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Chapter 5 Solutions

Problem 5.1

p t 0 − p t 2 = 0.1q 0
γ 2
q0 = p0 M 0
2
pt 0
p0 =
(1 + (γ − 1) M 0 / 2) γ /( γ −1)
2

Therefore,

2
p γ  M0
π d = t 2 = 1 − 0.1  ≈0.9685
 2  (1 + (γ − 1) M 0 / 2) γ /(γ −1)
2
pt 0
(γ − 1) / γ
(π d )τ r − 1
ηd = ≈ 0.9278
τr −1

Problem 5.2

From the flight Mach number, we calculate τr and πr. The flight total pressure and
temperature are calculated using isentropic formulas. With pt2 specified, we calculate πd.
Then we calculate ηd. The area ratio is determined on continuity equation, i.e.,

( γ +1) / 2 (γ −1)
A2 pt 0 M 0  1 + (γ − 1) M 2 / 2 
2

=  
A0 pt 2 M 2  1 + (γ − 1) M 0 / 2 
 2

From Mach number and total pressure at 2, we calculate p2. Also, we calculate the non-
dimensional entropy rise following the Gibbs equation:

∆s p 
= − ln  t 2 
R  pt 0 

These calculations are summarized in the spreadsheet output below.


Tau-r Pi-r pt-0 (kPa) Tt-0 (K) pt-2 (kPa) Pi-d
1.1445 1.603819 16.03819 289.5585 15.2 0.947738

Eta-d M2 A2/A0 p2 (kPa) p2/p0 Delta-s/R


0.879457 0.5 1.3851 12.81389 1.281389 0.053677

Problem 5.3
2  pt 0 
From C p , stag = 2 
− 1 we calculate the Cp,stag=1.170
γM 0  p 0 
From isentropic table for M0=0.80, we get A0/A*=1.0382 and since we know the external
diffusion area ratio, A0/A1=0.92, we calculate:

A1/A*=1.1285, which from isentropic table gives M1≈0.66

For Mth=0.75 and isentropic table, we get Ath/A*=1.062, therefore


A1/Ath=(A1/A*)/(Ath/A*)=1.062

We use continuity to get the diffuser area ratio, A2/Ath, similar to problem 5.2. We get:

A2/Ath=1.317

The non-dimensional additive drag (from equation 5.26) is:


γ +1 γ
 γ − 1 2  2 (γ −1)  γ −1 2  
 1 +
γ − 1 2  γ −1
 1+ M0  1+ M0 M0 
Dadd 2  2  2
= γM 1   M − M0 +   −1
p 0 A1  1 + γ −1 M 2   1 γ −1 2   γ −1 2 
 1   1+ M1  1+ M1 
 2   2   2 

From M1≈0.66 and pt1=pt0=15.24 kPa, we calculate p1≈11.38 kPa. Therefore the non-
dimensional additive drag becomes:

Dadd
≈ 0.0061
p 0 A1

Problem 5.4

From isentropic table and M0=0.85, we get A0/A*=1.0206 and pt0/p0=1.6038


From the isentropic table and M1=0.65, we get A1/A*=1.1356 and pt1/p1=1.3283
Therefore the capture area ratio A0/A1=0.8988 and p1/p0=1.207.
In terms of flight and inlet lip Mach numbers, we write the following expression for the
non-dimensional additive drag:
γ +1 γ
 γ − 1 2  2 (γ −1)  γ −1 2  
 1 +
γ −1 2  γ −1
 1+ M0  1+ M0 M0 
Dadd 2  2  2
= γM 1   M − M0 +   −1
p 0 A1  1 + γ −1 M 2   1 γ −1 2   γ −1 2 
 1   1+ M1  1+ M1 
 2   2   2 
Dadd
≈ 0.01246
p 0 A1
Problem 5.5

pt0/p0=1.498/0.1915=7.82 Using isentropic tables, we get M0≈2.0


Therefore, τr=1.8

Also since πd=1.348/1.498=0.8998, the non-dimensional entropy rise is minus the natural
log of πd, therefore,

Δs/R≈0.1056

The adiabatic efficiency is related to πd and we calculate ηd≈0.933

Problem 5.6

γ  2
∆p t = 0.1q1 = 0.1  p1 M 1 = pt1 − pt 2
2
2
pt 2 γ  M1
= 1 − 0.1 
[ ]
Therefore, γ /(γ −1) ≈0.974
p t1  2  1 + (γ − 1) M 1 2 / 2
From continuity equation, we have all the RHS terms of the following equation:
(γ + 1) / 2 ( γ − 1)
M2 A p  1 
= 1 t1 M 1   ≈ 0.4228
[1 + (γ − 1)M / 2]
2
2 (γ + 1) / 2 ( γ − 1)
A2 pt 2  1 + (γ − 1) M 1 2 / 2 

The solution of the above one equation, one-unknown problem is M2≈0.485.

The diffuser static pressure recovery is expressed below:


 p2 
  −1
p 2 − p1  p1 
C pR = = 2
q1 γM 1 / 2
γ /(γ −1)
p 2 pt 2  1 + (γ − 1) M 1 / 2 
2

=   ≈1.17157
p1 pt1 1 + (γ − 1) M 2 2 / 2 

Therefore CpR≈0.473

Problem 5.7

From M0=0.85 and isentropic table, we get A0/A*=1.0207 and pt0/p0=1.6038, which gives
pt0=40.1 kPa and since A1=3 m2, A0=2.7 m2
Therefore, A1/A*=1.134 which from isentropic table gives M1≈0.65
From isentropic table, we get pt1/p1=1.328
Since pt1=pt0, we get p1=30.18 kPa
γ +1 γ
 γ − 1 2  2 (γ −1)  γ −1 2  
 1 +
γ −1 2  γ −1
 1+ M0  1+ M0 M0 
Dadd 2 M 2 + 2
= γM 1   − M  − 1 =0.0
p 0 A1  1 + γ −1 M 2   1 γ −1 2 0
  γ −1 2 
 1   1 + M 1  1+ M1 
 2   2   2 
1246
Therefore Dadd=0.01246(25 kPa)(3 m2)≈935 N
γpAM
m = ρAV =
a
The speed of sound, a0=315.59 m/s and thus mass flow rate is

 0 ≈ 254 .5 kg / s
m

Ram drag is Dr = m 0V0 ≈ 68.28 kN


From continuity, we can calculate A2 since in the following equation; the only unknown
is the area, A2.
 =
m
R
γ pt 2
Tt 2
[
A2 M 2 1 + (γ −1) M 2 / 2
2
]
−( γ +1) / 2 ( γ −1)

pt2=0.99 (pt0)=39.69 kPa, Tt2=283.8 K, M2=0.5


A2/A0≈1.32597 or A2≈3.58 m2

Problem 5.8

From continuity equation


 =
m
γ pt 2
R Tt 2
[
A2 M 2 1 + (γ −1) M 2 / 2
2
] −( γ +1) / 2 ( γ −1)

we get A2/A0=0.391 which gives the inlet capture ratio, A0/A2≈2.557

Problem 5.9

From isentropic tables and M0=0.85, we get A0/A*=1.0206 and pt0/p0=1.6038


Therefore A1/A*=(A1/A0)(A0/A*)=1.4581
From isentropic tables, we find a corresponding Mach number of M1≈0.446

For M1=0.3, we get p1=25.01 kPa from isentropic tables, using the same pt0 that still
prevails at the inlet lip.
γ +1 γ
 γ − 1 2  2 (γ −1)  γ −1 2  
 1 +
γ −1 2  γ −1
Dadd 1 + M0  1+ M0 M0 
= γM 1  2  M 2 − M + 2  − 1 ≈0.
p 0 A1  1 + γ −1 M 2   1 γ −1 2 0
  γ −1 2 
 1   1 + M 1  1+ M1 
 2   2   2 
081
Therefore, Dadd≈5376 N
Problem 5.10
From the flight Mach number and isentropic table, we get A1/A*=1.483 which from
isentropic table gives a corresponding Mach number at the lip of M1=0.436.
Since A1/Ath=1.15, then Ath/A*=1.2895, which gives Mth≈0.53. Below critical throat
Mach number of 0.75, therefore, there is no adverse shock boundary layer interaction due
to the convex throat geometry.

Problem 5.11

Critical pressure coefficient is (from equation 5.20):


γ
 
 1 + γ − 1 M 2  γ −1
 
2  2
0
 
C p ,crit =  − 1 = -0.302
γM 0 2 γ +1 
  
 2  
The ratio of maximum cowl area to the highlight is (from equation5.19):
  γ 
  γ −1    γ −1  γ −1  
  1+ M 02  1+ M 02  
AM A M
= 1 +  2 0  0 2
γ −1
− 1 +
2
 2
γ −1
 (
− 1  / − C p )
A1  A1 M 1 2
  
M 12  γM 0
2
  1+   1 + 2 M 1  
  2    
  
For M0=0.85 and A0/A1=0.90, we use isentropic tables to calculate M1≈0.651.
Substituting these values in equation 5.19 gives: AM/A1≈4.16

Problem 5.12

rt = 2 rh
rsp = rh+0.25(rt-rh) = 0.75 rh+0.25 rt = 1.25 rh this is the radius of the spoiled sector.

[ pt − p ] spoiled
=
[ ρV 2
/2 ] spoiled  Vspoiled
=

2

 = 0.85 2 = 0.7225
[ pt − p ] uniform [ ρV 2
/ 2] uniform
V
 uniform

The area-averaged total pressure is:

pt1 A1 + pt 2 A2
pt ,area −avg =
A1 + A2
We replace total pressure with static and dynamic pressure according to Bernoulli
equation, then apply uniform static pressure and density to get:

2 2
 ρ  (V A + V2 A2 )
p t ,area −avg = p +   1 1
2 A1 + A2
The area A1 is the outer flow area where the speed of the gas is V1 and A2 is the spoiled
area of the compressor annulus.
In terms of percentages of the entire compressor face area, A1=81.25% Aface and
A2=18.75% Aface, Also A2=0.2308 A1

2 2
 ρ  (V A + V2 A2 ) ρ 2 2
pt , area − avg = p+  1 1 = p +  (0.8125 V1 + 0.1875 V2 )
2 A1 + A2 2

Since V2=0.85 V1 the area-averaged total pressure amy be written as:

ρ 2
p t , area −avg = p +  (0.948 V1 )
2

The mass-averaged total pressure may be written as:

2 2
 ρ  (V m + V2 m 2 )
pt ,mass −avg = p +   1 1
2 m 1 + m 2
We replace the mass flow rate by the product of density area and velocity to get:

 ρ  2 1 + (V2 / V1 ) ( A2 / A1 ) 
3 3
 ρ  (V A + V2 A2 )
3
p t ,mass− avg = p +   1 1 = p +  V1  
 2  V1 A1 + V2 A2  2   1 + (V2 / V1 )( A2 / A1 ) 

Again, substitute for A2=0.2308 A1 and V2=0.85 V1 to simplify the above expression to:

ρ 2
p t ,mass −avg = p +  (0.9545 V1 )
2
 

Problem 5.13

From M0=0.8 and isentropic table we get: A0/A*=1.0382, pt0/p0=1.5243


From A0/A1=0.8, we calculate A1/A* to be 1.298. From isentropic table, we can estimate
M1 to be ~0.52, which also gives pt1/p1=1.2024

From continuity equation connecting the air flow rate at the engine face to flight, we have
(γ + 1) / 2 ( γ − 1)
M2 A p  1 
= 1 t1 M 1   ≈ 0.33744
[1 + (γ − 1)M / 2] 2
2 (γ + 1) / 2 ( γ − 1)
A2 pt 2  1 + (γ − 1) M 1 / 2 
2

This gives M2≈0.36


The ratio of total pressure to static pressure is (from isentropic table) pt2/p2=1.0937
Therefore p2/p1=(pt1/p1)/( pt2/p2)=1.0994
Also p1/p0=(pt0/p0)/( pt1/p1)=1.5243/1.2024=1.2677
Problem 5.14

We apply continuity to the control volume to get the side mass flow rate (equation 5.12),

 0 + ρ0V0 ( A − A0 ) = m
m  s + ρ0V0 ( A − AM )
 1 +m

It simplifies to (equation 5.13)

 s = ρ0V0 ( AM − A0 )
m

Applying the momentum equation to the control volume in the x-direction gives:

 sV0 + ρ0V0 ( A − AM )V0 − ρ0V0 AV 0 = −Fx ,cowl − ( p1 − p 0 ) A1


 0V1 + m
m

This simplifies to:

 0 (V1 −V0 ) = −Fx ,cowl −( p1 − p 0 ) A1


m

We may re-write this equation as:

− Fx ,cowl = m
 0 (V1 −V0 ) + ( p1 − p 0 ) A1 = Dcowl

Divide both sides by q0A1

Dcowl ρ 0V0 A0 (V1 − V0 ) ( p1 − p 0 ) A1


= +
q 0 A1 ρ 0V0 2 A1 / 2 γ p 0 M 0 2 A1 / 2

The cowl drag coefficient is based on AM, therefore we construct the following:

Dcowl AM  A  V  2  p1 
= 2 0  1 − 1 + 2
 − 1
q0 A1 AM  A1  V0  γ M 0 p
 0 

AM  A  V  2  p1 
C D ,cowl = 2 0  1 − 1 + 2
 − 1
A1  A1  V0  γ M 0  p0 

We may replace A0 by A1-Aspil to arrive at:

 A  A1 − Aspil  V1  2  p1 
C D ,cowl = 2 1   − 1 + 
2 
− 1
 AM  A1  V0  γ M 0  p 0 
 A  Aspil  V1  2  p1 
C D ,cowl = 2 1 1 −  − 1 + 
2 
− 1
 AM  A1  V0  γ M 0  p0 
Note that the first bracket on the RHS is the nacelle geometry, the second bracket is the
contribution of supersonic spillage, the third bracket produces a negative quantity related
to the flow deceleration, V1/V0<1. The pressure drag contribution is given by the last
term on the RHS.

Problem 5.15

From MD=4.0 and isentropic table we get: A1/A*=A1/Ath=10.718


For a NS at M1=4.0, we get My=0.4349, which gives A1/Ath’=1.487

Therefore % opening is =(Ath’-Ath)/Ath=620.7%

Problem 5.16

From M0=2.0 and β=45o using the O.S. chart, we get θ=14.74o and
Mn0=1.414 which from a NS table gives Mn1=0.733 and pt1/pt0=0.954. Also
M1=Mn1/sin(β-θ)=1.456
From NS tables pt2/pt1=0.9430 and My=0.7171
The shock system total pressure recovery is:

pt2/pt0=(0.954)(0.943)=0.900

Also, we may use isentropic table between the compressor face and station “y”, which is
downstream of the terminal shock. Based on two Mach numbers, My and M2 we
calculate

A2/Ath=1.2378

Problem 5.17

We may develop a simple spreadsheet (for a NS inlet in super-critical mode) that


produces the following output:

A0/A1
M0 (spec) M-y pt-y/pt-x (NS) (spec) A-y/A* A1/A*
1.6 0.668437365 0.89520026 0.9 1.119211 1.243567

A1/A* M1 pt2/pt1 (spec) pt2/pt0


1.243567 0.56 0.95 0.8504402
Problem 5.18

We write a simple Excel spreadsheet program that calculates the following variables:

M-Des A1/A-th (geo) M0 sub. (choked) M0>M0 sub A0/Ath sub % spillage (sub)
1.6 1.250235 0.56 0.7 1.0943727 12.46664199
M-y (NS)des Ay/A* % spill.(sup) My-overspeed A/A*-oversp M-th-oversp
0.66843736 1.119210698 10.479974 2.108502581 1.8504869 2.1

Problem 5.19

M-Des A1/A-th (geo) M0 sub. (choked) M0>M0 sub A0/Ath sub % spillage (sub)
1.75 1.386492048 0.48 0.7 1.0943727 21.06895383

M-y (NS)des Ay/A* % spill.(sup) My-overspeed A/A*-oversp M-th-oversp


0.6280887 1.15711828 16.5434608 2.921514683 3.9294958 2.9

q0=γp0M02/2=0.7(20 kPa)(2.92)2=119.37 kPa

Problem 5.20

M-
Design A-1/A* A-1/A-th M-y (NS) A-y/A* A-1/A-th' % opening
4 10.71875 10.71875 0.43495884 1.4872932 1.487293243 620.688408
3.5 6.789620536 6.789620536 0.45115388 1.4458332 1.445833224 369.59915
3 4.234567901 4.234567901 0.47519096 1.3903945 1.390394489 204.558737

Problem 5.21

M- %
Design A-1/A* A-1/A-th M-y (NS) A-y/A* A-1/A-th' opening
3.5 6.789620536 6.789620536 0.45115388 1.4458332 1.445833224 369.59915

A-th'/A* M-th'
4.695991502 3.1

Problem 5.22

pt-
M-design M-y (NS) A1/Ath (design) M-th (started) M-y (NS-th) recovery(best)
2 0.577350269 1.216474641 1.55 0.6841011 0.913188272
Problem 5.23

M-design M-y (NS) A1/Ath (design) M-th (started) M-y (NS-th) pt-recovery(best)
1.7 0.640543841 1.144617989 1.45 0.7195619 0.944836685

Problem 5.24

This is a K-D inlet designed for M0=3.2. We again use the spreadsheet that we designed
for the K-D inlets to get:
M-design M-y (NS) A1/Ath (design) M-th (started) M-y (NS-th) pt-recovery(best)
3.2 0.464348678 1.414554828 1.75 0.6280887 0.834565392

Problem 5.25

M-0 A1/A* A-shock/A1 (spec) A-shock/A* M-x shock M-y shock


1.6 1.250235 1.2 1.500282 1.85 0.605700892

pt-recov. Shock pt-rec-critical % pt-rec gain if critical


0.790231887 0.89520026 13.2832369

Problem 5.26

M-
Design A-1/A* A-1/A-th M-y (NS) A-y/A* A-1/A-th'
1.6 1.250235 1.250235 0.668437365 1.1192107 1.119210698

% opening A-th'/A* M-th' pt-recov (best)


11.70684864 1.117068486 1.4 0.958194415

Problem 5.27

M-Des A1/A-th (geo) M0 sub. (choked) M0>M0 sub A0/Ath sub % spillage (sub)
1.5 1.176167052 0.62 0.7 1.0943727 6.954316032

A/A*-
M-y (NS)des Ay/A* % spill.(sup) My-overspeed oversp M-th-oversp
0.701088742 1.093584262 7.02134877 1.784524596 1.422344 1.75

Problem 5.28
pt-
M-design M-y (NS) A1/Ath (design) M-th (started) M-y (NS-th) recovery(best)
2 0.577350269 1.216474641 1.55 0.6841011 0.913188272
Problem 5.29

M-0 A1/A* A-shock/A1 (spec) A-shock/A* M-x shock M-y shock


1.8 1.438982058 1.15 1.654829366 1.95 0.586184924

pt-recov. Shock pt-rec-critical % pt-rec gain if critical


0.744195092 0.8126838 9.20305821

Problem 5.30

M-
Design A-1/A* A-1/A-th M-y (NS) A-y/A* A-1/A-th'
2.6 2.895975385 2.895975385 0.503871026 1.3325049 1.332504859

% opening A-th'/A* M-th' pt-recov (best)


117.3331951 2.173331951 2.25 0.605529717

Problem 5.31

M-Design A-1/A* A-1/A-th M-y (NS) A-y/A* A-1/A-th'


2 1.6875 1.6875 0.577350269 1.2164746 1.216474641

% opening A-th'/A* M-th' pt-recov (best)


38.72052427 1.387205243 1.75 0.834565392

Problem 5.32

This is a K-D inlet with a design Mach number of 3.0. We use our spreadsheet to
calculate the following variables:

M-design M-y (NS) A1/Ath (design) M-th (started)


3 0.475190963 1.390394489 1.75

A-shock/Ath
(spec) Ath/A* A-shock/A* M-x shock M-y-shock pt-y/pt-x
1.25 1.386492048 1.73311506 2 0.5773503 0.72087386

ptx=pt0=10 kPa(1+0.2(9))3.5=367.3 kPa


pty=0.7209(367.3 kPa)=264.8 kPa
py=pty/(1+0.2My2)3.5=211.26 kPa

From M2=0.5 we use isentropic table to get A2/A*=1.176


From My=0.577, we get Ay/A*=1.2165
Therefore, A2/A1=(A2/A*)(A*/Ay)(As/Ath)(Ath/A1)=(1.176)(1/1.2165)(1.25)
(1/1.3904)=0.8694
Problem 5.33

a) shock at the lip (critical mode):

M0 M-y pt-y/pt-x (NS)


1.86 0.603628856 0.785686165

b) shock inside (supercritical mode):

A-shock/A1
M-0 A1/A* (spec) A-shock/A* M-x shock M-y shock pt-recov. Shock
1.86 1.5068943 1.2 1.808273161 2.05 0.569062515 0.697508439

c) Sub-critical mode with 10% spillage:


M0 M-y pt-y/pt-x (NS) A0/A1 (spec) A-y/A*
1.86 0.603628856 0.785686165 0.9 1.183946

A1/A* M1 pt2/pt1 (spec) pt2/pt0


1.315495559 0.55 0.95 0.74640186

d) flight dynamic pressure is q0=γp0M02/2=0.7(30 kPa)(1.86)2=72.65 kPa


Problem 5.34

A spreadsheet program is written that marches through two oblique shocks (double-ramp
case). The results are tabulated below:

Beta-1
M0 (deg) Theta 1 (deg) Mn-0 pt-1/pt-0 Mn-1 M1
2.5 30.01 8.005285065 1.250377855 0.987006 0.812424258 2.168298255

Theta 2 (over
M1 Beta-2 theta-1) Mn-1 pt2/pt1
2.168298 38.3995 12.00828019 1.346818818 0.9704077

Mn-2 M2 pt3/pt2 (NS) pt3/pt0


0.763225744 1.717051361 0.848597955 0.81278568

Problem 5.35

We use the spreadsheet program for the analysis of double-ramp inlet in a reverse
iteration mode to do a quick ramp design angle study to achieve the conditions specified
in the problem. Namely, we wish to have the Mach number downstream of the terminal
NS to be 0.7 and the first two oblique shocks be of the same strength. This requires the
normal component of the Mach number into the two OS be the same. The results of the
spreadsheet iteration are summarized below:

Beta-1
M0 (deg) Theta 1 (deg) Mn-0 pt-1/pt-0 Mn-1 M1
2.5 34 12.19723956 1.397982257 0.9586961 0.74056051 1.993902668

Theta 2 (over
M1 Beta-2 theta-1) Mn-1 pt2/pt1 Mn-2 M2
1.993903 44 13.86815412 1.385081177 0.9618333 0.746077084 1.486234426

M2 pt3/pt2 (NS) pt3/pt0 M-y (N.S.)


1.486234426 0.934090865 0.86133063 0.706018953

Problem 5.36

In the under-expanded mode, we develop a simple spreadsheet that successively


calculates parameters in the nozzle, such as:

A9/A-th M9 Neu-10
(spec) (isen) p9/pt-9 Neu-9 (deg) Plume angle (deg)-given (deg)
2 2.15 0.1011317 30.42527507 15 45.4252751

M10 p10/pt-10 p0/pt9 NPR(perfect) NPR(actual)


2.75 0.039777 0.039777 9.88809668 25.140346

In the over-expanded mode where shocks appear in the exhaust flow, we develop a
simple spreadsheet program that calculates the NPR and the plume contraction angle, etc.
In this problem, a NS appears at the exit. The results are:

A9/A-th (spec) M9 (isen) p9/pt-9 NPR (perfect) NPR (NS at the lip)
2 2.15 0.1011317 9.888096679 1.892006062

Problem 5.37

This is an over-expanded nozzle. We use our spreadsheet to get the basics of this nozzle:

A9/A-th (spec) M9 (isen) p9/pt-9 NPR (perfect) NPR (NS at the lip)
2.4 2.35 0.0739569 13.52138738 2.154373612

Since pt0/p0=2.15 and pt0= 100 kPa, p0= 46.4 kPa


Tth=(350+273) K=623 K and since throat is choked, Tt,th=Tth(γ+1)/2=747.6 K

Ty=Tt,th/[1+(γ-1)My2/2]

First for Mx=2.35, we use NS table to get My=0.5286, therefore, Ty=708 K

We have throat Mach number, pt,Tt and area, therefore we substitute in continuity
 ≅ 36 .96 kg/s
equation to get m
Problem 5.38

a) First, the case of perfect expansion:

A9/A-th (spec) M9 (isen) p9/pt-9


3.5 2.75 0.0397767

p0= p9= 0.03978 pt= 75.57 kPa


This gives δ=75.57/101=0.748 and from Appendix A, altitude is ~8 kft

b) This is the under-expanded case. With the specified 10o plume angle, we use the
spreadsheet for under-expanded nozzles to get:

A9/A-th (spec) M9 (isen) p9/pt-9 Neu-9 (deg) Plume angle (deg)-given


3.5 2.75 0.0397767 44.69383734 10

Neu-10 (deg) M10 p10/pt-10 p0/pt9


54.6938373 3.25 0.018798 0.018798

p0=0.0188(1900 kPa)=35.72 kPa


This gives δ=35.72/101=0.3536
From altitude table it gives, ~26 kft
c) We may use the O.S. chart (or look-up array in a spreadsheet) to get the shock angle at
the lip that turns the flow 4o inward when the Mach number is 2.75. We get β~23.8o.
Therefore, M9sinβ≈1.111, which gives a static pressure ratio py/px=1.2728.

NPR=(pt/p9)/(py/px)=19.75

The ambient static pressure is 1900 kPa/19.75=96.2 kPa which gives a delta,
δ=96.2/101=0.952 From altitude table (Appendix A) we get ~ 1400 ft.

Problem 5.39

From isentropic relation between pt and p, we calculate the Mach number, then A/A*
follows from isentropic relations. Finally static temperatures, speed of sound and exit
velocity are calculated. The spreadsheet results are:

pt (kPa) Tt (K) p-0 (kPa) NPR M9


101 2000 1 101 3.7001393

A9/A-th T9 (K) a9 (m/s) V9 (m/s)


8.170110615 535.01597 463.53254 1715.135

Problem 5.40

We use the over-expanded spreadsheet program and obtain the following results:

A9/A-th (spec) M9 (isen) p9/pt-9


2.4 2.35 0.073956908

plume angle (deg) Beta (deg) M9.sin(beta) p-y/p-x NPR


15.94873077 40 1.5105509 2.495391 5.418544

Problem 5.41

This is an under-expanded nozzle.

A9/A-th (spec) M9 (isen) p9/pt-9


6.79 3.5 0.01311092

Therefore p0=p9=(38.13 x 101 kPa)(0.01311)=50 5 kPa (ambient pressure for perfect


expansion)

δ=50.5/101=0.50 which from altitude tables gives 18 kft as the altitude where the nozzle
is perfectly expanded.
For p0=1/2(50.5 kPa)=25.25 kPa, the Mach number downstream of the expansion waves
is M10 which from isentropic pt/p=38.13(101 kPa)/25.25 kPa=152.52. the corresponding
Mach number is
M10=4.0
The Prandtl-Meyer angle for M10=4 is ν10=65.79o
The Prandtl-Meyer angle for M9=3.5 is ν9=58.53o

Therefore the exhaust plume turns by θ≈7.26o


Since the expansion waves are Mach waves, their angle with respect to local flow is the
Mach angle, μ

For M10=4 we have μ=sin-1(1/4)≈14.48o

Problem 5.42

The nozzle area ratio is A9/A*=3.5. From isentropic table, we get M9≈2.8

A9/A-th (spec) M9 (isen) p9/pt-9


3.5 2.79 0.03741532

plume angle (deg) Beta (deg) M9.sin(beta) p-y/p-x NPR


15 33.5 1.5399042 2.599856 10.28019
Problem 5.43

NPRcrit=(1/πn)[(γ+1)/2]γ/(γ-1) ≈1.87

pt (kPa) p0 (kPa) Pi-n NPR-crit


420 100 0.98 1.869811813

NPR (spec) Tt7 (K) spec T9 (K) p9 (kPa) a9=V9 (m/s)


4.2 939 816.5217 224.6215352 555.778889

% Thrust
Eta-n V9-s (m/s) M9 (perfect) V9 perfect F-g-conv/m-dot gain
0.9699239 564.3301 1.6044184 812.2086 792.9710877 2.426007

CD8=πcn=0.98

Periodic shock cell

Convergent
Nozzle
Problem 5.44

CA(conical)=(1+cosα)/2=0.953

CA(2D)=sinα/α=0.968 2D rectangular nozzle produces ~1.6% higher gross thrust


than the conical nozzle.
Problem 5.45

T-hot/T-
cold T-cold/T-cold Alpha T-mixed/T-cold % Fg-improvement
3 1 3.5 1.444444444 1.033691589
Problem 5.46

This is an over-expanded nozzle. Initially, it is perfectly-expanded. Therefore, we get


the following results from the isentropic flow relations:

A9/A-th (spec) M9 (isen) p9/pt-9 NPR (perfect)


7.45 3.60 0.011387 87.837
Therefore p0=p9=233.3 kPa (0.01138)=2.656 kPa

b) with NS at the exit, we have M9=3.60, therefore,

M-y (NS) py/px (NS)


0.44777416 14.86945

p0=py=(py/px)(px/ptx)ptx=14.86 (0.01138)(233.3 kPa)= 39.72 kPa

c) We calculate nozzle throat area (for Mth=1.0) and continuity equation

m-dot (kg/s) A-th (m2) p* (kPa) T* (K) a*=V-th


100 0.530112225 123.248141 2083.33333 914.6948

Therefore nozzle exit area is A9=7.45(0.530)=3.95 m2

d) From My=0.447 we get Tty/Ty=1.0387 and thus Ty=2500 K/1.0387=2406 K and ay=983
m/s and thus Vy=V9=440 m/s

Therefore Fg=100 kg/s (440 m/s)= 44 kN

e) For As/A8=4.23 we use isentropic table to get Ms=3.0. From NS tables, we get
py/px=10.33, pty/ptx=0.328 and My=0.4752. From My=0.4752, we get Ay/A*=1.38

A9/A*=(A9/Ath)(Ath/As)(Ay/A*)=(7.45)(1/4.23)(1.38)=2.43 which from isentropic table


yields M9=0.24 and pt9/p9=1.04

Tt9/T9=1.011, therefore T9=2500 K/1.011=2472 K and a9=996.5 m/s and V9=240 m/s
Therefore Fg=100 kg/s (240 m/s)= 24 kN

f) Based on My=0.4752, Tty/Ty=1.046 and thus Ty=2500 K/1.046=2390 K and ay=980 m/s
Therefore, Vy=466 m/s and since A9e=As V9=Vy=466 m/s

Fg=100 kg/s (466 m/s)= 46.6 kN

g) Gross thrust nearly doubled with flow separation in the divergent portion of the nozzle.
The flow downstream of the NS in the nozzle is a diffusing flow, therefore velocity drops
and static pressure is gained. With separation velocity remains nearly constant and thus
nozzle exit velocity is higher than attached flow.
Problem 5.47

From the jet total pressure ptj=3(100 kPa)=300 kPa and Ttj=4 (288 K)= 1152 K, the jet
Mach number Mj=1.0 and mass flow rate, we can use continuity equation to calculate the
jet area, Aj.
γ +1

 γ −1 2  2 ( γ −1)
γ p t AM 1 + M 
 2 
 =
m
(γ −1)c p Tt
Therefore

γ +1
 γ −1 2 2 (γ −1) Aj=27.98 cm2
A =m
 1 + M  (γ −1)c p Tt /( γ p t M )
 2 
Therefore A=4 Aj A=111.92 cm2

A1=A-Aj A1=83.94 cm2

The momentum balance between station 1 and 2 yields:

p1 A1 (1 + γ M 1 ) + p j A j (1 + γ M j ) = p 0 A(1 + γ M 2 )
2 2 2

The energy balance between stations 1and 2 yields:

 s c p1Tt1 + m
m  j c pj Ttj = ( m
 s +m
 j )c p 2Tt 2

From isentropic expansion between stations 0 and 1 we can relate static pressure and
temperature at 1 to M1 and p0 and T0, i.e.,

p0
p1 = γ /( γ −1)
 γ −1 2 
1 + M1 
 2 
T0
T1 =
 γ −1 2 
1 + M1 
 2 

Now, we set up a spreadsheet calculation that assumes an M1 and proceeds to calculate all
the remaining unknowns, namely M2, T2 etc. then we check to see if the mass flow arte
out of the box is equal to the mass flow arte intro the box (continuity check). Then
iterate, until the mass is balanced.

T0 (K) p0 (kPa) Ttj (K) ptj (kPa) Aj (m2) M-j p-j (kPa)
288 100 1152 300 0.002798 1 158.48

a-j
T-j (K) rho-j (kg/m3) (m/s) V-j (m/s) m-dot-j (kg/s) I-j (kN) F-gross (N)
960 0.57551 620.9 620.9 1 1.064426 784.5815

Here only the M1 choice that balanced the mass flow rate is listed.

M-1 A-s (m2) p1 (kPa) T1 (K) a1 (m/s) V-1 (m/s)


0.49 0.008395 84.86 274.80 332.2 162.8

Tt-1 (K) I-1 (kN) rho-1 (kg/m3) m-dot-s (kg/s)


288 0.951913 1.076510 1.47116

A (m2) m-dot-2 (kg/s) I-2 (kN) M-2 Tt-2 (K)


0.0111938 2.471 2.01634 0.757 637.63

T-2 (K) rho-2 (kg/m3) a-2 (m/s) V-2 (m/s) m-dot (kg/s)-new
572.14 0.60930 479.3 362.6 2.4734

%Delta-m-dot2 F-g Ejector (N) F-jet (N)


-0.09 896.2 784.6

Percent increase in mass flow rate = 100(2.471-1)/1= 147.1% mass flow rate increase
Percent drop in exit temperature = 100(960-572.14)/969= 40.4% drop in jet exit temp.
Gross thrust with ejector = 896.2 N
Gross thrust of the jet = 784.6 N

Caution: the static pressure loss in the ejector due to wall friction and total pressure loss
due to turbulent jet mixing were not included in the analysis.

Problem 5.48

pt9/p9=(pt9/pt7)(pt7/p0)(p0/p9)=(0.96)(6)(1/1.5)=3.84
From isentropic tables, we can get M9, or use the formula:

2   pt 9  
( γ − 1) / γ

M9 =    − 1 ≈ 1.558
γ − 1   p9  

The temperature ratio and pressure ratio between the states t7 and 9s are linked
isentropically, i.e.,
( γ −1) / γ
T9 s  p9 
=  and p9/pt7=1.5/6=1/4
Tt 7  pt 7 

T9s=Tt7(1/4)0.3/1.3≈0.7262 Tt7
T9=Tt9/(1+0.15M92) ≈0.733 Tt9 note that Tt7=Tt9

Tt 7 − T9 1 − 0.7 3 3
ηn = = ≈ 0.975
Tt 7 − T9 s 1 − 0.72 6 2
Problem 5.49

a) From area ratio A9/Ath and isentropic table (in supersonic section), we get M9=3.35,
which also gives pt9/p9=61.5

Therefore, for perfect expansion since we have p9=p0,

pt/p0=61.5

b) For β=30o and M9=3.35, we get θ ≈15o

From the shock jump condition in static pressure, we calculate the NPR with an OS

plume angle (deg) Beta (deg) M9.sin(beta) p-y/p-x NPR


15 30 1.675 3.106562 19.80328

c) This is an under-expanded nozzle. The spreadsheet produces these parameters for


M9=3.35 and γ=1.4

Neu-9 (deg) Plume angle (deg)-given Neu-10 (deg)


56.07283118 15 71.0728312

M10 p10/pt-10 p0/pt9 NPR(perfect) NPR(actual)


4.4 0.003918 0.00391764 61.5201272 255.25572

Problem 5.50

pt0/p0=[1+0.15(36)]1.3/0.3 ≈ 3115
pt4/p0= (pt4/pt2)( pt2/pt0)( pt0/p0)= 0.42(0.5)(3115) ≈654

Therefore a Mach-6 scramjet (with then specified losses) experiences an NPR of ~ 654

Problem 5.51

From equation 5.50, we substitute for NPR=10 and γ=1.3 to get:

≈ 1.0918
(this ratio can also be read from Fig. 5.54)
Therefore, gross thrust is enhanced by ~9.2% in de Laval vs. convergent.