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- In information technology, gap capabilities, appearance, and interactions

analysis is the study of the differences with users. The functional specification
between two different information is a kind of guideline and continuing
systems or applications, often for the reference point as the developers write
purpose of determining how to get from the programming code. (At least one
one state to a new state. A gap is major product development group used
sometimes spoken of as "the space …
between where we are and where we Definition continues below.
want to be." Gap analysis is undertaken FUNCTIONAL SPECIFICATIONS
as a means of bridging that space. DEFINITION (continued): … a
Among the various methodologies used "Write the manual first" approach.
to perform gap analysis is IDEF, a group Before the product existed, they wrote
of methods used to create a model of a the user's guide for a word processing
system, analyze the model, create a system, then declared that the user's
model of a desired version of the system, guide was the functional specification.
and to aid in the transition from one to The developers were challenged to
the other. create a product that matched what the
user's guide described.) Typically, the
functional specification for an
Business application program with a series of
interactive windows and dialogs with a
Requirements user would show the visual appearance
of the user interface and describe each of
Definition the possible user input actions and the
program response actions. A functional
At the core of any requirements process specification may also …
is the ability to get people to tell you Functional Specifications definition
what they really need, rather than their sponsored by
perceived solution, or what they think, powered by
you might be able to deliver. an online computer
The Volere process (our preferred
model) provides a well-defined structure Definitions of risk
and guide as to which requirements There are many more and less precise
content is appropriate for you. The definitions of risk; they depend on
process and template fit with existing specific applications and situational
tools (Caliber, DOORS, Requisite, etc.) contexts. It can be assessed qualitatively
and methods. The process is based on or quantitatively.
experience from worldwide business
analysis projects, and is continually Qualitatively, risk is considered
improved with input from users. proportional to the expected losses
DEFINITION: A functional which can be caused by an event and to
specification (or sometimes functional the probability of this event. The harsher
specifications) is a formal document the loss and the more likely the event,
used to describe in detail for software the greater the overall risk.
developers a product's intended
Frequently in the subject matter Risk assessment
literature, risk is defined in pseudo- involves identifying sources of
formal forms where the components of potential harm, assessing the
the definition are vague and ill-defined, likelihood that harm will occur
for example, risk is considered as an and the consequences if harm
indicator of threat, or depends on threats, does occur.
vulnerability, impact and uncertainty.

In engineering, the quantitative Risk management

engineering definition of risk is: evaluates which risks identified
in the risk assessment process
require management and selects
. and implements the plans or
risk analysis(business) is a technique to actions that are required to
identify and assess factors that may ensure that those risks are
jeopardize the success of a project or controlled.
achieving a goal. This technique also Risk communication
helps to define preventive measures to involves an interactive dialogue
reduce the probability of these factors between stakeholders and risk
from occurring and identify assessors and risk managers
countermeasures to successfully deal which actively informs the other
with these constraints when they develop processes.
to avert possible negative effects on the Risk analysis = risk assessment + risk
competitiveness of the company. management + risk communication.

One of the more popular methods to Prototype:

perform a risk analysis in the computer Definition: 1. original used as
field is called Facilitated Risk Analysis model: the original form of something,
Process (FRAP). which has the essential features and is
the model for subsequent forms
Three of the most important risks a 2. full-size functional model: a first
software company faces are unexpected full-size functional model to be
changes in revenue and costs from those manufactured, e.g. of a car or a machine
budgeted and amount of specialization 3. standard example: a standard
of the software planned. Risks that affect example of a particular kind, class, or
revenues can be unanticipated group
competition, privacy, intellectual 4. biology primitive form: a primitive
property right problems, and unit sales form believed to be the original type of a
that are less than forecasted; unexpected species or group, exhibiting the essential
development costs also create risk that features of the later type
can be in the form of more rework than
anticipated, security holes, and privacy Mockup model is the best expression
invasions. [1] way of design language. Not only
does it offers the most vivid visual
Risk analysis’ is employed in its effects but the best feedback of
broadest sense to include: designs and ideas, so as to
effectively cut the investment risk.
We now possess 20 imported CNC
machining centres and more than
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materials such
as ABS, PC, PP,
etc. are
according to
customers’ requirements, and high
qualities like high surface gloss, high
rigidity, high temperature resistance,
high extension, high elasticity, etc.
are achievable. Moreover, metal
sheet specimen such as aluminum
alloy is also available. The various Use Case Diagram
mockup models made by our This diagram shows a system's functions
company can be compared with the from a user's point of view, which in this
real product, and can meet different case is pretty simple. All the following
requirements on product exterior, diagrams were created in the Telelogic
structure, marketing potential, Tau UML suite by Telelogic for this same
function testing, and so on. example. Five of the nine possible
diagrams available in UML are shown
A use case diagram is a type of below. The Component Diagram
behavioral diagram defined by the (software module interaction),
Unified Modeling Language (UML) and Deployment Diagram (hardware nodes)
created from a Use-case analysis. Its and the Activity Diagram (tasks) are not
purpose is to present a graphical included. The Object Diagram
overview of the functionality provided (instantiations of classes) is rarely used.
by a system in terms of actors, their (All diagrams courtesy of Telelogic, AB,
goals (represented as use cases), and any
dependencies between those use cases. Gap analysis
The process of determining,
The main purpose of a use case documenting, and approving the
diagram is to show what system variance between business requirements
functions are performed for which and system capabilities in terms of
actors. packaged application features and
technical architecture.

gap analysis is a method by which you

compare a product with more than one
of its versions to achieve the proposed
system. Gap analysis done in a Most user guides contain both a written
constantly changing environment is very guide and the associated images. In the
challenging. The versions could be case of computer applications it is usual
customer dependant with subtle to include screenshots of how the
variances for different customers. program should look, and hardware
Although, a product caters to a specific manuals often include clear, simplified
industry, the industry players do things diagrams. The language is written to
differently to have a competitive edge in match up with the intended audience
the market. The strategy by which a with jargon kept to a minimum or
customer gains an edge is embedded in a explained thoroughly.
product and is rolled out as different
versions. To do a gap analysis for a
product, you require a good
understanding of the product and the
specific industry to which it caters.

The best place to begin a gap analysis is

to study the change request and feature
request documents of the existing system
and the proposed system. This will help
you understand the aim of your work
and gather requirements from the
appropriate sources. Whilst,
development is simple when the
documentation is in place, writing User
Guides based on gap analysis can be
quite tricky. In order to do so, one has to
understand the existing document and
freeze the requirements of the proposed

A user guide, also commonly known as

a manual, is a technical communication
document intended to give assistance to
people using a particular system[citation
. It is usually written by a technical
writer, although user guides could be
written by programmers, product or
project managers, or other technical
staff, particularly in smaller companies.

User guides are most commonly

associated with electronic goods,
computer hardware and software.