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DAFTAR ISI

Halaman
HALAMAN JUDUL ........................................................................................ ii
HALAMAN PENGESAHAN .......................................................................... iii
KATA PENGANTAR....................................................................................... iv
DAFTAR ISI...................................................................................................... v
DAFTAR GAMBAR......................................................................................... vi
DAFTAR TABEL.............................................................................................. vii
BAB I. PENDAHULUAN ................................................................................ 1
1.1. Latar Belakang .................................................................................. 1
1.2. Batasan Masalah ................................................................................ 2
1.3. Maksud dan Tujuan Penulisan........................................................... 2
1.3.1. Maksud ....................................................................................... 2
1.3.2. Tujuan.......................................................................................... 2
1.4. Metodologi Penulisan ........................................................................ 3
1.4.1. Studi Pustaka............................................................................... 3
1.4.2. Pengumpulan Data...................................................................... 3
1.4.3. Perhitungan dan Analasia Data................................................... 3
1.5. Sistematika Penulisan ....................................................................... 3
BAB II. DASAR TEORI : RESERVOIR ....................................................... 4
2.1. Karakteristik Batuan Reservoir .................................................................. 5
2.1.1. Komposisi Kimia Batuan Reservoir..................................................... 5
2.1.1.1. Komposisi Kimia Batupasir ........................................................... 5
2.1.1.2. Komposisi Kimia Karbonat ........................................................... 10
2.1.1.3. Komposisi Kimia Shale ................................................................. 12
2.1.2. Sifat Fisik Batuan Reservoir ................................................................ 13
2.1.2.1. Porositas ....................................................................................... 13
2.1.2.2. Permeabilitas ................................................................................ 17
2.1.2.3. Saturasi Fluida ............................................................................. 21
2.1.2.4. Tekanan Kapiler ........................................................................... 23
2.1.2.5. Wettabilitas .................................................................................. 26

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2.1.2.6. Kompressibilitas Batuan .............................................................. 30
2.2. Karakteristik Fluida Reservoir ................................................................... 32
2.2.1. Komposisi Kimia Fluida Reservoir...................................................... 32
2.2.1.1. Komposisi Kimia Hidrokarbon ...................................................... 33
2.2.1.2. Komposisi Kimia Non-Hidrokarbon .............................................. 39
2.2.1.3. Komposisi Kimia Air Formasi ....................................................... 40
2.2.2. Sifat Fisik Fluida Reservoir ................................................................. 42
2.2.2.1. Sifat Fisik Gas ............................................................................. 42
2.2.2.1.1. Densitas Gas ........................................................................... 42
2.2.2.1.2. Spesifik Grafity Gas ............................................................... 43
2.2.2.1.3. Viscositas Gas ........................................................................ 43
2.2.2.1.4. Faktor Volume Formasi Gas .................................................. 45
2.2.2.1.5. Kompressibilitas Gas .............................................................. 46
2.2.2.1.6. Faktor Deviasi Gas ................................................................. 48
2.2.2.2. Sifat Fisik Minyak ....................................................................... 50
2.2.2.2.1. Densitas Minyak ..................................................................... 50
2.2.2.2.2. Viskositas Minyak .................................................................. 51
2.2.2.2.3. Faktor Volume Formasi Minyak ............................................ 53
2.2.2.2.4. Kelarutan Gas Dalam Minyak ................................................ 55
2.2.2.2.5. Kompressibilitas Minyak ....................................................... 55
2.2.2.3. Sifat Fisik Air Formasi ................................................................ 56
2.2.2.3.1. Densitas Air Formasi .............................................................. 56
2.2.2.3.2. Viskositas Air Formasi ........................................................... 57
2.2.2.3.3. Faktor Volume Formasi Air Formasi ..................................... 58
2.2.2.3.4. Kelarutan Gas Dalam Air Formasi ......................................... 60
2.2.2.3.5. Kompressibilitas Air Formasi ................................................ 61
2.3. Kondisi Reservoir........................................................................................ 63
2.3.1. Tekanan Reservoir................................................................................ 63
2.3.1.1. Tekanan Hidrostatik ....................................................................... 64
2.2.1.2. Tekanan Kapiler ............................................................................. 64
2.2.1.3. Tekanan Overburden ...................................................................... 64

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2.3.2. Tekanan Formasi.................................................................................. 65
2.3.2.1. Tekanan Formasi Abnormal ........................................................... 65
2.3.2.2. Tekanan Formasi Normal ............................................................... 66
2.3.2.3. Tekanan Formasi Subnormal ......................................................... 66
2.3.2.4. Over Pressure ................................................................................. 67
2.3.2.5. Background Gas, Trip Gas dan Connection Gas............................ 69
2.3.3. Perkiraan dan Pendeteksian Tekanan Formasi Abnormal.................... 69
2.3.4. Temperatur Reservoir........................................................................... 70
BAB III. DASAR TEORI : PEMBORAN ...................................................... 73
3.1. Operasi Pemboran ....................................................................................... 73
3.1.1. Sistem Tenaga (Power System) ........................................................... 73
3.1.2. Sistem Pengangkatan (Hoisting System) ............................................. 76
3.1.3. Sistem Pemutar (Rotary System) ......................................................... 89
3.1.4. Sistem Sirkulasi (Circulating System) .................................................106
3.1.5. Sistem Pencegahan Semburan Liar (BOP System) ..............................113
3.2. Jenis Perangkat Pemboran ...........................................................................119
3.2.1. Rig Onshore .........................................................................................120
3.2.2. Rig Offshore.........................................................................................121
3.2.2.1. Rig Rawa.........................................................................................121
3.2.2.2. Jack Up Rig.....................................................................................121
3.2.2.3. Tender Platform Rig........................................................................122
3.2.2.4. Semisubmersible Rig......................................................................123
3.2.2.5 Drill Ship Rig...................................................................................123
3.3. Pemboran Berarah .......................................................................................124
3.3.1. Tipe Pemboran Berarah..........................................................................129
3.3.2. Faktor – factor yang Mempengaruhi Kemiringan dan Arah
Lubang Bor.............................................................................................139
3.3.2.1. Faktor Formasi................................................................................139
3.3.2.2. Faktor Mekanis...............................................................................141
3.3.3. Pengontrolan Pengarahan dan Penyimpangan Sudut
Lubang Bor............................................................................................. 141

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3.3.3.1. Konsep Fulcrum.............................................................................141
3.3.3.2. Konsep Pendulum..........................................................................142
3.3.3.3. Konsep Stabilisasi..........................................................................142
3.3.4. Metode Analisa Pemboran Berarah.......................................................143
3.3.4.1. Metode Tangential.........................................................................145
3.3.4.2. Metode Balance Tangential............................................................146
3.3.4.3. Metode Angle Averaging...............................................................147
3.3.4.4. Metode Radius Of Curvature.........................................................148
3.3.4.5. Metode Minimum Of Curvature....................................................149
3.3.4.6. Metode Mercury.............................................................................150
3.3.5. Torsi........................................................................................................150
3.3.6. Tension...................................................................................................151
3.3.7. WOB dan Titik Netral............................................................................152
3.4. Jenis – jenis Well Completion......................................................................153
3.4.1. Pengertian dan Tujuan Well Completion...............................................152
3.4.2. Jenis – jenis Well Completion................................................................152
3.4.2.1. Formation Completion...................................................................153
3.4.2.1. Formation Completion...................................................................153
3.4.2.1.1. Open Hole Completion............................................................154
3.4.2.1.2. Perforated Casing Completion................................................156
3.4.2.1.3. Sand Exclution Type...............................................................157
3.4.2.1.4. Liner Completion....................................................................157
3.4.2.1.5. Gravel Pack Completion.........................................................159
3.4.2.2. Tubing Completion.......................................................................164
3.4.2.2.1. Single Completion...................................................................165
3.4.2.2.2. Comingle Completion.............................................................167
3.4.2.2.3. Multiple Completion...............................................................170
3.4.2.3. Wellhead Completion...................................................................174
3.4.2.3.1. Casing Head............................................................................176
3.4.2.3.2. Tubing Head Completion........................................................179
3.4.2.3.3. Cristmast Tree.........................................................................182

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3.5. Konsep Dasar Optimasi Pemboran..............................................................187
3.6. Faktor yang Mempengaruhi Laju Penembusan Batuan...............................190
3.6.1. Karakteristik Formasi Batuan.................................................................193
3.6.1.1. Drillabilitas Batuan.......................................................................193
3.6.1.2. Kekuatan Kompresif Batuan.........................................................193
3.6.1.3. Keabrasifan Batuan.......................................................................194
3.6.1.4. Kekerasan Batuan.........................................................................194
3.6.1.5. Sifat Elastisitas Batuan..................................................................195
3.6.1.6. Keseragaman Batuan.....................................................................196
3.6.1.7. Tendensi Melekat..........................................................................196
3.6.1.8. Masalah Lost Circulation .............................................................196
3.6.1.9. Permeabilitas dan Porositas .........................................................196
3.6.2. Factor Mekanis.....................................................................................197
3.6.2.1. Beban Pada Pahat..........................................................................197
3.6.2.2. Kecepatan Putar............................................................................199
3.6.3. Factor Hydrolika...................................................................................200
3.6.3.1. Lumpur Pemboran.........................................................................200
3.6.3.2. Hydrolika Pemboran.....................................................................208
3.7. Faktor yang Mempengaruhi Laju Penembusan Batuan...............................211
3.7.1. Metode – metode pada Manage Pressure Drilling...............................215
3.7.1.1. Mud Cup Drilling..........................................................................215
3.7.1.2. Dual Gradient Drilling..................................................................216
3.7.1.3. CBHP............................................................................................217
3.7.2. Parameter Hydrolika.............................................................................221
3.7.3. Peralatan – peralatan yang digunakan..................................................223

BAB IV. ANALISA DATA DAN PERHITUNGAN .....................................224


4.1. DATA ..........................................................................................................224
4.1.1. Data Sumur X-03 .................................................................................225
4.1.2. Data Parameter Pemboran....................................................................225
4.1.3. Data Lumpur.........................................................................................226

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4.2. PERHITUNGAN DAN ANALISA ............................................................224
4.2.1. Prediksi Pf dan Pfr............................................................................229
4.2.2. Menghitung Ph..................................................................................231
4.2.3. Analisa Diff. Pressure.......................................................................233
4.2.4. Menghitung Paf..................................................................................234
4.2.5. Perhitungan ECD...............................................................................239
4.2.6. Perhitungan BackPressure..................................................................239
4.2.7. Evaluasi Penambahan BP...................................................................240
4.2.8. Penentuan BHP static dan Dinamik...................................................240
4.2. Profil Tekana Pada Sumur X-03 .................................................................242
BAB V. PEMBAHASAN ...............................................................................243
BAB VI. KESIMPULAN .................................................................................248
DAFTAR PUSTAKA .......................................................................................251

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