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ABSTRAK

Kebutuhan akan biofuel sebagai sumber energi terbarukan menuntut produksi


energi alternatif yang terjangkau dan ramah lingkungan. Teknologi produksi
biofuel merupakan salah satu pilihan untuk memproduksi bahan bakar setingkat
solar yang lebih berkualitas dan ramah lingkungan. Penelitian ini difokuskan pada
pengembangan dan uji kinerja katalis NbOPO4 sebagai katalis produksi biofuel
dari minyak nabati. Katalis NbOPO4 disintesis dengan metode sol-gel. Dalam
penelitian ini, katalis NbOPO4 digunakan untuk dua jenis reaksi, yaitu
transesterifikasi dan hydrotreating. Reaksi transesterifikasi untuk produksi
biodiesel menggunakan katalis NbOPO4 yang diimpregnasi dengan logam Na,
sedangkan reaksi hydrotreating untuk produksi green diesel menggunakan katalis
NbOPO4 diimpregnasi dengan logam metal Pd. Variabel tetap dalam reaksi
transesterifikasi yaitu massa katalis Na/ NbOPO 4 0,6 gr, massa minyak 30 gr,
temperatur reaksi 60 °C dan waktu reaksi 3 jam. Variabel bebas terdiri dari
loading Na (20,30,40,50 %) dan pH pada saat sintesis katalis NbOPO 4 (2,4,6,9).
Sedangkan dalam reaksi hydrotreating variabel tetap terdiri dari massa minyak 30
gr, massa katalis Pd/ NbOPO4 0,6 gr, tekanan awal reaktor 7 bar dan waktu reaksi
150 menit. Variabel bebas yaitu loading Pd ( 1,3,5,7,9 %), dan temperatur reaksi
200-320 oC. Morfologi katalis dikarakterisasi dengan SEM (Scanning Electron
Microscopy) dan derajat kristalinitas katalis dikarakterisasi dengan XRD (X-Ray
Difractometer) sementara analisa unsur/karakteristik kimia katalis menggunakan
Energy Dispersive X-ray (EDX). Kinerja katalis Na/NbOPO4 dievaluasi
menggunakan reaksi transesterifikasi. Yield biodiesel tertinggi diperoleh pada
katalis NbOPO4 yang disintesis dengan pH 4 dan loading Na 30% yaitu 98,5%.
Kinerja katalis Pd/ NbOPO4 diuji menggunakan reaksi hydrotreating. Yield green
diesel tertinggi yaitu 95,53% pada temperatur 240 oC dengan loading Pd 9%.
Green diesel yang diperoleh dianalisis menggunakan Gas Chromatography Mass
Spectrometry (GCMS) menunjukkan adanya atom karbon jenis petroleum eter
(C6), solar (C14-C18), kerosene dan gasolin (C11-C14) dan minyak pelumas (C19)

Kata kunci: katalis, NbOPO4, biodiesel, green diesel, hydrotreating.

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ABSTRACT

As a renewable energy source, biofuel requires method of production that is


affordable and environmentally friendly. This research is focused on developing
and testing the performance of NbOPO 4 as a catalyst for biofuel production from
vegetable oils. The NbOPO4 catalyst was synthesized via the sol-gel method. In
this study, the NbOPO4 catalyst was used for two types of reactions, namely
transesterification, and hydrotreating. Biodiesel production by transesterification
reaction was conducted using the Na-impregnated NbOPO4 catalyst, meanwhile,
hydrotreating reaction for green diesel production was done using Pd-impregnated
NbOPO4 catalyst. Fixed variables in the transesterification reaction were the mass
of Na/NbOPO4 catalyst (0.6 gr), oil mass (30 gr), reaction temperature (60 °C)
and reaction time (3 hours). The independent variables consisted of loadings of Na
(20,30,40.50%) and pH during the synthesis of the NbOPO 4 catalyst (2,4,6,9).
Whereas, the fixed variables for hydrotreating reaction consisted of oil mass (30
gr), Pd/NbOPO4 catalyst mass (0.6 gr), the initial pressure of reactor (7 bar) and
reaction time of 150 minutes. The independent variables are the loading of Pd
(1,3,5,7,9%), and the reaction temperature of 200-320°C. The morphology of the
catalyst was characterized by Scanning Electron Microscopy SEM), the degree of
crystallinity of the catalyst was characterized by X-Ray Diffractometer (XRD),
and the elements/chemical characteristics of the catalyst was analyzed using
Energy Dispersive X-ray (EDX). The performance of Na/NbOPO4 catalyst was
evaluated in the transesterification reaction. The best performance was obtained
on the reaction using NbOPO4 catalyst which synthesized at pH 4 and
impregnated with Na loading of 30% with generated biodiesel yield of 98.5%.
Pd/NbOPO4 catalyst performance was tested in a hydrotreating reaction. The
highest green diesel yield of 95.53% was obtained at temperature of 240 °C with
9% Pd loading. The obtained green diesel was analyzed using Gas
Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GCMS) and results confirmed the presence
of carbon atoms of petroleum ether (C6), diesel (C14-C18), kerosene and gasoline
(C11-C14), and lubricating oils (C19).

Key Word: catalyst, NbOPO4, biodiesel, green diesel, hydrotreating.

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