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Q. What are the methods of fabric formation?

Ans. Weaving, knitting, non woven

Q. What is the principle of manufacturing woven fabric?

Ans. Weaving is the interlacing of two sets of (warp & weft) yarns at right angles in a prede-termined pattern.

Q. What is warp yarn (ends)?

Ans. Yarns that run lengths of the loom.

Q. What is weft yarn (picks)?

Ans. Yarns that are woven across the loom.

Q. What is the objective of warp preparation process?

Ans. To transfer yarns from cone packages to weaver’s beam

Q. What does beam preparation process consist of?

Ans. Creeling and warping

Q. What is creeling in warp preparation process?

Ans. Putting required number of yarn packages in the creels, in desired order, in order to make warper’s beam.
Figure shows a creel.

Fig. A Creel
Q. How many types of creeling are done in warp preparation process?

Ans. Magazine creel, reversible creel, duplicate creel and truck creel.

Fig. Magazine creel Fig. Reversible creel

Fig. Duplicate creel Fig. Truck creel

Q. What are the types of warping systems?

Ans. Direct or beam warping,

Indirect or sectional warping, and
Thread by thread warping

Q. What are warper’s beam and weaver’s beam?

Ans. Warper’s beam: A beam on which yarn is wound on the warping machine.

Weaver’s beam: A roller on which large flanges are usually fixed so that a warp may be wound on it in readiness
for weaving.
Q. What is direct or beam warping system?

Ans. The winding of the total number of warp ends in full width in a single operation from creeled bobbins,
either onto a weaver’s beam, or on to a sectional beam.

For example;
number of warp yarns = 3360
creel capacity = 560
Number of warp beams = totoal number of warp yarns/creel capacity
= 3360/560
= 6

Q. What is indirect or sectional warping system?

Ans. In this warping system several sections are wound in sequence and parallel to each other on a drum.

Q. Describe the drop wire, heald eye and reed dent?

Ans. Drop wire is a metal piece that falls and hits an

electrode bar in case warp yarn breaks and stops the

Fig. Drop wires

Heald eye is a part of heald through which each warp

yarn is threaded. This allows the movement of each
warp yarn to be controlled during weaving.

Reed dent is the opening in the reed. Reed beats the

newly laid weft yarns into the body of the cloth.

Fig. Heald frames and healds

Q. What is the reed count or reed number?

Ans. The number of dents per unit width of reed. Like:

The number of dents per inch
The number of dents per 2 inch
The number of groups of 20 dents per 36 inches
The number of dents per 10 cm
The recommended unit is dents/cm.

Q. What are primary motions?

Ans. Every loom requires three primary motions to produce woven fabric :

1. Shedding
2. Picking
3. Beating-up

Q. What are secondary motions?

Ans. 1. Let-off
2. Take-up
3. Weft selection

Q. What are ancillary motions?

Ans. 1. Warp stop motions

2. Warp protectors
3. Weft stop motions
4. Weft relenishment

Q. What are warp protectors?

Ans. Warp protectors are only necessary in looms which use a free flying media to insert the weft, such as a
shuttle or a projectline. They stop the loom before beat-up can occur if the media fails to be arrested in the correct
position after it has traversed the loom.

Q. What is drawing-in?

Ans. After preparation, the warp yarn is “drawn in” through

the eyes of the heald mounted on the required shafts
Q. What are the four fundamental operations in weaving?

Ans. • Shedding
• Picking
• Beating up
• Take up and let off

Q. What is shedding process?

Ans. It is a primary motion in weaving that does separation of warp threads, according to pattern, to allow for
weft insertion or picking prior to beating. It is the mechanism that raises certain harnesses above the others.
Yarns that pass through the heald eyes in those harnesses are raised above that are not controlled by the raised
harnesses. In this way, a sheet of warp yarns is up, and a sheet of yarns is down. The space between two yarn
sheets is called “shed”.

Q. What are open shedding, semi open shedding and closed shedding methods?

Ans. Open shedding: It is a method of forming a shed in which,

between the insertion of one weft pick and the next, the only
warp threads moved are those that are required to change posi-
tion from the upper to the lower line of the shed, or vice versa.

Fig. Open-shedding

Semi open shedding: It is a method of forming a shed in which

threads, which are to remain in the top shed line for the next
pick, are lowered a short distance and then raised again. The
other threads are raised and lowered as in open shedding.

Fig. Semi Open-shedding

Closed shedding: It is a method of forming a shed in which all warp threads are brought to the same level after the
insertion of each pick of weft. They are of two types i.e., bottom closed and centre closed sheddings. The
difference between them is that the terms ‘bottom’ and ‘centre’ indicate the position of the warp threads when at

Fig. Bottom closed Fig. Centre closed

Q. What is picking (weft insertion)?

Ans. Picking is the second operation of the weaving process. After the shed has been formed, the length of
weft is inserted through the shed.

Q. What is beating up?

Ans. Beating-up is the third operation of the weaving cycle. As soon as a weft yarn is inserted, the reed
pushes or beats-up the weft to the fell of the cloth.

Q. What is fell of the cloth?

Ans. The fell of the cloth is the edge which is nearest to the reed as the cloth is being woven. In other words,
beating-up occurs when the reed pushes the newly inserted weft against the fell of the cloth (Refer fig.).

Fig. Fell of the cloth and other important functions

Q. What is temple?

Ans. It is a device used in weaving to hold fabric at the fell as near as possible to the width of the warp in the

Q. What is let -off (warpcontrol) motion?

Ans. This is the motion which delivers warp to the weaving area at the required rate and at a suitable constant
tension by unwinding it from a flanged tube known as the weaver’s beam.
Q. What are positive and negative let -off (warp control) motions?

Ans. Positive let off motion: A mechanism controlling the rotation of the beam on a weaving or other fabric
forming machine where the beam is driven mechanically.

Negative let off motion: A mechanism controlling the rotation of the beam on a weaving or other fabric forming
machine where the beam is pulled round by warp against a braking force applied to beam.

Fig. Position of sensing roller in an automatic

Fig. Negative let-off motion
positive let off motion

Q. What is take up (cloth control) motion?

Ans. This is the motion that withdraws fabric from the weaving area at a constant rate. It ensures that the
required pick spacing is maintained, and then winds it onto the cloth roller.

Q. What are positive take up and negative take up motions?

Ans. Positive take up motion: It is the motion in which

the take up roller is gear driven, a change wheel or
variable-throw pawl and ratchet being provided to allow
the required rate to be obtained, so determining the
pick spacing.

Fig. Positive take-up motion

Negative take up motion: It is the motion in which the take up roller is rotated by means of a weight or spring, this
roller only rotates when the force applied by the weight or spring is greater than the warp lay tension in the fabric.
The take up rate is controlled by the size of the force applied by the weight or spring and/or the warp tension.

Fig. Negative take-up motion

Q. What is leno weaving?

Ans. It is the form of weaving in which two adjacent warp yarns cross each other between the picks.

Q. What is woven terry fabric?

Ans. A warp pile fabric in which loops are created, without positive assistance, by varying the relative positions
of the fell and the reed. A high tension is applied to the ground warp and a very low tension to the pile warp.

Q. Show major systems of loom ?

Fig. Major systems of loom

Q. How many types of shedding motions are available?

Ans. Tappet, dobby and jacquard

Q. What is tappet shedding system?

Ans. The tapping shedding system is a motion of tappets and cams that cause shafts to be raised to form the
shed. The mechanical arrangement of this system occupies so much of space that it can accomodate maximum
of eight shafts and that is why its eight shafts represent maximum size of its weave repeat. This limits to the
weaving of plain weaves, simple twills and simple sateen and satin weaves. Incase, the repeat of the desired
design require more than eight shafts, then a dobby loom has to be used. Fig. shows tappet shedding with roller

Fig. Tappet shedding with roller reversing

Q. What is dobby shedding system?

Ans. A mechanism for controlling the heald shafts of a loom. It is required when the number of heald shafts or the
number of picks in repeat of pattern or both are beyond the capacity of tappet shedding This is a shedding system
capable of having upto 32 shafts. Being able to accomodate up to 32 shafts, a much greater weave repeat and
complicated design is possible.

Q. What is jacquard shedding system?

Ans. This shedding system has no shafts. A harness consisting of as many cords as there are ends in the warp
sheet connects each end individually to the Jacquard machine situated high above the loom. Therefore, each warp
can weave independently of all the others. Since each warp yarn can be controlled individually, the greatest weave
repeat is possible . This enables most intricate designs to be woven. Fig.1.1, 1.2, 1.3 and 1.4 show single lift
jacquard shedding, double lift jacquard shedding, double lift jacquard shedding formation and electronic jacquard

Fig.1.1 : Single lift jacquard shedding Fig.1.2 :Double lift jacquard shedding
Fig.1.3 : Double lift jacquard shedding formation

Fig.1.4 : Electronic jacquard

Q. What are the types of looms?

Ans. Single shed loom:

Shuttle loom:
1. Hand loom
2. Power loom

Shuttleless loom:
1. Projectile or gripper loom
2. Rapier loom
3. Air jet loom
4. Water jet loom

Q. Show the shuttle system of weft insertion ?

Ans. Healds


Warp sheet

Fig. Shuttle system of weft insertion

Q. Describe the projectile or gripper loom ?

Ans. A weaving machine in which the weft

thread is gripped by jaw(s) fitted in a
projectile, which is then propelled through
the shed. It has a small hook like device
that grips the end of the filling yarn.

Fig. Gripper shuttle (projectile) weaving

Q. Describe the rapier loom ?

Ans. Machines in which the means of

carrying the weft through the shed is fixed
in the end of a rigid rod or in a flexible
ribbon, this being positively driven. A rapier
machine may have a single rapier to carry
the weft across the full width or a single
rapier operating bilaterally with a centrally
located bilateral weft supply, or two rapiers
operatiing opposites sides of the machines.
Fig. Double rapier system

Rapier is a flexible steel tape, one end of which takes the filling yarn half the width of the fabric to
the centre of the shed where a second rapier picks up the yarn and takes it the remaining half of
the fabric across the shed. Sometimes there is sysytem of single rapier that takes the filling yarn
across the fabric and then empty rapier returns back leaving the new filling yarn in place. Different
rapier systems are shown in figure.

Fig. Different rapier systems

Q. Describe water jet loom?

Ans. In water jet loom, a water jet is propelled across the shed with the force, that takes the filling yarn to the
other side.

Q. Describe the air jet loom ?

Ans. In air jet loom, a jet of air is projected

across the shed with the force, that takes
the filling yarn to the other side.

Fig. Relay air-jet system

Q. Describe the multiphase loom ?

Ans. The multiphase loom can form many

different sheds at different places, thereby
enabling insertion of number of filling yarns,
one behind the other.
Q. What is selvedge?

Ans. Selvedge is the woven edge portion of a fabric parallel to the warp edge. It is a firmer construction than
rest of the fabric that provides neat edge and a secure grip for fininshing machines.

Usually the selvedge has an increased number of ends per inch. Selvedges may contain special effects or brand
names or fabric descriptions woven into them.

Q. What types of selvedges can be formed?

Ans. Tuck-in selvedge

Double-pick interwoven selvedge
Fused selvedge
Helical selvedge
Inserted selvedge
Leno selvedge
Traditional selvedge

Q. How is tuck in selvedge formed?

Ans. Tuck-in selvedge is formed by tucking-in protruding portions of each pick into the next warp shed, alongside
the new pick, and beating them up together with it.

Fig. Tuck selvedge

Q. How is leno selvedge obtained?

Ans. Leno selvedge is formed by one or more pairs of strong, highly tensioned ends that interface with the weft
on the leno principle. Warp threads are crossed and interwoven into the edges of the fabric.

Fig. Leno selvedge

Q. How is fused selvedge formed?

Ans. Fused selvedge is the thermoplastic warp and weft that are welded together by heat and pressure.

Q. How is helical selvedge formed?

Ans. Helical selvedge is formed by nipping each pick between two strong, highly tensioned ends which interwine
continuously, each end having a helical configuration.

Fig. Helical selvedge

Q. How is double-pick interwoven selvedge formed?

Ans. Double-pick interwoven selvedge is formed by interweaving a strong selvedge end with the legs of the
protruding loops, using a small reciprocating shuttle.

Q. How inserted selvedge is formed?

Ans. Inserted selvedgeis formed by inserting additional short double picks of strong fine yarn by means of a
reciprocating needle.

Q. How traditional selvedge is formed?

Ans. Traditional selvedge is formed without making special provision on a shuttle loom weaving plain cloth.

Q. What is the normal weight range of woven fabric?

Ans. Very heavy > 13 oz/yd2

Heavy > 6 - 13 oz/yd2
Medium > 4 - 6 oz/yd2
Light > 2 - 4 oz/yd2
Very light < 2 oz/yd2

Q. What is the normal width range of woven fabric?

Ans. Broadloom = 108”

Medium or average = 45, 54, 60, 72”
Narrow = 27 - 36”
Very narrow = < 12”

Q. What is lappet weave?

Ans. This is the type of weave in which floating threads are carried on the surface of the fabric and introduced at
intervals to form the patterns. The floats are not long and the patterns are usually geometric, i.e. zigzag stripes in
white yarn on a coloured plain weave ground.

Q. What is magazine loom?

Ans. This is the type of automatic loom in which the loom takes the empty bobbin from the shuttle and
automatically relpaces it with a new, full bobbin into the same shuttle. This exchange is made without stopping
the loom. In this case, the weaver is restricted to one shuttle and one colour warp yarn ( called battery type).
Another new type can use four colours in the warp.
Q. What is narrow fabric?

Ans. This is the type of any textile fabric made by interlacing fibres or yarns which does not exceed 45 cm ( in
the U. K.) and does not exceed 30 cm ( in the U. S. A. and other counries). Narrow fabrics are characterised by
the edges, which are the essential feature.

Q. What is ribbon loom?

Ans. This is the type of loom used for making narrow fabrics.

Q. What is needle loom?

Ans. This is the type of shuttleless weaving machine in which the weft is drawn from a stationary supply and
introduced into the shed in the form of a double-pick by a weft inserter needle. The weft is retained at the opposite
selvedge by the action of knittting or by the introduction of a locking thread from a separate supply.

Q. What is novelty weave?

Ans. Any weave which varies or combines the basic weaves, plain, satin and twill.

Q. What is swivel loom?

Ans. This is the type of loom meant for narrow fabric such as ribbons and tapes, the picking being done by a
special type of small shuttle controlled by a swivel.

Q. What is swivel weaving ?

Ans. A fabric in which figure is achieved by the introduction of additional weft threads into base fabric to
produce small clipped woven-in-spot effects. The figuring yarn is fed from a series of shuttles mounted over the top
of the weaving surface.

Q. What is tablet weaving ?

Ans. It is a method of making woven plain or patterned narrow fabrics, where warp is controlled by tablets made
of thin, stiff material, e.g. cardboard, plastic, bone, etc. Tablets are usually about 5 to 10 cm square, although
other shapes, e.g. triangles, hexagons, etc. are also used. Each tablet has a hole at each corner through the warp
yarns are threaded. Rotating the tablets controls the rise and fall of the warp yarns.

Q. What is box loom ?

Ans. A loom having two or more shuttles used for weaving fabrics containing weft yarns different as to size,
twist or colour.