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CONTENTS of General Information

TOPICS PAGE NO.

1. Introduction 01
2. The Beginning 02
3. Bio-data of The Company 03
4. Management Persons 04
5. Infrastructure 05
6. Size of the organization 06
7. Form of the organization 07
8. Structure of the organization 08
9. Quality Assurance 09
10. Vision 10
11. Products 11
Onion Products
• Red Onion
• White Onion
• Pink Onion
• Toasted Onion
• Garlic
12. Export 12
13. Achievements 13

1
(1) INTRODUCTION

MAHARAJA DEHYDRATION PVT. LTD. (INDIA) is one of the leading


manufacturers of Dehydrated. Add spice in your life with delicious and healthy
dehydrated onion, garlic in various forms and other dehydrated vegetables...

Onions are considered to be essential ingredients of Indian food items. They not
only taste good with salad but are also beneficial for our health. Perhaps, this explains the
fact that why, the rising price of onions creates such an upheaval for every family.
Onions, when dehydrated, are even healthier. Same is the case with garlic. These are
known to possess medicinal properties for curing stomach ailments and many other health
remedies. Maharaja Dehydration Pvt. Ltd. is a rising company, established with the sole
aim of providing health and comfort to its valued customers through these products. We
are a trusted manufacturer and exporter of a diverse range of such healthy food products
like dehydrated red, white and toasted onions, dehydrated garlic flakes, and other
dehydrated vegetables.

We are a complete health conscious organization which works with a deep


commitment to serve its customers with only healthy food items. Hence, all our products
are completely safe and hygienic, being made without exposing them to direct human
touch. We are aware of the precious time that our customers value and therefore, strive to
deliver all our products on time. They are available at really affordable prices, making
them reach across all the masses. Within a few years of establishment, we have carved a
niche for ourselves, not just in India but even abroad where our products are liked and
trusted by our worthy clients.

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(2) THE BEGINNING

MAHARAJA DEHYDRATION in many cities. But it is in Bhavnagar district


near MAHUVA. This industry is a private limited company.
MAHARAJA DEHYDRATION PVT.LTD.-The manufacturing unit of
dehydration onion and garlic-is situated at the onion
Company is established in 2003 and is leading manufacturing of dehydration
onion production like white and red onion kibbled, chopped, minced, granule and powder.
Mr.V.P.KORDIYA is managing director of maharaja dehydration pvt, ltd, who is in this
industry since last 10 years having full experience and expertise of this industry.
Company is operated by most skilled and experienced person. Company has
established most advance machinery specially imported from foreign country. Company
has operated in total hygienic environment and producing excellent quality product. Buyer
satisfaction is the main aim of the company.
Company is growing with very growth rate. Company is exporting its total
product. The production capacity of the plant is APPX. 5 MT daily.

MAHARAJA DEHYDRATION PVT.

Business Type Exporter , Manufacturer


Export Percentage 100%
Primary Competitive Advantages Best quality

Completely healthy products

Affordable price

Prompt delivery

Sales Volume Rs. 9 corer


No of Staff 300
Year of Establishment 2003

Export Markets Germany, Netherlands, Poland, U.S.A, Russia, and

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many other countries
Investment on Manufacturing Rs. 2 corer
Equipment
Monthly Production Capacity 150 metric tones

(3) BIO-DATA OF THE COMPANY

4
NAME : MAHARAJADEHYDRATION PVT.LTD.

ADDRESS : MAHARAJA DEHYDRATION PVT.LTD.


BYPASSROAD, NEARBRIDGE,
UMANIYAVADAR, MAHUVA-364290
DIST.:- BHAVNAGAR (GUJARAT)
INDIA.
PHONE. NO. : +91-02844-246377

MO.NO : +91- 98256 14212, +91- 98255 06199

FAX : +91-02844-247047,

E-MAIL : mdpl007@rediffmail.com
kamlesh@maharajadehyration.net

WEB- SITE : www.maharajadehydration.com


www.maharajadehydration.net

CHAIRMAN : SHRI. VITTHALBHAI P. KORADIYA

MANAGING DIRECTOR : SHRI. VITTHALBHAI P. KORADIYA

DIRECTORS : SHRI. KAMLESHBHAI K. KORADIY

PRODUCTS : WHITE ONION, PINK ONION,


TOATED ONION, RED ONION,
GARLIC FLAKES, GARLIC POWDER.

(4) MAGEMENT PERSONS

5
The growth of MAHARAJA as an industrial company is attributed to the vision
and farsightedness of the management team. The management strongly believes in the
fundamentals of social enlistment through education and employment. The initiative like
HACCP Certification ensures that they stay on the cutting edge quality, technology and
processes.

Mr.V.P.KORDIYA is Chairman and managing director of maharaja dehydration


pvt, ltd, who is in this industry since last 10 years having full experience and expertise of
this industry. His high principles are successfully inculcated in the management team of
his family members and other relatives who have been running the MAHARAJA group
of companies and maintaining the tradition and culture created by him. He is study only
ten pass and diploma in agriculture. Vitthalbhai is first term commotion business, and
there is second’s term of the partnership in business in the place Morangi. Before the
personnel business the company name is MAHARAJA DEHYDRATION PVT. LTD.

K.K.KORADIYA is directors of maharaja dehydration pvt. Ltd. in the last 4 year


experience. Kamlesh is cousin of Vitthalbhai they with stated business. Kamlesh is study
H.S.C. passes only.

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(5) INFRASRUCTURE

In order to produce goods that are comparable to International Standards, it is


imperative for a company to have high quality infrastructure.
Maharaja Dehydration Pvt. Ltd. has a vast and well developed infrastructure, fully
equipped with the latest facilities to provide uninterrupted flow of production. Some of
the highlights of our infrastructure are:

• A sound infrastructure armored with advanced and innovative technology


• Production unit installed with the latest modern technology and facilities
• Up gradation of machinery with the latest techniques
• Backed by a qualified team of acumen and pro-active employees having a
dedicated and responsible attitude towards their work
• Team of experts to monitor the manufacturing process
• Indigenously developed technology with full technical backup and application
support
• Spacious storerooms with full ventilation that enable us to hold huge stocks and
thus, meet all kinds of market demands.

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(6) SIZE OF THE ORGANIZATION

There are some Government Rules regarding it. How much capital is invested in
an enterprise, according to it, the size will be decided. From the size of the organization,
the form of the organization can be decided easily.
Basically there are 3 types of business units according to their size. They are

1. Small Scale Enterprise


2. Medium Scale Enterprise
3. Large Scale Enterprise
The types of enterprise according to the capital invested in them are shown in the
table as under:

Total Capital Invested Type of Organization


Less than 3 Lakes Small Scale Enterprise
Between 3 to 10 Lakes Medium Scale Enterprise
More than 10 Lakes Large Scale Enterprise

The MAHARAJA DEHYDRATION is the Large Scale Enterprise, because the


capital invested in it is very much more than the criteria, given for the large scale unit.

(7) FORM OF THE ORGANIZATION

8
Choice of a proper form of organization is crucial for the success of a business
enterprise. It determines the risk, responsibility and control of the enterprise as well as the
division of profits. It is long term decision because the form of organization can not be
changed frequently. The right form of organization can help the enterprise not only
through initial success but in later growth, too. Therefore, it should be selected after due
care and thought.
i. Sole Proprietorship
ii. Partnership
iii. Joint Stock Company, and
iv. Co-operative Enterprise.

From the above given choices, it is clear that MAHARAJA DEHYDRATION is


a Joint Stock Private Company, which is an integrated and voluntary association of
individuals with a distinctive name, perpetual succession, limited liability and common
seal.

(8) ORGANIZATION STRUCTURE

9
When a large number of people are working for the accomplishment of an
objective, specific understanding and clarity are necessary as to be performed, which will
perform which issue orders, who will implement them, ECT, are planned objectives.
Organization establishes authority- responsibility relationship. The human body is the
best examples of an organization. There are different parts of organization department.
Production department, marketing department, Human Resources department, and
Finance department. Assignment of authority is the basic of organization. Planning is the
brain of a business while organization is its physical structure.
“Take away our plants, take away our business, oh! Take away our wealth
(finance) but permit us to retain our organization. Within no time we shall be on our
feet once again.”
There are four types of organization; Staff Organization, Line Organization, Line
$Staff Organization and Functional Organization. Maharaja dehydration has Line
Organization. The enterprise business is divided heads are appointed for every
department. Under the department of production; purchase and production officer,
marketing; sales executive and publicity officer, human resources; personnel officer and
personnel consultant& finance; controller and treasurer.
In their organization, authority flow downward from the top to bottom and
responsibility goes upwards from bottom to top. Every person is responsible to his
immediate superior.

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Managing Director

Board of Director

General Manager

Productions dept. Marketing dept. HR dept. Finance dept.

Purchase Officer Production Officer Controller Treasurer


Regional Manager

Branch Manager
Assistant Worker
Data Entry operator

Officer HR

Sales Publicity
Executive Officer
Assistant

Assistant Worker

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(9) Quality Assurance

We, at Maharaja Dehydration Pvt. Ltd., are aware of the responsibility that we
have undertaken and remain committed to thrive ahead. Hence, we make sure that only the
best quality and hygienic products reach our customers. Quality is one aspect that is given
paramount importance with stringent quality checking process taking place at our factory.
The raw onions, garlic’s and other vegetables are procured only from highly reliable
sources and stored under well ventilated conditions. No direct human touch is permissible
and to make sure that practice, the workers are given special dresses so that the risk of
infection can be avoided completely. During processing, all the raw vegetables are cleaned
with absolutely clean and fresh water to ward off all the dirt and later, they undergo
optimum dehydration under hygienic conditions.

(10) VISION

♦ Be one of the largest players in the Onion Industry with total in –electrical&
technical production processes.
♦ Become the highest employment provider in Mahuva by providing equal
employment opportunities for the enlistment of the needy people.
♦ Harness the latest technologies for simplification of processes and rapid
expansion.
♦ Maharaja dehydration will have been new plant in Mahuva. New plant
dehydration and chance provider of employee.

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(11) PRODUCTS

At present, the company has a wide range of products in different segments.


Onion, garlic and other vegetable are just to name a few.

MAHARAJA is manufacturing around White Onion Flakes. Size – 8 to 10mm.


White Onion Minces/ Granule. Size – 1 to 3mm. /05 to 2mm. White Onion Powder, size-
100 to 120 mesh. Pink Onion Flakes Size – 8 to 10mm. Red Onion Flakes. Size – 8 to
10mm. Red Onion Minces/Granule. Size - 1to 3mm. /05 to 2mm. Red Onion Powder,
Size – 100 to 120. Garlic Flakes Size - 8 to 10mm.Galic powder Size – 100 to 120mesh.
Toasted Onion Minces/ Granule. Size – 1 to 3mm. /05 to 2mm. Toasted Onion Powder,
Size – 100 to 120 meshes. Above are regular product, other Vegetable are
dehydrated on the order basis.

Company’s objective is to provide competitive products and services which fully


meet the internal and external customers’ requirements. The company has multi stage
Quality Control from the raw material to the finished products to provide Best Quality
Product to the ultimate consumer.

The wide range of all the products can be differentiated through its graphical
representation. The categories of each and every product will be cleared by it. The
production capacity of the company is 2000 MT. Annually.

MAHARAJA DEHYDRATION PVT. LTD. gives employment to more than 250


people daily. This way company is serving its own country by giving employment to its
valuable peoples.

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PRODUCT PROCESSING

MAHARAJA DEHYDRATION PVT. LTD. is the process of product.

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 Seed developing & inheritance factor:-
In span of 10 years maharaja Dehydration has phased expansion as well
development of special seeds of onions. Which is specially for growing onions for
dehydration purpose.

 Farming and cultivating:-


Onions grown for dehydration is different from onions grown for the fresh
market. Depth of seeding has an effect on the bulb shape since the onion stem plate
forms at the point where the seed germinates. Onions for dehydration should be
planted in 2 inch deep furrows. Maharaja owns acres of land for farming their own
onion as well successfully inspired farmers in rural area of their region for growing
their own well-developed seeds of onion. That’s why today maharaja dehydrated
onions are very pungent as well aromatic.

 Raw onion storing:-


Raw onions are stored under well-ventilated atmosphere and very timely moves
for the dehydration.

 No Direct human touch:-


Direct human touch to products at maharaja dehydration is highly restricted. To
void direct human touch we have implemented special dress code.

 Assorting & cleaning:-


At this stage onions are physically checked. Onions of the size of 2” and above
are peeled and tailed. Top layer of onion bulbs are get off and shifted for the next
stage for cleaning.

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PRODUCTION CHARTS

WHITE
ONION

PINK RED
ONION ONION ONION

TOASTED
ONION

GARLIC

GARLIC GARLIC
FLAKES POWDER

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PRODUCT RANGE

Maharaja Dehydration Pvt. Ltd. has delved deeper into the cause of providing
health related solutions to its valued customers through a diversified range of healthy
food products. We are a reliable and committed manufacturer and exporter of the
following dehydrated food products:

• Dehydrated Red Onion in: Slices, Rings, Kibbled, Chopped, Minced,


Granules, Powder
• Dehydrated White Onion in: Slices, Rings, Kibbled, Chopped, Minced,
Granules, Powder
• Dehydrated Pink Onion in: Flakes, Kibbled
• Dehydrated Toasted Onion in: Slices, Rings, Kibbled, Chopped, Minced,
Granules, Powder
• White Onion in Acetic Acid/ Vinegar
• Dehydrated Garlic Flakes
• Other Dehydrated Vegetables.

Our Products are Applicable in

• Instant Foods
• Soups
• Sauces
• Gravies
• Other Processed Foods
• Vegetarian and Non-vegetarian Dishes.

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 PRODUCT

RED ONION

Red rings Red kibbled Red Chopped

Red minced Red Granules Red Powder


WHITE ONION

White rings White kibbled White Chopped

White minced White Granules White Powder

 TOASTED ONION
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Toasted kibbled Toasted Chopped Toasted minced

Toasted Granules Toasted Powder Pink Flakes

Garlic Flakes Garlic Powder

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Maharaja dehydration changes are possible as per buyer’s requirements.

(12) EXPORT

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MAHARAJA DEHDYRATION PVT. LTD. found to complement the Export
activities and one of India’s Premier business houses. The company has strong
distribution channel in all over the world. They are exporting the products in 100% out of
country.

The Company trust from the very beginning has been to remain in the front line in
its field of activity through innovation, constant technology up gradation, and customer
relations. This has lead to Maharaja holding the high ground in this region.

So, it can be said that, on export front, the company has emerged a clear winner,
gathering many accolades in the process. Today, MAHARAJA products enjoy a
prominent place in more than 6 Countries. Some of them are

The product in various countries like GERMANY, USA, THE


NETHERLANDS, POLAND, RUSSIA, FRANCE, UK, CANADA.

“FIVE STAR FOOD EXPORT INDUSTRIES” is the sister concern of


“MAHARAJA DEHYDRATION PVT. LTD.”

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(13) ACHIEVEMENTS

MAHARAJA DEHYDRATION mangling group get many international.

1) Maharaja product Pvt. Ltd. present To Five star food Pvt. Ltd. for achieving standard
of the process of manufacturing product during the period 2005 to 2006
2) Exceptional performance recognition award
3) Quality & Quantities improve in manufacturing of confectionary through automation
4) All round best performance in contract manufacturing of confectionary product.

GOALS:

 Zero marketing complaints :


They have been improving in this area year on year and
with utmost care in quality, assurance all manufacturing unit should strive to achieve this
status.
 Maharaja Quality System :
Integration of all our effort in modern quality concept. Food
management system and quality assurance are must gear up their system whereby each
person in their organization is committed to highest quality, safety, productivity/
efficiency, enhancement and self development focus on intensive training and
development of or people.
 Wastage elimination:
Wastage encompasses excess raw/ packing material, dough, broken,
biscuits, excess power/ fuel, water/ compressed air consumption which are heavily
precious international resource while good responsible corporate citizens we should be
saving by putting in all efforts & hard work – let’s strive not just to minimize these
wastage, but change our outlook &attitude towards eliminating these.

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CONTENTS of Human Resource Department

TOPICS PAGE NO.

1. Introduction 25

2. Organizational Structure 26

3. Recruitment & Selection &Induction 27

4. Time Keeping System 29

5. Training & Development 29

6. Performance Appraisal 31

7. Salary Payment System 32

8. Employee Records 33

9. Promotion & Transfer 34

10. Employee Services & Benefits 35

11. Collective Bargaining 36

12. Industrial Relations 37

(1) INTRODUCTION
24
Human Resource Management is also a management function consumed with
hiring, motivating, and maintaining people in an organization. It focuses on people in
organization.
Simply put, Human Resource Management (HRM) is a management function
that helps manager recruitment, selection, and training and develop member for an
organization. Obviously, HRM is concerned with the people in organization.

Specifically, the following constitute the core of HRM:

 Organizations are not mere bricks, mortar, machineries or inventories. They are
people. It is the people who staff and manager organizations.
 HRM involves the application of management function and principle, the function and
principle are applied to acquisitioning, developing, maintaining, and remunerating
employees in organizations.
 Decision relating to employees must be integrated. Decision on different aspect of
employees must be consistent with other HR decision.
 Decision made must influence the effectiveness of an organization. Effectiveness
of an organization must result in betterment of services to customer in the form high-
quality products supplied at reasonable costs.
 HRM functions are not confined to business establishment only. They are applicable
to non-business organizations, too, such as education, health care, recreation, and the
like.
The company MAHARAJA DEHYDRATON has efficient human resources
which helps it in accomplishing various objectives and touching new horizons of success.
The company currently provides employment to more than 250 employees daily (50% of
which are female employees).
HRM is a strategic approach to the acquisition, motivation, development and
management of the organization’s human resource. It is a specialized field that attempts
to develop program, policies, and activities to promote the satisfaction of both individual
and organizational needs, goals, and objectives. It is devoted to sharing an appropriate
corporate culture, and introducing programs that ensures success of an enterprise.

(2) ORGANIZATION STRUCTURE

25
This diagram represents the organization chart of Human Resources Department
of MAHARAJA.
A large-scale unit will have a Manager/Director heading the HR department. His
or her status will be equal to that of any executive. Human Resource under types of
different department there are first Managing of Directors then the second General of
Manager is information given the under department; marketing, finance, production,
research& development and human resource manager. HR manager under; regional
manager, branch manager, officer HR and assistant.

Managing Director

General Manager

Manager Manager Manager Manager Manager


Marketing Finance Production Research& Human Resource
Development

Regional Manager

Branch Manager

Officer HR

Assistant

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(3) RECRUITMENT, SELECTION & INDECTION

According to Flipper: “Recruitment it is the process of searching for prospective


employee and stimulating them to apply for jobs in the organization.”

“Selection it is the process of ascertaining qualification, experience, skill and


knowledge of an applicant with a view to appraising his/her suitability to the job
question.”
Recruitment is regarded as the most important function of HRM. It forms the first
stage in the process which continues with the placement of candidate. Recruiting makes it
possible to acquire the number and types of people necessary to ensure the continued
operation of the organization. It is the discovery of potential applicants for actual or
anticipated organizational vacancies. In other words, it is a ‘linking activity’ bringing
together those with jobs and those seeking jobs.
The selection process is concern with securing relevant information about an
applicant. This information is secured in a number of steps or stages. The objective of
selection procedure is to determine whether an applicant meets the qualification for a
specific job and to choose the applicant who is most likely to perform well in that job.
Selection is a long process.
The company MAHARAJA follows a standard and typical method of recruitment
and selection. The process of recruitment being with getting applications and same for the
selection, it stats with initial interview. Basically, for the post of manager or any other
higher designation, they design the job profile and appoint the candidate who is matching
with their job profile. From the total employees currently working in the company, the
50% are the female employees.

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INDUCTION

This involves introduction of an employee to the job and an organization the


primary purpose is to sell the company the new employee. So that he can take pride of his
association with the company. An employee has to operate with fellow employee and his
supervisor. Hence he must know them, their way of working and also the policies and
practices of organization.

INDUCTION PRORAMME

Organization structure & major function of different department.


1. Employees own department & job and how he facts in to the organization.
2. Personnel policy and the sources of information.
3. Company policies, practices, objectives and regulation.
4. Discipline handling.
5. Social benefit & recreation services.
6. Job instruction & to whom he should refer whenever he have any difficulties.
7. The company and its history it is product manufacturing process and major operating
involve in the particular job.
8. Opportunities, promotion, transfer, suggestion, skim and job satisfaction.

Induction procedure (oriented)


♦ Formal oriented
♦ Informal oriented
There main basic steps of procedure:-

1. General orientation by the staff;


o Welcome to the organization
o Explain about company
o Show location department where the new required will work
o Given the annual to the new required
2. Specific oriented by the job supervisor
3. Feedback of oriented.

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(4) TIME KEEPING SYSTEM

The term time keeping deals with the daily working time schedules of the
employees. To come on time regularly and go after completion of working hours and
there are three ship of worker. In the Maharaja dehydration workers comes at 8o’clock
in the morning, 5o’clock evening first bancs the lunch break is at 1o’clock in the noon
and 5o’clock in the evening, 1o’clock night second bancs and 1o’clock break and
1o’clock in the night, 8o’clock morning third bancs the working hours completes at
6o’clock in the evening. There is the punching card system for the employees to record
the time of their arrival or as the mark of their presence. They have the uniform and I-card
and card compulsory to wear while they are in the company premises.

(5) TRAINING & DEVELOPMENT

 TRAINING:-
Definition:
“Training is the act of increasing the knowledge & skill of employee for doing a
particular job” FLIPPO

“Training is a short term process utilizing a systematic and organized procedure


by which non-managerial personnel lawn technical knowledge & skill for a definite.”
L.L.Steinmets
 DEVEIOPMENT:-

Definition:
“Development is long term educational process utilizing a systematic and organized
procedure by which managerial personnel procedure gets conceptual and theoretical
knowledge it refers not technical knowledge or skill in operation but to philosophical and
theoretical education concept it involves broader education and its purpose is a long term
development”

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• Training Methods
There are two types as under,
 OFF THE JOB TRAINING:-
• Lecture
• Meeting
• Role play
• Programmer Instruction

 ON THE JOB TRAINING:-


• Coaching
• Mentoring
• Job Rotation
• Committee Assignment

Training method are usually classified instruction on the job training provide when
the worker are taught relevant knowledge, skill and ability at the actual work place. Off
the job training on the other hand require that the training learn at the location other than
real work. Maharaja dehydration Pvt. Ltd. of the 8 days training in the new worker.

• DEVELOPMENT :

• Maharaja group had established fully computerize


• In the company carried out the automation work for modernization in
factory. Apart from automation of wrapping machines, the industry
has a machines installed which handles most of the pumps and motors;
it removes the variation in quantities of batch preparation.
• The company awards an exception performance recognition award for
overall improvement in hygiene and quality.

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(6) PERFOMANCE APPRAISAL

Once the employee has been selected, trained, and motivated, he is then appraised
for his performance. Performance Appraisal is the step where the management finds out
how effective it has been at hiring and placing employees. A “performance appraisal is
a process of evaluating an employee’s performance and qualification in terms of the
requirements of the for which he is employed.”
Maharaja Dehydration undertakes performance appraisal after a stipulated period
of time. For this, they consult the employees and ask about the function of their jobs, the
problems they are facing and also take their suggestions to correct the problem. Then they
analyses the results and from the derived analysis, the measures are taken and rewards are
given to the employee.

PERFORMANCE APPRAISAL METHOD

That is used to evaluate employee’s performance. It may be evaluated on basis of


his/ her traits and attributes as well as his work or result and objective achieved by his/
her. Some of the common techniques are below,
1. Individual Performance Appraisal Method
• Rating scale method
• Check list method
• Forced choice method
• Field review method
• Cost accounting method
2. Group Appraisal method
• Ranking method
• Paired Comparison method
• Forced Distribution method
3. Other method
• Self Appraisal
• Appraisal by result or management by objectives [MBO] approach.

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(7) SALARY PAYMENT SYSTEM

Different companies follow different types of salary payment systems. Salary can
be given on the basic of working hours or it can be given unit basic or a fixed salary at
every month. According to the levels of employees salaries are given to them.
The salary payment systems of the company are developed from the results of
performance appraisals. They designs the whole system, taking into consideration, the
ability of organization to pay, cost of living, supply and demand conditions in the market
and the wage and salary levels in the other firms. Governmental Rules also plays major
role in it.
The companies follow different systems for different categories of employees.
Maharaja payment system is day-to-day.
In Maharaja Dehydration, the pay scale for workers (laborers) is about 1500 per
month. And for the executive officers, it is high.

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(8) EMPLOYEE RECORDS

In employee records, complete and up-to-date information is maintained about


employees, so that these records may be utilized, if need be , at the time of making
transfers, promotions, giving merit pay, or sanctioning leave and at the time of
termination of service.

The MAHARAJA DEHYRATION maintains the personal records of each and


every employee. They keep the data from the day when application of an employee
comes. Every employee’s personal information like his name, address, family members,
qualification, etc is kept. The record of every day’s working is also maintained. The other
information such as his areas of interest, aptitudes, any special ability or skill if he has, is
kept with the company.
Maharaja employee records day-to-day.

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(9) PROMOTION & TRANSFER

A promotion may be defined as “an upward advancement of an employee in an


organization to another job, which commands better pay, status, and higher
opportunities, challengers, responsibilities and authority, better working
environment, hours of work and facilities and a higher rank.”
MAHARAJADEHYDRATION the employees of promotion. The old employee’s
promotion then the other facility bones, salary increase, health & safety facility, other
stage responsibility.
It can be defined as “a lateral shift causing movement of individuals from one
position to another usually without involving any market change in duties,
responsibilities, skill, needed or compensation.”
In MAHARAJA promotion and transfer activities are less. Every employee has its
specialized area of work, so that they prefer both the activities in lesser proportion. If any
emergency occurs to fill the specific post, then only the transfer or promotion is made.

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(10) EMPLOYEE SERVICES & BENEFITS

The employee services and benefits are concerned with the process of
sustaining and maintaining the work force in an organization. The maharaja provides the
following services and benefits, to its employees.
♦ Employee Counseling
It is the process through which employees are given counsel in solving their
work problems and their personal problems. The employees are asked about their
working problems and the company’s management tries to solve the problem, as soon as
possible.
♦ Welfare Services
These services includes entertainment services like, film shows, sports and
games, housing, educational, transport and canteen facilities etc. maharaja provides
company quarters for employees and daily bus service from quarters to the company and
vice versa. It also provides transportation facilities and pays transport allowances for the
employees related to sales and marketing department. It arranges the exhibitions and
seminars for employees.
♦ Salary increase:-
Maharaja dehydration provides salary. There are senior employee payment
increases. For example; 2000 and 2500 to pay salary, there are increases salary 2500 and
3000 to pay.

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(11) COLLECTIVE BARGAINING

It is the process of agreeing on a satisfaction labour contract between


management and union. The contract contains agreements about condition of employment
such as wages, hours, promotion, and discipline; lay off, benefits, vacation, rest pauses
and the grievance procedure. The process of bargaining generally takes time, as both
parties tend to make proposals and counter-proposals. The resulting agreement must be
ratified by unions, workers and management.

In MAHARAJA there is no such type of activity because there is no existence of


employee union.

36
(12) INDUSTRIAL RELATIONS

Industrial Relations aspect; Union-management relations, Disputes settlement,


Grievance handing, Discipline, collective bargaining.

 Industrial relations:-

Harmonious industrial relations between labour and management are essential to


achieve industrial growth and higher productivity. When the relationship between the
parties is not cordial, discontentment develops and conflicts erupt abruptly. It is not
always easy to put out the fires with the existing dispute-settlement-machinery, created by
the government. Hence both labour and management must appreciate the importance of
openness, trust and collaboration in their day-to-day dealings.
 Discipline:-
It is force that prompts an individual or a group to observe the rules,
regulation and procedures, which are deemed necessary for the attainment of an objective.
 Grievance redressal:-
A grievance is any facto involving wages, hours or conditions of employment
that is used as a complaint against the employer. Constructive grievance handling
depends first on the manager’s ability to recognize, diagnose and correct the causes of
potential employee dissatisfaction before it converts into a formal grievance.

37
CONTENTS of Marketing Department

TOPICS PAGE NO.

1. Introduction 40

2. Organizational Structure 41

3. Research & Development 42

38
4. Product Planning 43

5. Pricing Policy 44

6. Market Segmentation 45

7. Product Mix 47

8. Distribution Channels 48

9. Product Life Cycle 49

10. Advertisements 50

39
(1) INTRODUCTION

Even if some people question the existence of a new economy, they need to
acknowledge the new elements in today’s market place. The Internet has multiplied the
number of ways for consumers buy and companies sell and how company carry on their
business. The Internet has increased the customer price sensitivity. Cellular phones have
enable people to exchange messages and buy and sell on the go. Companies face
competitors from a growing number of countries. There is a decline in the effectiveness
of mass advertising as a result of the explosion of communication channels. There the
need for ‘Marketing ‘emerged.

Marketing can be defined as “Marketing is an organizational function and set


of process for creating, communication, and delivering value to customer
relationship in ways that benefit the organization and its stake holder.” Marketers are
skilled in stimulating demand for company’s products.

The MAHARAJA DEHYDRATION has Marketing Department, creating a


demand for the products by covering national and international markets. They have
recently stared advertisement of the MAHARJA HOMEAPPLIANCES products. The
company has their own R & D Department who researches for the innovations and
modifications in the products.

40
ORGANIZATION STRUCTURE

This diagram represents the organization chart of Marketing Department of


MAHARAJA DEHYDRATION.
The BOD is at the top in an organizational hierarchy. Under them, the General
Manager of the company, who works as directed by the BOD. The GM passes orders to
the Head of the Marketing Department and he leads the sales executives and publicity
officer. Both of them work as said by the Head of the Department. Even under the Sales
Executive Officer, there is Sales Representative, who handles the sales affairs of the
company. And the Publicity Officer, working under the Head of Department, manages the
publicity and advertising matters. At the bottom level, there are salesmen, who take
orders from the other firms or whole seller.

Board of Directors

General Manager

Marketing dept

Sales Executive Publicity officer

Sales Representative

Assistant Worker

41
(3) RESEARCH AND
DEVELOPMENT

As per American marketing association given definition “marketing research


refer to the Scientifics gathering, recording and to analyzing of data about problem
manufacturing research process.”

Marketing research produces information that consumer and market and their
relation to various products, prices, distribution and promotion strategies.

Research activity has been given prime importance in MAHARAJA


DEHYDRATION. It is not so that the work has been left to technically qualified
employees only. All the essential promoters of the company are actively engaged in the
process. Process of research & development has been introduced in the area of inventory
management, finance, marketing and recoveries as a result; the products are earning more
profits because of very low cost of production.

The Research & Development department governs the production planning. The
department has always provided a base of technological up gradation to MAHARAJA
DEHYDRATION’S production planning.

42
(4) PRODUCT PLANNING

The crores of rupee are being spent on research and development (R $D) is a clear
attestation of the fact that new product are the result of planned discovery. Such a huge
investment is necessary as the new products are at present the only means of survival for
a firm. The business must have two elements:
1. INNOVATION
2. PURPOSE
Necessity for innovation is created by political, economic, technological and
sociological changes. One could actually say that the need for innovation is created by the
dynamic nature of culture. We have also seen that product planning is the activity
changed with the responsibility of providing new and profitable product for management
to valuate. It is also change with the responsibility of reviewing the profitability of current
items (existing product) in the product mix. Product planning deals with changes in
♦ The kinds of goods and services offered
♦ The number of kinds or product or different lines, that the company offers
♦ The width of assortment within each product line offered
♦ The quality level or level accepted to various classes of consumer, and
♦ The degree of distinctiveness.
The MAHARAJA DEHYDRATION has the separate department for product
planning. This department works under the Marketing Department. They always keep
watch on the market and competitors and then after following certain procedure, plan
for the product.

Steps in New Product Development


The following steps are recommended in the planning of product:
 Exploration
 Screening
 Business analysis
 Development
 Testing
43
 Commercialization.

(5) PRICING POLICY

Throughout most of history, prices were set by negotiation between buyer and
seller. “Bargaining” is still a sport area. The price must be consistent with company
pricing policies. At the same time companies are not averse to establishing pricing
penalties under certain circumstances.
Airline change $ 150 to those who change their reservation on discount tickets.
Bank change fees for too many withdrawals in a month or for early withdrawal of a
certificate of deposit. Although these policies are often justifiable they must be used
judiciously so as not to unnecessary alienate customer.
Many companies set up a pricing department to develop policies and establish or
approve decision. The aim is ensure that salespeople quote prices that are reasonable to
customer profitable to the company. Dell computer has developed innovative pricing
techniques.
A company may consider the following factors in setting pricing policy.
1. Selecting the pricing objectives
2. Determining demand
3. Estimating cost
4. Analyzing competitors cost, price and offers.
5. Selecting a pricing method
6. Selecting the final price
The MAHARAJA DEHYDRATION sets the very economic prices of its products.
The prices of the products are such that it can be affordable by every class of the society.
Here, the price list of the products is given.

PRODUCT PRICE-RANGE
Red Onion per kg. 60-100

White Onion per kg. 60-100


Pink Onion per kg. 60-100
Toasted Onion per kg. 60-100
Garlic per kg. 50-70

44
(6) MARKET SEGMENTATION

According to Philip kotler, “market segmentation is the sub-dividing of market


into homogeneous sub-section of customer. Where any sub-section may conceivably be
selected as a market target to be reached with a distinct marketing mix.”
According to W.J.Stanton, “market segmentation consists of taking the total
heterogeneous market for a product and dividing it into several sub-market or segments,
each of which tends to be homogeneous in all significant aspects.”
Market segmentation allow a marketer to take a heterogeneous market, a market
consisting of customer with diverse characteristic, needs, wants and behaviors, carve
organization with similarly needs, wants and behavioral tendencies.
McDonald’s and other marketer have found market segmentation to be value able
technique for the following reasons:
• Efficient use of marketing resources
• Better understanding of customer needs
• Better understanding of competitive situation
• Accurate measurement of goal and performance.
There are different variables based on which, the consumer markets can be
segmented. They are as under:

Demographic Segmentation
• Age ( Under 6, 6-11,12-19, 20-34, 35-49, 50-64, 65+)
• Family Size (1-2-3-4,5+)
• Family life cycle ( Child, Young, Married, Old, No Children,etc.,)
• Gender (Male, Female)
• Income ( Under 10000, 10000-15000, 15000-20000 and above)
• Occupation ( Professional, Official, Clerical, Student, etc.,)
• Education ( School, College graduate, etc.,)
• Religion ( Hindu, Muslim, Catholic, etc.,)
• Nationality ( Indian, American, French, German, etc.,)
• Social Class ( Lower middle, Upper middle, Lower uppers, working class)

45
♦ Geographic Segmentation
• Region (pacific, mountain, west north center, etc.,)
• City Size (under 5,000; 5,000-20,000; 20,000-500000 and above)
• Density (urban, suburban, rural.)
• Climate (northern, southern.)

♦ Psychographic Segmentation
• Life style (culture, sports, outdoor-oriented.)
• Personality (compulsive, gregarious, authoritarian, etc.,)

♦ Behavioral Segmentation
• Occasions (regular occasions, special occasions.)
• Benefits (quality, services, economy, and speed.)
• User status (nonuser, ex-user, potential user, etc.,)
• Usage Rate (light user, medium user, heavy user.)
• Attitude toward product (enthusiastic, positive, indifferent.)

Generally, the company has segmented the market on the entire basis. They are
producing the products in such a wide range that it covers a whole market and all type of
segments.

46
(7) PRODUCT MIX

Product mix is the list of all products sale by a company. It is defined as a


composite of products offered for sale by a firm or a business. The products mix three
dimensional:
1. Breadth,
2. Depth, and
3. Consistency.
Breadth is measure by the number or variety of product manufactured by a single
manufacture. For example, Bajaj Electrical produces a variety of electrical appliances
such as fans, mixer, lamps, etc.
Depth refers to the assortment of sizes, colours, and models offered within each
product line. For example, Bajaj Electricals manufacture different varieties or models of
fans and lamps.
Consistency refer to the close relationship of various product lines either or their
end-use, or production requirement or to distribution channel, or to other variable. Bajaj
Electrical, for example, produces those goods which fall under the category ‘Electrical
Appliances’. So there is consistency in their products. In contrast to this, Godrej offers
inconsistency in their product line, manufacturing process and even in their product mix,
which offers a variety of products having common relationship. For example, soaps and
locks.
The MAHARAJA DEHYDRATIONS’ product mix is as follows.
Product Mix Width

Onion
Red White Pink Garlic Toasted
Minces Minces Basic - Minces
Powder Powder Powder - Powder
Ring Rings - - -
- - Flakes Flakes -

Kibbled Kibbled - - Kibbled


Slices Slices - Slices
47
(8) DISTRIBUTION CHANNELS

The distribution channels means the medium through which the product can be
reached to the market. The channel can be of any type, either it can be direct distribution
system or indirect means the general distribution system.
Level of channel distribution
0 levels: - A channel represents a manufacture directly selling has product to final
customer. 1 level: - A channel represents a manufacture to wholesaler directly selling has
product to final customer. 2 levels: - A channel represents a manufacture such as
wholesaler purchase goods or producer and selling them to retailer then to directly selling
has product to final customer. 3 level:- A channel represents a manufacture such as
company agent to wholesaler purchase goods or producer and selling them to retailer then
to directly selling has product to final customer.

The distribution channels of their three types;


1. Intensive distribution
2. Exclusive distribution
3. Selective distribution

MAHARAJA DEHYDRATION PVT. LTD. is a represent of channel


distribution to the international.

48
(9) PRODUCT LIFE CYCLE
A company’s positioning and differentiation strategy must change as the product,
market, and competitors change over time. The concept of Product Life Cycle indicates
the stage from which the product passes through during its life span.
There are generally 4 stages in the cycle of every product. The stages of the PLC
are:
 Introduction
 Growth
 Maturity
 Decline
♦ Introduction
A periods of slow sales growth as the product is introduced in the market. Profits
are non existent because of the heavy expenses incurred with product introduction.
♦ Growth
A period of rapid market acceptance and substantial profit improvement.
♦ Maturity
A period of slow down in sales growth because the product has achieved
acceptance by most potential buyers. Profits stabilize or decline because of increased
competition.
♦ Decline
The period when sales show a downward drift and profits erode.

The PLC concept can be used to analyze a product category, a product form, a
product or a brand. The Product Life Cycle of the MAHARAJA DEHYDRATIONS is as
per shown in this table.

PRODUCT PLC STAGE


Red Onion Growth
Garlic Growth
White Onion Introduction
Pink Onion Growth
Toasted Onion Maturity

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ADVERTISEMENTS

Advertising:
Advertising is any paid form of no personal presentation and promotion of ideas,
goods, or services by an identified sponsor. Advertisers include not only business firms,
but also museums, charitable organization, and government agencies that direct messages
to target publics. Ads are a cost-effective way to disseminate messages, whether to build
brand preference for Coca-Cola or people to avoid hard drugs.
Most companies use an outside agency to help create advertising campaigns and
to select and purchase media. Today, advertising agencies are redefining themselves as
communication companies that assist clients to improve their overall communication
effectiveness by offering strategic and practical advice on many forms of communication.
An advertising goal is a specific communications task and achievement level to
be accomplished with a specific period of time. Objectives as under;
1. Information advertising,
2. Persuasive advertising,
3. Reminder advertising,
4. Reinforcement advertising.
Advertising profile of major media types:
Newspaper, television, direct mail, radio, magazine, outdoor, yellow pages,
newsletters, brochures, telephone, and internet.

Maharaja dehydration advertising international country for in place food fair


stalls in foreign

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51
CONTENTS of Finance Department

TOPICS PAGE NO.

1. Introduction 53

2. Organizational Structure 54

3. Capitalization 55

4. Ratio Analysis 56

5. Management of Working Capital 57

6. Management of Fixed Assets 60

7. Cash Management 61

8. Leverage Analysis 62

9. Fund Flow Analysis 63

52
(1) INTRODUCTION

Financial is the foundation stone of every business in the present day set up. No
business can be started without adequate finance nor can it be developed. The success of
every business depends upon adequate source of finance. The financing of sold trade and
partnership on nit difficult as the main source of finance is their own contribution and
requirement are limited. In the present modern set up generally businesses are raw by big
companies whose financial requirements are large volume of finance which can not be
contributed by investors.

Howard and Upton observed financial management involve the application of


genera management principle to a particular financial operation. It is concerned mainly
with raising funds is most economic and suitable manner, using these funds profitable as
possible. It provides best guide for future resource allocation by a firms. Financial
management is associated with designing and implementation and projects. Plans aim at
an effective utilization of funds.

“Financial management is an area of financial decision making,


harmonizing individual motives and enterprise goals” (Weston & Brigham)

Functions of financial management are those which go beyond the accounts figures.
Financial decisions are more critical, important and challenging. For any business
optimum utilization of available funds is a skill of finance manager.
The responsibilities of financial management are spread throughout the organization.
Since, finance function is a major critical functional area, the ultimate responsibility for
carrying out financial management functions lies with top management, i.e. Board of
Directors.

53
(2) ORGANIZATION STRUCTURE

In a large sized business unit, however a clear and detailed division of finance
functions is made. In the firms wherein officials like treasurers, chartered accountant and
controllers are appointed, they perform staff duties in addition to their general duties as
the main accounting official of the organization. Their staff duties include financial
forecasting, financial control and performance evaluation. In larger companies the
treasurer and controller are accountable to the main or director of finance. Maharaja
dehydration finance manger of director.
Thus, the top official of the finance department is known by different names. He is
known as chief officer or finance manager or finance administrator or treasurer or
controller. Generally the finance manager is responsible to the managing director or to the
board of directors of the company.
The organization of finance functions may be illustrated as follows;

Board of Directors

Managing of Directors

Financial Department

Controller Chartered Accountant Treasurer

Data Entry Operator Auditor

54
(3) CAPITALIZATION
“Capitalization of a corporation comprises the ownership capital and the
borrowed capital as represented by long term indebtedness. It may also mean the total
accounting value of the capital stock, surplus in whatever form it may appear and the
refunded long-term debt.” Lillian Doris
The term ‘capitalization’ which is derived from the word ‘capital’ was frequently
confusing in the past, since the fixed capital of a company was its major permanent
investment.
“The term capitalization or the valuation of the capital includes the capital
stock and debt.”
Capitalization includes capital stocks of share capital and dept. There are two types
of capitalization from which company may undergo.
♦ Over- Capitalization
♦ Under- Capitalization
Over- Capitalization
“A corporation is over capitalized when its earning are not large enough
to yield a fair return on the amount of stock and bonds that have been issue, or
when the amount of securities outstanding exceeds the current value of assets.” ---
Grettenberger
The analysis of the above definition reveals that a company is not over capitalized
from the very beginning. The state of over capitalization develops after some time. It is
also clear that the company is said to be over capitalized if it fails to pay a proper rate of
dividend over a long period time.
Under- Capitalization
A corporation or business may be under-capitalization when the rate of profit
id exceptionally high in relation to the return enjoyed by similarly situated
companies in the same industry or it has too little capital to conduct business.
Under-capitalization is a condition where the real value of company is more than
the book value. The assets do bring profits but it would appear to be must larger than are
warranted by book figures of capital. In such cases, the dividend will naturally be high
and the market value of shares will be much higher than par value. It is the sense that an
under-capitalized company pays exceptionally high rates of dividend.

55
(4) RATIO ANALYSIS

In the word of Myres, “financial statement analysis largely a study of relationship


among the various financial factor in a business as disclosed by a single set of statement
and a study of the trends of these factors as shown in a series of statement.”
Given the definition of Hunt, Will ant and Donaldson, “Ratios are simply a
means of highlighting in arithmetical terms, of relationship between figures drawn
from financial statement.”
The use of ratio has become increasing popular during last few years only. Today,
it has gained such impotence that anybody connected with the business enterprise uses
ratio analyses for measuring the financial strength and earning capacity of the business.
Profitability Ratio

This ratio falls under the category of the functional ratios. A number of ratios are
designed to indicate the profitability of the business and are grouped into the category of
profitability ratios. For example, return on capital employed is an example of profitability
ratio.
Under this ratio, there are many different ratios, two of them are-----
1. Gross Profit Ratio
The ratio establishes relationship of gross profit with sales to measure the
operating efficiency of the firm and to reflect its pricing policy. The rated is
calculated by dividing the gross profit by sales. Thus---

Gross Profit Ratio = Gross Profit X 100


Sales
This ratio is usually expressed as a percentage.
2. Net Profit Ratio
The ratio measures the relationship between net profits and sales of the firm
and is obtained by dividing the net profit by net sales. Depending upon the
concept of net profit employed, the ratio can be computed in ways---
Net Profit Ratio = Net Profit X 100
Net Sales

56
(5) MANAGEMENT OF WORKING CAPITAL

There are two types of assets in each concern i.e. fixed assets and current assets.
Both types of assets are to be managed efficiently so as to earn maximum profit is with
minimum possible investment because maximization of profits is the prime object of
every business. Decisions regarding investment in fixed assets are taken though the
capital budgeting process but decision making regarding management of working capital
is a continuous process which involves control of everyday ebb and flow of financial
resources circulating in the enterprise in one form or the other.
Therefore, there is a need for every firm to maintain optimum level of working
capital by bringing trade off between risk and profitability. The two types of working
capital are----
1. Gross Working capital
2. Net Working Capital
Operating Cycle
The duration of time required to complete the various stages in the business
activity is called the operating cycle. The operating cycle of a manufacturing unit is as
under:

RAW WORK IN
MATERIAL PROGRESS
PHASE 1
PHASE 2

PHASE 3
PHASE 5 FINISHED
CASH
GOODS
PHASE 4

ACCOUNTS
RECEIVABLES

57
The main stages in the above operating cycle are- production, sales, and cash. There
is a time gap between these stages. Thus, the firm needs working capital to finance these
stages. It needs cash or capital to purchase raw materials and to meet production and other
expenses. Similarly, stocks of finished goods are to be maintained to meet the continuing
demand of the customers. When the goods are sold on credit the duration between sales
and cash is widened and the firm has to maintain same level of debtors.

Thus, an adequate amount of funds has to be invested in current assets for a


smooth and uninterrupted production and sales activities. Because of the circulating
nature of current assets, working capital is also called as’ circulating capital.

1. Debtor’ Ratio
This ratio shows numbers of days taken to collect the dues of credit sales. It shows
the efficiency and collection policy of an enterprise.

Opening debtor + Closing debtor + B.R


Average Debtor’s=

Credit Sales
Debtor’s Turnover Ratio=

Average Debtor’s

360
Debtor’s Velocity Ratio=

Debtor Turnover Ratio

=Day’s {ANS}

The ratio is computed by dividing the amount of debtors and bills receivable by
the average daily sales. The average daily sales are obtained by dividing the total annual
sales by 365 days.

58
2. Creditor’s Ratio

Creditor’s Ratio is reverse of the Debtor’s Ratio. It gives the number of


days within which, the payments to the creditors for credits purchase is
made.

Opening Creditor +Closing Creditor + B.P


Average Creditor’=

Creditors Purchase
Creditor’s turnover Ratio =

Average Creditor’s

360
Creditor’s Velocity Ratio =

Creditor’s Turnover Ratio

Unlike debtor’s ratio, in this also the average daily purchases are computed first.
The by dividing the amount of creditors and bills payable able by the average daily sales.
Maharaja dehydration used of working capital management fixed assets and
current assets are both managed efficiently.

59
(6) MANAGEMENT OF FIXED CAPITAL

Every business unit requires certain amount of fixed or long term capital. Such
capital is permanently invested in the business. It is required to purchase fixed assets like,
plant, building, machinery, furniture, etc.
The capital is required during the initial stage as manufacturing activities are just
impossible without fixed assets. It is used to meet the long term requirements of the
business. Fixed capital is also required for expansion and development, modernization
and diversification of the business unit. The amount of fixed capital varies from unit to
unit as per the requirement, size, nature of the industry, scale of operations, technology
used by the unit and form of the unit.
Fixed assets are collected through shares, ploughing back of profits and loans
from financial institutions.
Maharaja has invested crores of fixed capital as it is the very large scale business
house. Being an HACCP Certified Company, it has introduced innovative processes in
the areas of Inventory Management, Finance, Marketing and R & D. As a result of which,
the Group’s dependency on working capital assistance from Commercial banks is
virtually nil.
The main source of fixed capital is that they plough back their profits.

60
(7) CASH MANAGEMENT

Cash is most important factor in financial management. It is also the most


important current asset for the operation of the business. Every activity in an enterprise
revolves round the cash. As because cash is limited in every enterprise and it cannot be
raised as and when one likes it. It is, therefore, desirable that available cash must be
managed properly.
What is cash management?
Every undertaken is desirous of utilizing the variable cash most effectively so as to
accomplish the goal of the undertaking i.e., maximization of profits or wealth of the
owners of capital with the minimum of efforts. But management of cash is not as simple
as it appears. In case, the undertaking does not sufficient cash in hand, it may not be in a
position to meet the unexpected challenges that may bring down its credit market. On the
other hand, if undertakings maintain excessive cash reserves to meet the challenges the
excessive cash will remain idle in the business, contributing nothing towards the wealth
of the firm. If heavy amount are blocked for unforeseen contingencies, the company will
not be in a position to carry on its day-to-day working efficiently. It is where the real
problem of cash management come, i.e., how much cash should be set aside for the
unexpected challenges and how much for regular day-to-day working. Therefore, the aim
of the cash management it is to maintain a sound cash position to keep the firm
sufficiently liquid and to use the excessive cash if any, in some profitable way.
It is really not an easy problem to solve. In fact, no hard and fast rules can be
suggested for the problem. Ail the financial management can do in this regard, is to study
the past records and take the necessary decision bearing in mind present economy
circumstances and the behavior and practice of the sister concern.
Cash Management is thus, concern with managing
i. Cash flow into and out of the firm
ii. Cash flows within the firm
iii. Cash balance held by a firm at a point of time by financing deficit or investing
surplus
So, the management of cash assumes more importance because of the difficulties
arising during predicting cash flow.

61
(8) Financial Planning

In any field of business planning is a primary function of the management. An


important executive function of the financial management is that of financial planning.
He has to make a plan for capitol investment and also for and working for the ensuing
year. The cash budget, being an integral part of the working capitol of the plan, has to
prepare in detail. The financial management has to frame a long term plan of capitol
investment also. The financial plan must be in conformity with the scheme of the
expansion development of the business prepared by the top management in consolation
with the production manager and sales manager of the unit. Any defect of imbalance in
the long term of planning will put business into lot of difficult in future. To ensure that
funds are properly utilized and effective control over their use is essential which also
require planning. The control can be effectively exercised only by comparing the actual
performance with standards in the plan.
Maharaja Dehydration is long term financial planning.

62
(9) FUND FLOW ANALYSIS

In a broader sense, in includes all resources, i.e., total resources, used in the
business whether in the form of men, material, money, machinery, method, etc. It also
refers to liquid assets. However, in the narrow sense, fund means only cash resources of
the business. Funds also are taken as synonymous to working capital, which is the excess
of current assets over current liabilities.
The financial statement generally refers to: (1). Balance sheet. (2). Profit and Loss
account or income or revenue statement. The knowledge of preparation of statement of
change in financial position is a must. Change in the firm’s working capital, i.e., the fund
flow statement.
The fund flow statement reveals the source from which the firms are made
available and how they are utilized or applied. In other words, the flow statement explains
in brief the change occurred in the item of two balance sheets. It is also called a
‘Statement of Sources and Application of Funds’ or ‘Statement of Change in
Financial Position’.
The term ‘funds’ is used in different ways. It also includes cash as well as non-
cash funds like depreciation. All receipts of cash from the sources of funds where as all
payments in cash from the application of funds. In simple words, it means movement of
funds. I.e. incoming of funds from different sources and their outgoing, i.e. use for
different purposes like purchase of assets or repayment of liabilities, etc. Maharaja
dehydration of the financial statement generally profit and loss account or income and
revenue statement and balance sheet.

63
BIBLIOGRAPHY

1. Personnel Management – text & cases, C.B.Mamoria & S.V.Gankar, Himalaya


Publishing House, Mumbai.
2. Marketing Management 11/e, Philip Kotler, Pearson Education.
3. financial Management, S.P.Shah, J.M.Shah, Dr. Paresh P. Shah, Dr. P.K.Priyam,
Dr. Hitesh Shukla, Mahajan Publishing House, Ahmedabad.
King Book Nai Sarak, Delhi.
4. www.maharajadehydration.com

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