………………………………………………………………………………… 3(a)
3(a)
Y : ……………………………………………………………………………………
[ 2 marks/2 markah]

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(b) (i) Explain how light reaction occurs at X.


Terangkan bagaimana tindak balas cahaya berlaku di X.

…..……………………………………………………………………………..………
3(b)(i)
….…………….…………………………………………………………..……………

….…………….…………………………………………………………..……………
[2 marks/2 markah]

(ii) Explain how dark reaction occurs at Y.


Terangkan bagaimana tindak balas gelap berlaku di Y.

…..……………………………………………………………………………..………

….…………….…………………………………………………………..…………… 3(b)(ii)

…..……………………………………………………………………………..……
[2 marks/2 markah]

(c) Complete the following table to show the differences between the stages of light
reaction and dark reaction .
Lengkapkan jadual berikut untuk menunjukkan perbezaan antara peringkat tindak
balas cahaya dan tindak balas gelap.

Light reaction Dark reaction


Tindak balas cahaya Tindak balas gelap

3(c)

[4 marks/4 markah]

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(d) Study the graph below.


Kaji graf di bawah.

Explain the relationship between light intensity and rate of photosynthesis.


Terangkan hubungan antara keamatan cahaya dan kadar fotosintesis

…..……………………………………………………………………………..……………

….…………….…………………………………………………………..………………… 3(d)

………………………………………………………………………………………………
(2 marks/2 markah)

TOTAL

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4. Diagram 4 shows the stages in the formation of human foetus.


Rajah 4 menunjukkan peringkat-peringkat di dalam pembentukan fetus manusia

Zygote
Zigot

X
Process P
Proses P Q
Foetus
Fetus
Amniotic fluid
Cecair amniotik

Umbilical cord
Tali pusat
Uterine wall
Foetus Dinding uterus
Fetus

Diagram 4 / Rajah 4

Diagram 4.1
Rajah 4.1
(a) (i) What is X?
Apakah X? 4(a)(i)

…………………………………………………………………………………
[ 1 mark / 1 markah ]

(ii) Four days after fertilization, zygote develop into X. Explain the development
of zygote into X.
Empat hari selepas persenyawaan, zigot berkembang kepada X. Terangkan
perkembangan zigot kepada X.

…………………………………………………………………………………
4(a)(ii)

………………………………………………………………………………….
[ 2 marks / 2 markah ]

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(b) Seven days after fertilization, X enter into uterine wall through Precess P . What is For
examiner
Process P? use
Tujuh hari selepas persenyawaan, X memasuki dinding uterus melalui Proses P.
Apakah Proses P ? 4(b)

………………………………………………………………………………………
[1 mark / 1 markah ]

(c) In the 16th week, a pregnant mother is infected with a disease. The infection cuases
structure Q to stop functioning. The mother miscarriage. Explain this statement.
Pada minggu ke-16, seorang ibu hamil dijangkiti penyakit. Jangkitan itu
menyebabkan struktur Q berhenti berfungsi. Ibu hamil itu mengalami keguguran.
Jelaskan pernyataan ini.

…..…………………………………………………………………………………
4(c)

…..…………………………………………………………………………………..
[ 2 marks / 2 markah ]

(d) Diagram 4.2 shows the formation of one type of twins


Rajah 4.2 menunjukkan pembentukkan sejenis kembar

Diagram 4.2
Rajah 4.2

(i) Name the type of twins.Q


Namakan jenis kembar Q. 4(d)(i)

…………………………………………………………………………………
[1 mark / 1 markah ]

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(ii) Explain how twins Q are formed.


Terangkan bagaimana kembar Q terbentuk.
4(d)(ii)
………………………………………………………………………………….
[1 mark / 1 markah ]

(e) Diagram 4.3 shows another two pairs of twins.


Rajah 4.3 menunjukkan dua pasangan kembar yang lain

Diagram 4.3
Rajah 4.3

(i) State two differences between twins R and twins S


Nyatakan dua perbezaan di antara kembar R dan kembar S

1. ……………………………………………………………………………….

………………………………………………………………………………….

2. ……………………………………………………………………………… 4(e)(i)
………………………………………………………………………………….
[ 2 marks / 2 markah ]

(ii) Twins R are brought up by two different adopted families. The twins do not
have the same body size when they are adult. Explain why.
Kembar R dibesarkan oleh dua keluarga angkat yang berbeza. Kembar itu
tidak serupa saiz badan apabila dewasa. Terangkan mengapa.

…..……………………………………………………………………………… 4(e)(ii)

…..………………………………………………………………………………
[ 2 marks / 2 markah ]
TOTAL

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5.. Syamil has blood group A while his wife, Aisyah, has blood group B. Allele IA and For
examiner
IB are dominant allele while allele IO is the recessive allele. Diagram 5 shows the use
inherintance of blood group of the family.
Syamil mempunyai kumpulan darah A manakala isterinya, Aisyah, mempunyai
kumpulan darah B. Alel IA dan IB adalah alel IO adalah alel resesif. Rajah 5
menunjukkan ringkasan pewarisan kumpulan darah keluarga itu.

Parent/ Induk Syamil X Aisyah


Parent’s phenotype Blood group A Blood group B
Fenotip induk

Parent’s genotype ……………….. …………………


Genotip induk

Gamete
Gamet

Offspring’s phenotype Blood group O


Fenotip anak Kumpulan
darah O

Offspring’s genotype
Genotip anak ……… ……… .……. ………

Diagram 5 / Rajah 5

(a) (i) State the genotype of offspring


Nyatakan genotip bagi anak
5(a)(i)
…………………………………………………………………………………………
[ 2 marks / 2 markah ]

(ii) State the phenotypic ratio of the offspring


Nyatakan nisbah fenotip bagi anak

5(a)(ii)
…………………………………………………………………………………………

…………………………………………………………………………………………
[ 2 marks / 2 markah ]

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(b) Based on Diagram 5, explain which offspring can become a universal donor and For
which one is the universal recipient examiner
Berdasarkan Rajah 5, terangkan anak yang manakah menjadi penderma universal use
dan penerima universal

………………………………………………………………………………………...

………………………………………………………………………………………...

5(b)
………………………………………………………………………………………...

………………………………………………………………………………………..
[ 4 marks / 4 markah ]

(c)
A man with Rhesus factor in his blood is Rh-positive. His wife who does not
have Rhesus factor inher blood is Rh-negative. Their first child who is Rh-
positive survives but their second child who is also Rh-positive does not
survive.
Seorang lelaki yang mempunyai faktor Rhesus dalam darahnya ialah Rh-
positif. Isterinya yang tidak mempunyai faktor Rhesus dalam darahnya ialah
Rh-negatif. Anak pertama mereka yang Rh-positif dapat hidup tetapi anak
kedua mereka yang juga Rh-positif tidak dapat hidup.

(i) Explain why second child does not survive.


Terangkan mengapa anak kedua tidak dapat hidup.

………………………………………………………………………………… 5(c)(i)

…………………………………………………………………………………
[ 2 marks / 2 markah ]

(ii) Suggest prevention of the problem above if they want third child survive.
Cadangkan pencegahan masalah di atas jika mereka ingin anak ketiga hidup.

………………………………………………………………………………… 5(c)(ii)

…………………………………………………………………………………
[ 2 marks / 2 markah ]

TOTAL

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Bahagian B

[40 marks]
[40 markah]

Answer any two questions from this section.


Jawab mana-mana dua soalan dalam bahagian ini.

6. Diagram 6.1shows the structure of the stomata.


Rajah 6.1 menunjukkan struktur stomata.

Day Night
Siang Malam

Diagram 6.1
Rajah 6.1

(a) Based on the Diagram 6.1, explain the opening of stomata


during the daytime and and closing of stomata during night.
Berdasarkan pada Rajah 6.1, terangkan pembukaan stomata pada waktu
siang dan penutupan stoma pada waktu malam.

[6 marks/ 6 markah]

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(b) Diagram 6.2 shows the pathway of water transport of a plant.


Rajah 6.2 menunjukkan laluan pengangkutan air pada satu tumbuhan.

Diagram 6.2
Rajah 6.2

Describe the pathway of water from soil to the leaves and the environment.
Terangkan laluan pengangkutan air dari tanah ke daun dan persekitaran
[6 marks/ 6 markah]

(c) Diagram 6.3 shows a part of the blood circulatory system and the lymphatic system
in human body.
Rajah 6.3 menunjukkan sau bahagian sistem peredaran darah dan sistem limfa
dalam badan manusia.

Diagram 6.3
Rajah 6.3
Explain the formation of interstitial fluid and how it is return back to the blood
circulation
Terangkan pembentukan bendalir interstis dan bagaimana ia kembali ke dalam
peredaran darah.
[8 marks/ 8 markah]

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7. (a) (i) Auxin is a plant hormone which helps in plant growth.


Diagram 7.1 shows the growth of a plant shoot towards light.
Auksin adalah hormon tumbuhan yang membantu pertumbuhan tumbuhan.
Rajah 7.1 menunjukkan pertumbuhan pucuk tumbuhan ke arah cahaya.
Sun
Matahari
Box
Kotak

Hole
Lubang

Diagram 7.1
Rajah 7.1

Explain the role of auxin in the growth of the plant shoot as in Diagram 7.1.
Terangkan peranan auksin dalam pertumbuhan pucuk tumbuhan seperti pada
Rajah 7.1.
[4 marks/4 markah]
(ii) State two commercial values of auxin in agriculture.
Nyatakan dua nilai komersil auksin dalam pertanian.
[2 marks/2markah]

(b) Endocrine system involve endocrine gland that secretes hormones to carry out
regulation process. Hormonal imbalance can lead to certain diseases.
Sistem Endokrin melibatkan kelenjar endokrin yang merembeskan hormon untuk
menjalankan proses pengawalaturan. Ketidakseimbangan hormon boleh
menyebabkan beberapa penyakit tertentu

(i) Explain the effect of under secretion of antidiuretic hormone (ADH) released
by pituitary gland.
Terangkan kesan kekurangan rembesan hormon antidiuretik (ADH) oleh
kelenjar pituitari.
[3 marks/3 markah]

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(ii) Explain the cause of diabetes mellitus in an individual.


Terangkan punca seseorang individu itu boleh mendapat penyakit diabetes
melitus.
[3 marks/3 markah]

(c) Diagram 7.2 (a) and 7.2(b) shows growth curves of two different organisms.
Rajah 7.2(a) dan 7.2 (b) menunjukkan lengkung pertumbuhan bagi dua organisma
yang berbeza.

Diagram 7.2(a) Diagram 7.2(b)


Rajah 7.2(a) Rajah 7.2(b)

(i) Name one organism that has a growth curve shown in Diagram 7.2(a) and
7.2(b).

Namakan satu organisma yang mempunyai lengkung pertumbuhan seperti


yang ditunjukkan dalam Rajah 7.2(a) dan 7.2(b)
[2marks/2markah]

(ii) State two differences between growth curve in Diagram 7.2(a) and 7.2(b).
Nyatakan dua perbezaan antara lengkung pertumbuhan dalam Rajah 7.2(a)
dan 7.2 (b).

[2 marks/2 markah]

(iii) Describe the growth curve in Diagram 7.2(b).


Terangkan lengkung pertumbuhan Rajah 7.2(b).
[4 marks/4markah]

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8. (a) Diagram 8.1 shows a cloth that has been stained with curry.
Rajah 8.1 menunjukkan satu pakaian yang dicemari dengan kuah kari.

Stained
Kotoran

Diagram 8.1
Rajah 8.1

Explain how to increase the effectiveness of bio-enzymes in washing detergents.


Terangkan bagaimana untuk meningkatkan keberkesanan bio-enzim di dalam
detergen pencuci.
[10 marks/ 10 markah]

(b) Diagram 8.2 shows a daily food pyramid of Halim.


Rajah 8.2 menunjukkan piramid makanan seharian Halim

Diagram 8.2
Rajah 8.2

Explain the impact of imbalance diet in the food pyramid.


Terangkan kesan daripada diet yang tidak seimbang di dalam piramid makanan.

[10 marks/ 10 markah]

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9. (a) Diagram 9.1 shows the profile of a mangrove swamp.


Rajah 9.1 menunjukkan profil paya bakau.

Diagram 9.1
Rajah 9.1

(i) Explain the importance of mangrove swamp in the field of:


Terangkan kepentingan paya bakau dalam bidang

● Economy / Ekonomi
● Ecology / Ekologi
[ 4 marks / 4 markah ]

(ii) Based on Diagram 9.1, state the problems and explain the adaptive of the
mangrove trees found in Zone 1, 2 and 3.
Berdasarkan Rajah 9.1, nyatakan masalah dan terangkan struktur tumbuhan paya
bakau dalam Zon 1, 2 dan 3.
[ 6 marks / 6 markah ]

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(b) Diagram 9.2 shows an environmental phenomenon.


Rajah 9.2 menunjukkan satu fenomena alam sekitar

Diagram 9.2
Rajah 9.2

(i) Discuss the good and bad effects in the formation of a layer of greenhouse
gases in the atmosphere.
Bincangkan kesan baik dan kesan buruk pembentukan satu lapisan gas-gas
rumah hijau di atmosfera.
[ 5 marks / 5 markah ]

(ii) If you are an environmental activist, suggest how would you explain to
society about the measures needed to overcome the phenomenon.
Jika anda adalah seorang aktivis alam sekitar, cadangkan bagaimana anda
akan menerangkan kepada orang ramai tentang langkah-langkah yang
diperlukan untuk mengatasi fenomena ini.

[ 5 marks / 5 markah ]

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