The mechanical behaviour of composite materials has been simulated numerically without analytical homogenization with Deform 2D, a fully non-linear bidimensional software working on a Macintosh microcomputer, taking advantage of the graphic user interface. Automatic meshing is performed with a simple click in a contour. The software is especially adapted to the study of impacts but quasi-static tests may also be simulated. Composite materials are modelled by distributing two component materials over the meshes according to a periodic structure described by a graphic pattern. Numerical and experimental results have been compared for tubes manufactured by filament winding. A Poisson’s ratio larger than 0.5 was found numerically, in agreement with experiment. The “knee” on the stress-strain curve was
also simulated.
Bernard Schaeffer

Attribution Non-Commercial (BY-NC)

871 tayangan

The mechanical behaviour of composite materials has been simulated numerically without analytical homogenization with Deform 2D, a fully non-linear bidimensional software working on a Macintosh microcomputer, taking advantage of the graphic user interface. Automatic meshing is performed with a simple click in a contour. The software is especially adapted to the study of impacts but quasi-static tests may also be simulated. Composite materials are modelled by distributing two component materials over the meshes according to a periodic structure described by a graphic pattern. Numerical and experimental results have been compared for tubes manufactured by filament winding. A Poisson’s ratio larger than 0.5 was found numerically, in agreement with experiment. The “knee” on the stress-strain curve was
also simulated.
Bernard Schaeffer

Attribution Non-Commercial (BY-NC)

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BEHAVIOUR OF COMPOSITE MATERIALS

Schaeffer B

numerically without analytical homogenization with Deform 2D, a fully non-linear

bidimensional software working on a Macintosh microcomputer, taking advantage of

the graphic user interface. Automatic meshing is performed with a simple click in a

contour. The software is especially adapted to the study of impacts but quasi-static

tests may also be simulated. Composite materials are modelled by distributing two

component materials over the meshes according to a periodic structure described by a

graphic pattern. Numerical and experimental results have been compared for tubes

manufactured by filament winding. A Poisson’s ratio larger than 0.5 was found

numerically, in agreement with experiment. The “knee” on the stress-strain curve was

also simulated.

KEY WORDS: finite differences, dynamics, composite material, software, fracture,

numerical simulation, homogenization, elastic constants

I. INTRODUCTION

Composite materials are characterized by an inhomogeneous structure. Even

with isotropic component materials, at a macroscopic scale, the mechanical properties

may be orthotropic if the distribution of the reinforcing isotropic component (for

example glass fibers) is orthotropic. Complicated constitutive equations and fracture

criterions are used in numerous homogenized models. The mechanical properties of

the composite have to be either calculated or experimentally established before any

structural analysis. This step should be integrated in numerical computations like

finite element analysis. This approach has been mainly used for isolated fibers or

locally in a unit cell of a periodic structure [1, 2].

Why not using it for the whole composite structure? The easiest way to do it is

to consider that the composite is a structure made of two or more isotropic materials

having elementary constitutive equations and fracture criterions. Of course it is not

possible to have as many elements as there are fibers, they will be much larger than

the real fibers. The process of homogenization will be automatically performed in the

numerical calculation without having to calculate separately the mechanical

properties of the composite.

Homogenization theories have their origin in the application of anisotropic

elasticity of crystalline materials to composites. For example, Hill’s theory on

plasticity of slightly orthotropic alloys has no relevance to the strength of

conventional fiber/polymer composites [3].

Analytical homogenization is not used in this paper: the isotropic component

materials are distributed throughout the meshes, each made of a single component

material. The gross behaviour of the material is obtained as the result of a complex

structure made of two different materials.

II. NUMERICAL METHOD

Deform2D is a finite differences software where the specimen to be studied is

divided into elementary cells, e.g. quadrilaterals (figure 1) [4,5]. The material may be

different from one cell to the other. This model is very similar to usual homogenized

models [1,6] but the homogenization is done numerically instead of being done

analytically. The structure is defined by a graphical pattern associating one cell to one

pixel.

A cell is a rectangle (or a quadrilateral along the boundary) made of four

triangular meshes. The cells become quadrilaterals after deformation. The material is

the same over one cell. Stresses and strains are uniform in each triangle. The

numerical experiment, for example a tensile test on a sample hold in a fixed grip at

the bottom and in a moving grip at the top is shown on figure 1.

Applied

load

Moving grip

Matrix

Mesh

Reinforce-

ment

Physical

domain Node

Cell

Fixed grip

Fig.1 Mesh model of a tensile specimen of a fiber reinforced material.

The finite strain tensor is computed from the lengths of the sides of a triangle.

The stresses are obtained from the strains through the constitutive laws of the

material of the cell, a combination of isotropic, hypoelastic, viscous and plastic (with

upper and lower yield stresses) behaviour and a Coulomb-Tresca type fracture

criterion. The strength of the interfaces is not taken into account as such: fracture is

assumed to take place either in the matrix or the fiber. The resulting effort on a node

is then calculated. Newton's law gives the acceleration, integrated twice, to obtain the

new coordinates of the node.

The computing cycle is repeated for each triangle and each node at each time

step. The Courant-Friedrich-Lewy criterion states that, for stable computation, the

propagation of the elastic wave has to be smaller than one mesh during one time step.

More details may be found elsewhere [4,5].

Engineering elastic constants for each component material and other

experimental data are entered in a dialog window. Stresses, strains, displacements

etc… may be visualised and the calculated picture may be transferred in any

Macintosh software. The programming language is C++.

III. INFLUENCE OF FIBER ORIENTATION ON FRACTURE

1. Experimental study

Tubes were manufactured by filament winding of fiberglass with epoxy resin.

The range of winding angles extents from 15° to 80°. The weight content of the fibers

is between 55 and 65 % or between 40 and 50 % in volume. The mechanical

properties were measured by radial pressurization of tubes, that is in uniaxial tension.

Diametral compression tests and pressurization tests with axial and radial stresses

were also performed but are not reported here. The elastic constants, measured with

strain gages, had been compared [7] with those obtained with Puck’s homogenization

theory. The purpose of this paper is to integrate the process of homogenization in the

numerical simulation.

2. Numerical experiments

Applied load

Moving crosshead

with built-in nodes

Matrix

Fiber reinforcement

Nodes in transducer

Boundary of

physical domain

built-in nodes

Fig.2 Model of tension specimen for 45° Fig.3 Reinforcement (in gray) and

winding (44 % volume content of cracks (in black) for a 50 %

fibers). volume content of fibers wound

at 45° at maximum stress.

8

10 Pa

First cracks in

matrix

First cracks in

fiber

Time (ms)

Fig.4 Stress distribution at fracture Fig.5 Evolution of the mean vertical stress

in a 45° wound specimen yy in the centre of the specimen in

(50 % volume content of tension (50 % volume content of fibers).

The curve shows a “knee” often

fibers). observed experimentally [6].

height. Plane stress is assumed. The speed of the moving crosshead is 1 m/s. This

speed, much larger than usual speeds in order to minimize the duration of the

calculation, is nevertheless quasi-static. The number of nodes is 500. The elastic

constants and the tensile strengths of glass and epoxy resin are given in the table

below. The specific mass is respectively 1,200 and 2,600 kg/m3 for resin and glass.

The load extension (time) curve is linear until fracture for glass, resin,

horizontal and vertical fibers. For 45° oriented fibers, a non-linear behaviour is

obtained, due to cracking in the matrix, fracture is progressive until fiber cracking

occurs (fig.5). The shape of the curve is very similar to those observed experimentally

by Puck [6].

3. Comparison with experiment

The following table shows the comparison between simulation and experiment

for Young’s modulus, Poisson’s ratio and ultimate tensile strength. The composite

structure is modelled by various structures represented by graphic patterns

approximating winding modes. For comparison the results of simulated tensile tests

on pure glass and resin are also given.

Table : Young’ modulus E , Poisson’s ratio and ultimate tensile strength, simulation

and experiment.

Structure Maximum stress

GPa MPa

Simulated

Simulated

Simulated

Structure (pattern)

Winding angle

Volume % glass

Experimental

Experimental

Experimental

Glass 100 71 75 0.25 0.25 3300 3400

90 50 35 0.21 1600

73 50 34 35±5 0.28 0.2±0.1 1200 900±100

73 50 30 0.42 860

73 50 22 0.36 700

45 50 15 0.51 450

45 44 13 11±3 0.65 0.6±0.2 420 300±100

45 50 13 0.44 370

27 50 18 0.13 600

27 50 16 7±3 0.30 0.1±0.05 310 50±10

27 50 11 0.21 310

14 50 12 0.09 100

0 50 5 0.05 47

Resin 0 3 2.7 0.39 0.37 42 50

For the 45° winding, with 44 % volume content of glass, one may notice that

Poisson’s ratio from the numerical simulation is 0.65, larger than 0.5, not far from the

experimental value of 0.6. This high value of Poisson’s ratio may be explained by the

parallelogrammatic deformation due to the crossed inclined fibers. For the two 50 %

volume content, the intersection of the fibers is reinforced and, therefore the

parallelogrammatic deformation is inhibited and Poisson’s ratio is lower than for the

44 % volume content.

The strength increases regularly with increasing winding angle except when the

pattern corresponds to a more rigid structure. For vertical fibers, the calculated

strength is half the glass strength as may be expected from the “rule of mixtures”.

Young’s modulus and ultimate tensile strengths are larger by simulation. It may be

due to a larger volume content of reinforcement (generally 50 % in volume) in the

simulation than in the real material. Perhaps, due to poor bonding between fiber and

resin, one should use a lower resin strength for the composite than for pure resin.

Calc. Exp. Calc. Exp.

40 0,8

35

30 0,6

25

E 20

(GPa) 0,4

15

10 0,2

5

0 0

0 20 40 60 80 0 20 40 60 80

Winding angle Winding angle

Fig.6 Elastic constants E and , simulated and experimental.

Calc. Exp.

2000

1500

(MPa) 1000

500

0

0 20 40 60 80

Winding angle

Fig.7 Ultimate tensile strength, simulated and experimental.

experimentally, the difference between calculated and experimental data is almost

within the experimental scatter.

IV. CONCLUSIONS

This paper shows that numerical homogenization may replace analytical

homogenization by using directly in the software the physical properties of the

component materials without having to calculate separately the elastic constants of

the composite. It is only necessary to give the structure of the composite material and

the physical constants of each component. A variety of micromechanical structures

may be used but is limited to the patterns available in a 8 by 8 bit image.

The agreement between simulation and experiment is near statistical

signification but not worse than with other homogenized models where it is always

necessary to adjust the numerical constants to the properties of the real composite.

The well-known “knees” on the stress-strain curve of fibrous composites have been

simulated.

It would be interesting to apply this simulation to the compressive behaviour

of fibrous composites but we have not done true compression tests except diametral

compression of tubes where fracture occurs in bending.

The idea proposed in this paper was to use numerical method “ab initio” from

the properties of the fibers and the matrix without using intermediate layers or other

homogenized microstructures, difficult to measure experimentally and subject to large

variations. It has been applied in two dimensions but should be possible also in three

dimensions.

REFERENCES

[1] Vinh Tuong NP. Sur les calculs et les prévisions des constantes viscoélastiques

des matériaux composites. AGARD Conf. Proc No. 63 on Composite Materials,

AGARD-CP-63-71, Paris: 2-3 april 1971

[2] Ghosh S. Lee K. Moorthy S. Multiple scale analysis of heterogeneous elastic

structures using homogenization theory and Voronoi cell finite element method.

Int. J. Sol. and Struct., 32, 1: 27-62

[3] Hart-Smith LJ. Should fibrous composite failure modes be interacted or

superimposed? Composites, 1993, 24,1:53-55

[4] Schaeffer B. Deform2D: Microcomputer simulation of behaviour and fracture of

solid parts using numerical methods. FEMCAD 88. Paris: 17-19 oct 1988, 1: 133-

142

[5] Schaeffer B. Simulation numérique du comportement et de la rupture des solides

composites ou homogènes. Mécanique industrielle et matériaux, 1995, 48,3: 140-

143

[6] Puck A. Zur Beanspruchung und Verformung von GFK-Mehrschichtenverbund-

Bauelementen. Kunststoffe, 1967, 57,12: 965-973

[7] Peter G. Geldreich L. Schaeffer B. Influence of the winding angle on the

mechanical properties of glass reinforced epoxy tubes. Filament Winding II.

London: The Plastics Institute, 1972

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