Anda di halaman 1dari 90

Komponen BM massa x massa BM camp kmol x mol

litium iodida 133.861 2508.4118 0.0967 12.9463 18.7389 0.0481


asam asetat 60.052 16174.8643 0.6236 37.4509 269.3476 0.6908
metil asetat 74.08 2860.6280 0.1103 8.1706 38.6154 0.0990
air 18.016 664.7770 0.0256 0.4618 36.8993 0.0946
metil iodida 141.95 3706.5963 0.1429 20.2864 26.1120 0.0670
rhodium 103.91 20.9034 0.0008 0.0837 0.2012 0.0005
total 25936.1808 1.0000 79.3998 389.9144 1.0000

Densitas Gas P= 1.7


P.V = (Mfr / BMav) R.T T= 127.8
M/V = P. BMav/R.T
6 3
( 3 0 atm )( 28,013 kg/kmol ) 10 cm 1 kg
x x
( 82,06 cm 3 atm/mol . K )( 75 + 273K ) 1 m 3
103 gr
M/V = 12.8708
4.10248E-06 kg/m3
2.561089E-07 lb/ft3
out liq. = 4105.5404302
9051.0150577

out gas = 21830.64036 kg/ jam


48127.514028 lb / jam

W camp. In = 25936.1808 kg/jam 1.188063


57178.5291 lb/jam 1.188063
atm
C
EVAPORATOR - 01

Fungsi : Menguapkan etanol sisa yang terdapat pada aliran fa


keluaran Reaktor-01

A. Kondisi Operasi
P 1.700 atm
T 127.800 C =
BM campuran uap 79.400
Berat uap dihasilkan 25936.180793326 kg/jam =
Density feed evap-01 990.814 kg/m3 =

Fluida Panas : Saturated Steam

W1 = 3581.7397 kg/jam
T1­ = 200.000 oC
T2 = 200.000 oC

Fluida Dingin : Campuran

W1 = 25936.1808 kg/jam
T1­ = 112.892 oC
T2 = 127.800 oC

Perhitungan berdasarkan “Process Heat Transfer”, D. Q. Kern.

1) Beban Panas VP – 01

Q = 1659425.3595 kkal/jam
6943202.341 kj/jam

2) Menghitung ΔT

No Fluida Panas
1.000 392.000 Temperatur Tinggi
2.000 392.000 Temperatur Rendah
3.000 0.000 Selisih

Dipillih 1 – 1 HE

LMTD = (ΔT2 – ΔT1 ) / ln (ΔT2/ΔT1

ΔT = LMTD = 143.118 143.118

3) Ta dan ta

Tc =½( 392.000 +

tc =½( 262.040 +

4) Menghitung tekanan statis evaporator


Trial UD : ( Steam –aqueous solutions ) liat di kern,tmasuk aqueous : tmasuk yg

Dari Tabel 8 Kern, UD = 100-500 Btu/jam ft2 oF

a) Asumsi UD = 200 Btu/jam ft2 oF =

A= Q
U D ΔT

A= 230.059 ft2

A > 200, pake shell n tube


b) Adapun spesifikasi Heat Exchanger sebagai berikut :

Tube Side
Panjang tube ( L ) = 14.000 ft

OD = 1.500 inch
BWG 12.000
Pass = 6 pada 1 7/8 inc triangular pitch

A
Jumlah Tube (Nt) ¿¿
(Lxa \) } } } {¿

a” = 0.3925
Nt = 41.867

Dari Tabel 9 Kern diperoleh Nt yang mendekati adalah :

Nt = 42.000

Koreksi UD

A = Nt x L x a”
= 230.790 ft2

UD
Q
AΔT
= 199.366

Karena nilai UD perhitungan memenuhi dengan nilai UD asumsi, maka data untuk shell :

Shell Side
ID = 25.000 inch
Baffle Space(B) = 6.000 inch ( ½ lingkaran)
Pass = 4.000
Ditentukan rasio sirkulasi =
4.000 1.000
Densitas liquid = 61.854 lb/ft3

Densitas vapor = 0.256 lb/ft3


v (spesifik volume) uap = 3.901 ft3 / lb

v (spesifik volume) liquid,vi = 0.016 ft3 / lb

Berat aliran liquid


= 228717.692 lb / hr
disirkulasi

Total volume yang keluar dari evap – 01

Liquid = lb / hr x v liquid

= 3697.673 ft3/jam

Vapor = lb/hr vapor x v vapor


= 223081.555 ft3/jam

Total = Liquid + vapor


= 226779.229 ft3/jam

vo (specific volume)total = 0.793 ft3/lb

Tekanan statis evaporator : z 3 ρ av 2,3 xL v0


= log
144 144 x( v 0 −v 1 ) v1

Tekanan statis = 0.487 psi

5). Menghitung tahanan gesekan (Frictional resistance)

a. Area aliran (Flow Area)

a't = 1.290 inch2 (diisi manual - sesuaikan dengan index dibu

at = 0.063 ft2

Gt = 4559156.643 lb/hr ft2


pada T = 248.623 F

μ= 0.4165 cp 0.4068
1.008 lb/ft hr 0.4165

ID tube = 1.110 in
0.093 ft
0.028 m

Ret = 418369.302

f = 0.00013 fig. 26

s mean = 0.505 tabel 6

ΔPt = 2
f Gt L n
5 , 22 x 1010 x D e s φt

15.5169

Total Resistance = Tekanan statis + ΔPt

Total resitance = 16.0034 psi

Driving Force = 6.014

Syarat = driving force > total resistance

Fluida dingin : Tube Side campuran


1.      Flow area/tube (a’t) = 1.290
Total flow area (at) = Nt x a't x 144x n
= 0.063

2.      Laju alir Gt = W = 4559156.643


at
W
at

3.      Bilangan Reynold, Ret


Pada Tc = 248.623
μ = 0.425
D = 1.110
Ret = DiG a = 418369.302

μ
L/D = 151.351

=
4. jH = 380.0000

5.      Pada Tc = 120.346


Cp fluida dgn = 31.980
Density fluida dgn = 996.711
Konduktivitas Termal fluida dgn = 0.095
Viscosity fluida dgn = 0.4165
Pr Number = 140.366450

6.      Koefisien perpindahan panas, ho


ho = jH . (k/D). (cμ/k)1/3
=
=
= 2720.201
300.000

7.      hio = hi (ID/OD)


hio = 222.892

Fluida Panas : Shell Side


1.      Koefisien perpindahan panas, hio
Untuk kondensasi steam : hio = 1500 Btu/ hr ft2 oF 1500

6. Menghitung Uc dan Rd
    Clean Overall Coefficient, Uc
Uc =
h io . ho
hio +h o
= 194.056 Btu/hr ft2 oF

    Dirt Factor, Rd


Rd
U c−U d
=
U c .U d

= -0.0001
= -7285.356
= -4.137
= -41368.435

Syarat Rd < fouling factor coefficients organic liquids =

SUMMARY
hio = 1500.000 Btu/ hr ft2 oF

SUMMARY
hio = houtside = ho =
Uc =
UD =
Rd calculated =
Rd required =
Calculated ΔP, psi
Allowable ΔP, psi
sa yang terdapat pada aliran fase berat
ran Reaktor-01

400.950 K = 721.710

57179.423 lb/jam
61.854 lb/ft3

= 7896.375 lb/jam
= 392.000 oF
= 392.000 oF

= 57179.423 lb/jam
= 235.205 oF
= 262.040 oF

= 6585132.502 Btu/jam
Fluida Dingin Selisih
262.040 129.960
235.205 156.795
26.835 -26.835

jgn negatif (dijaga)

392.000 ) = 392.000

235.205 ) = 248.623

masuk aqueous : tmasuk yg μ > 0,2 cp pake yg 100-500

200.000 Btu/jam ft oF
12 - 24 ft (usually) ----> kern hal 404

= 0.125 ft 0.038

4.000

pembulatan dr Nt terhitung

karan) mendekati = ID / 5

masih bingung yg ini..?!!!


- sesuaikan dengan index dibuku)
HYSYS PD T 262,0 F (127,8 C kondisi operasi)
HYSYS PD T 255,02 F

1.070

ngambil yg asam asetat 70%

inch

ft3

lb/ hr ft2
o
F
cP = 1.008 lb/ft jam
inc = 0.093 ft

C 248.623 oF 393.496
Btu/lboF
kg/m3 = 62.223 lb/ft3
Btu/hr ftoF
cP = 1.008014 lb/ft.hr
(Pers.12.10-Coulson,vol6)

Btu/h .ft2. F
(melebihi maximum untuk organik, Fig 15.11, Kern)

Btu/hr ft2 oF
(Kern hal 164)

hr ft2 F / Btu
Btu/h F2 F
W/cm2 C
W/m2 C

5000 W/m2 c

h outside ho =
Uc = 194.056 Btu/ hr ft2 oF
Ud = 199.366 Btu/ hr ft2 oF
Rd calculated = 0.000
Rd require = 0.100
Calculated ∆ P = 15.517 psi
Allowable ∆ P = 10.000 psi
R

hysys dg vapor fraksinya = 0


T n P operasi

panas yg diberikan steam..neraca panas evap-01


A= 230.059

o
F Ta untk fluida panas
ta untk fluida dingin
o
F
asumsiin nya gmn ini??
m terserah mau berapa
liat tabel 10 Kern
(Tabel 10, Kern)
fig.28 kern

1 Kj = 0.94 Btu
1 kgmole = 2.205 lbmole
222.892 Btu/ hr ft2 oF
EVAPORATOR - 02

Fungsi : Menguapkan etanol sisa yang terdapat pada aliran fase berat
keluaran Reaktor-02

A. Kondisi Operasi
P 1.000 atm
T 100.000 C =
BM campuran uap 84.452
Berat uap dihasilkan 487.785 kg/jam =
Density Ethanol 795.980 kg/m3 =

Fluida Panas : Saturated Steam

W1 = 214.7023 kg/jam
T1­ = 120.000 oC
T2 = 120.000 oC

Fluida Dingin : Campuran

W1 = 14483.156 kg/jam
T1­ = 80.000 oC
T2 = 100.000 oC

Perhitungan berdasarkan “Process Heat Transfer”, D. Q. Kern.

1) Beban Panas VP – 02
Q = 115779.4134 kkal/jam

2) Menghitung ΔT

No Fluida Panas
1.000 248.000 Temperatur Tinggi
2.000 248.000 Temperatur Rendah
3.000 0.000 Selisih

Dipillih 1 – 1 HE

LMTD = (ΔT2 – ΔT1 ) / ln (ΔT2/ΔT1

ΔT = LMTD = 51.995

3) Ta dan ta

Tc =½( 248.000 +

tc =½( 212.000 +

4) Menghitung tekanan statis evaporator


Trial UD : ( Steam –Medium Organics )

Dari Tabel 8 Kern, UD = 50 – 100 Btu/jam ft2 oF

a) Asumsi UD = 50 Btu/jam ft2 oF =

Q
U D ΔT
A= Q
U D ΔT

A= 176.727 ft2

b) Adapun spesifikasi Heat Exchanger sebagai berikut :

Tube Side
Panjang tube ( L ) = 10.000 ft

OD = 1.000 inch
BWG 15.000
Pass = 2 pada 1 7/8 inc triangular pitch

A
Jumlah Tube (Nt) ¿¿
(Lxa \) } } } {¿

a” = 0.2618
Nt = 67.505

Dari Tabel 9 Kern diperoleh Nt yang mendekati adalah :

Nt = 68.000

Koreksi UD

A = Nt x L x a”
= 178.024 ft2

UD
Q
AΔT
= 49.636

Karena nilai UD perhitungan memenuhi dengan nilai UD asumsi, maka data untuk shell :

Shell Side
ID = 13.250 inch
Baffle Space(B) = 5.000 inch ( ½ lingkaran)
Pass = 1.000
Ditentukan rasio sirkulasi =
4.000 1.000
Densitas liquid = 49.691 lb/ft3

Densitas vapor = 0.172 lb/ft3

v (spesifik volume) uap = 5.803 ft3 / lb

v (spesifik volume) liquid,vi = 0.020 ft3 / lb

Berat aliran liquid


= 4301.522 lb / hr
disirkulasi

Total volume yang keluar dari evaporator – 01

Liquid = lb / hr x v liquid

= 86.565 ft3/jam

Vapor = lb/hr vapor x v vapor


= 6240.761 ft3/jam

Total = Liquid + vapor


= 6327.326 ft3/jam

vo (specific volume)total = 1.177 ft3/lb


=

Tekanan statis evaporator : z 3 ρ av 2,3 xL v0


= log
144 144 x( v 0 −v 1 ) v1
Tekanan statis = 0.244 psi

5). Menghitung tahanan gesekan (Frictional resistance)

a. Area aliran (Flow Area)

a't = 0.576 inch2 (diisi manual - sesuaikan dengan index dibuku)

at = 0.272 ft2

Gt = 19768.025 lb/hr ft2

pada T = 194.000 F

μ= 0.311 cp
0.753 lb/ft hr

ID tube = 0.856 in
0.071 ft
0.022 m

Ret = 1871.688

f = 0.00040 table 26

s mean = 0.404

2
ΔPt = f Gt L n
5 , 22 x 1010 x D e s φt

0.001

Total Resistance = Tekanan statis + ΔPt

Total resitance = 0.2450 psi


Driving Force = 3.451

Syarat = driving force > total resistance

Fluida dingin : Tube Side ethanol


1.      Flow area/tube (a’t) = 0.576
Total flow area (at) = Nt x a't x 144x n
= 0.272

2.      Laju alir Gt = W = 19768.025


at

3.      Bilangan Reynold, Ret


Pada Tc = 194.000
μ = 0.007
D = 0.856
Ret = DiG a = 1871.688

μ
L/D = 140.187

4.      jh = = 3.0000
5. jH = jh x Re = 5615.063

5.      Pada Tc = 90.000


Cp methanol = 0.780
Density Methanol = 769.560
Konduktivitas Termal Metanol = 1.394809
Viscosity Methanol = 0.486
Pr Number = 0.008

6.      Koefisien perpindahan panas, ho


ho =
= 73493777.319
= 7349.3777319
= 12942919.064
300.000

7.      hio = hi (ID/OD)


hio = 257.831

Fluida Panas : Shell Side


1.      Koefisien perpindahan panas, hio
Untuk kondensasi steam : hio = 1500 Btu/ hr ft2 oF 1500

6. Menghitung Uc dan Rd
    Clean Overall Coefficient, Uc
Uc =
h io . ho
hio +h o
= 220.014 Btu/hr ft2 oF

    Dirt Factor, Rd


Rd
U c−U d
=
U c .U d

= 0.01560
= 64.096
= 0.036
= 363.956
Syarat Rd < fouling factor coefficients organic liquids =

SUMMARY
hio = 1500.000 Btu/ hr ft2 oF

SUMMARY
hio = houtside = ho =
Uc =
UD =
Rd calculated =
Rd required =
Calculated ΔP, psi
Allowable ΔP, psi
terdapat pada aliran fase berat
ktor-02

373.150 K = 671.670 R

1075.381 lb/jam
49.691 lb/ft3

= 473.337 lb/jam
= 248.000 oF
= 248.000 oF

= 31929.855 lb/jam
= 176.000 oF
= 212.000 oF
= 459449.878 Btu/jam

Fluida Dingin Selisih


212.000 36.000
176.000 72.000
36.000 -36.000

248.000 ) = 248.000 oF

176.000 ) = 194.000 oF

50.000 Btu/jam ft oF
= 0.083 ft 0.025 m

a untuk shell :
ingkaran)
nual - sesuaikan dengan index dibuku)
inch (Tabel 10, Kern)

ft3

lb/ hr ft2

o
F
cP = 0.753 lb/ft jam
inc = 0.071 ft

(fig.12.23 Coulson)
(Pers 12.15, Coulson)

C 194.000 oF 363.150 K
kJ/mol C = 24.3750 kJ/kg C = 0.0702 Kj/mol K
kg/m3 = 48.042 lb/ft3
W/m C
cP = 0.000486 Ns/m2
(Pers.12.10-Coulson,vol6)

W/m2 C
W/cm2 C
Btu/h .ft2. F
(melebihi maximum untuk organik, Fig 15.11, Kern)

Btu/hr ft2 oF

(Kern hal 164)

hr ft2 F / Btu
Btu/h F2 F
W/cm2 C
W/m2 C
5000 W/m2 c

SUMMARY
h outside ho = 257.831 Btu/ hr ft2 oF
Uc = 220.014 Btu/ hr ft2 oF
Ud = 49.636 Btu/ hr ft2 oF
Rd calculated = 0.016
Rd require = 0.100
Calculated ∆ P = 0.001 psi
Allowable ∆ P = 0.100 psi
= 2.195 Kj/Kg K
PERHITUNGAN BERDASARKAN BUKU KERN HAL. 150

Fluida Panas : Saturated steam


W1 = 4,521.387 kg/hr =
T1 = 200 o
C =
T2 = 200 o
C =

Fluida Dingin : Aliran gas


W2 = 25936.181 kg/hr =
t1 = 112.89 oC =
t2 = 127.80 oC =

Perhitungan design sesuai dengan literatur pada Kern

1. Beban Panas H - 02
Q = 8,764,707.805 kJ/hr =
2. LMTD
Fluida Panas Fluida Dingin
392 Suhu tinggi 262
392 Suhu rendah 235
Selisih

LMTD = t 2  t1
ln ( t 2 / t1 )
= 143
Ft = 0.92
Dt = 131.521161158

3. Tc = T avg = 0,5 (392 + 392) =


tc = t avg = 0,5 (167 + 83) =
a. Trial UD
- Asumsi UD = 200 Btu/jam ft2 oF
Q
A =
U D . Δt
= 290.552 ft2

Karena A > 200 ft2, maka digunakan Shell & Tube Heat Exchanger dengan ukuran :

Tube side
Panjang tube (L) = 12 ft
Outside Diameter (OD) = 1.50 inch
BWG = 10
Pass = 6
Jumlah tube (Nt) = A a" =
¿¿
L x a} } } {¿
Nt = 61.688
dari tabel 9 Kern, didapat Nt yang mendekati adalah 117 (pada 1,5 in triangular pitch = 6 pass)
Nt = 66
- Koreksi UD
A = Nt x L x a''

= 310.8600 ft2

UD = Q
A.Δt
UD = 186.934 44439.86
karena nilai Ud perhitungan mendekati dengan nilai Ud asumsi, maka data untuk shell :
Shell side
ID = 21.25 inch
Baffle Space = 7.0 inch
Pass = 6

Pt (pitch) = 1.875

0.5625 0.875
Fluida Dingin : Tube Side aliran mixer 1
4. Flow area/tube (a't) = 1.19 inch 2
Total flow area (at) = Nt x a't / 144 x n

= 0.091 ft2

5. Laju alir, Gt = W / at
= 57179.423 0.091
= 629017.334 lb/(hr) (ft2 )

Linear velocity (V) = Gt / 3600

= 601.831 fps

= 629017.333666 lb/(hr) (ft2)

6. Bilangan Reynold, Ret


Pada tavg = 249 o
F
Viskositas (  ) = 0.507 cp =
ID = 1.230 inc =
Ret = D x Gt / μ

= 52569.580

7. L/D = 117.073
jH = 320

8. Pada tavg = 249 o


F

Prandl Number ( Pr ) =
 Cp  
 
 k 

k = 0.095 Btu/hr ftoF

Cp = 0.505 Btu/lboF

Pr = 6.524
1 0 ,14
9.  k   Cp  
3
 
hi  j H      
 D  maka
Koreksi viskositas diabaikan karena tidak significant,
k :
 didapat  w 
hi = 553.251 Btu/hr ft2 o F

hio = hi (ID / OD)


= 123,0462 x (1,08/1,25)
= 453.666 Btu/hr ft2 o F

Fluida Panas : Shell side

Suhu rata-rata = 392 F


Baffle spacing (B) = 7.00 inch
Clerance (C') = pitch - OD
= 0.37500000

4'. Luas area laluan (as) = (ID x C' x B) / (144 Pt)

= 0.207 ft2

5'. Laju alir, (Gs) = W / as


= 9967.939 / 0.207
48248.176 lb/hr ft2

6'. Reynold Number (Res) = D x Gs / μ


μ

Pada Tavg = 392 F


Viskositas (u) = 0.134 Cp
= 0.324 lb/ft hr
Diameter ekivalen (De) = 1.080 in
= 0.090 ft
Res = 13410.715

7'. jH = 180

8'. Pada Tavg = 392 F


k = 0.384 Btu/lb oF
Cp = 1.168 Btu/lb oF
((Cp x ) / k )1/3 = 0.995
k/D = 4.2667

1 0 ,14
 k   Cp   3
  
9'. ho  jH 
 D    
 
 e   k   w 
Koreksi viskositas diabaikan karena tidak significant, maka didapat :
ho = 764.109 Btu/hr ft2 o F

10. Clean overall coefficient


Uc = (hio x ho) / (hio + ho)

= 284.659 Btu/hr ft2 oF

11. Dirt factor, Rd


Rd = (Uc - UD ) / (Uc x UD)

= 0.00184

PRESURE DROP
Tube side sampe, sini

1. Untuk NRe = 52569.5799


Faktor friksi
Faktor friksi ( f ) = 0.00018
s (spesific gravity) = = 1.070

2. Δ Pt = f Gt 2 L n
5, 22 x 10 10 x De s  t

= 0.896 psi

3. Gt = 629017.33
V2/ 2g = 0.05 0.004167
0.05
Δ Pr = (4n / s) (V2/ 2g)

= 1.121 psi

4. Δ PT =  Pt + ΔPr

= 2.017 psi

Shell Side
1'. Faktor friksi
Res = 13410.715
f = 0.0025

2'. Number of cross, (N+1)


N+1 = 12 L / B

= 246.857 0.583333
Ds
= 1.7708 ft
s = 1.0000

3' Ps = f G 2 Di ( N +1 )
Δ s
10
5 , 22 x 10 x De S φ s
= 0.5415 psi

Shell Side
SUMMARY
764.1095 h outside
Uc = 284.6588
UD = 186.9344
Rd calculated = 0.0018
Rd required = 0.0100
0.5415 psi Δ P calculated
10.00 psi Δ P Allowable

Note : jika Rd calculated = atau > dari required dirt factor maka proses terjadi di bawah pressure drop (
9967.939 lb/hr
392 o
F
392 o
F

57179.423 lb/hr
235 o
F
262 o
F

8307339.934 Btu/hr

Fluida Dingin Selisih


262 130
235 157
27

392 F
249 F
200 - 700 (Tabel 8, Kern) Karena Cold Fluidnya camp.produk dg viskositas < 2,0

nger dengan ukuran :

0.3925 (Tabel 10.Kern)

5 in triangular pitch = 6 pass)

(koreksi memenuhi)
maka data untuk shell :

(Tabel 9. Kern)

tabel 9 kern

tabel 9 kern clearance (C") = 0.38 in

(Tabel 10.Kern)
1.226 lb/ft hr hysis 0.336 cp
0.103 ft id pd tabel 10

(Figure 24. Kern)

(Tabel 4 Kern halaman 800)(atau trial Hysys)

(hysys)

1 0 ,14
 3
 
  
  w 
(Fig. 28 Kern) yang tabel

(Fig. 28 Kern)

dr tabel 4 hysys
hysys

1 0 ,14
 3
  
 
 
  w 
(Eq. 6.38 Kern)

(Fig.26 Kern)
tabel 6 kern ngambil as.asetat 70 % (karena kandungan ddlm camp. Asam asetatnya 70 %)

d. Cross sectional area tube


Flow area per tube
inchi gbr 27 At =
=

e. Diameter Down Take, Dd


Dd =

f. Diamater Evaporator, DE
De =
=
=
(Fig.29 Kern)
g. Tinggi Evaporator, TE
Te =
(Eq.7.43 kern)

tabel 6 kern

Tube Side

453.6662

2.0172 psi
10.00 psi

roses terjadi di bawah pressure drop (Kern hal. 150)

IDENTIFIKASI
Nama Alat Heater
Kode Alat H-01
Jumlah 1 buah
Operasi Kontinyu
Fungsi Memanaskan
uap etanol
sebelum masuk
reaktor (R-01)
DATA DESIGN
Tipe Shell and Tube Heat Exchanger
Bahan Konstruksi Carbon steel
Tube Side Shell Side
Jumlah 66 ID 21.25
Panjang 12 Baffle space 7.00 inch
OD, ID 1,25 in, 1,08 in Pass 6
BWG 10 ΔP 0.5415 psi
Pitch 1 (9/16) -in,Triangular pitch
ΔP 2.0172 psi
Pass 6
mp.produk dg viskositas < 2,0 cp
p. Asam asetatnya 70 %)

sectional area tube


1.190 in2 = 0.09877 ft2
n x flow area per tube

0.091 ft2

ter Down Take, Dd


(4/phi) x At
(4/3,14) x 48,908 ft2
0.340 ft
0.0316 m

ter Evaporator, DE
3 x Dd 3.281079
0.0949 m 1.020881 ft

i Evaporator, TE
3 x tinggi tube
3 x 16 ft
36 ft
3.348 m
Fluida Panas : Saturated steam
Flowrate, W1 = 4521.3865 Kg/hr =
T1 = 200.000 C =
T2 = 200.000 C =

Fluida Dingin : methanol dr tangki -01


Flowrate, W2 = 25936.1807933261 Kg/hr =
t1 = 112.892 C =
t2 = 127.800 C =

Perhitungan design sesuai dengan literatur pada Kern

A. Panas yang ditransfer pada H-01


Q = 2094765.1653 Kkal/hr =
8764707.8046 kJ/hr
B. LMTD
Fluida Panas
T1 = 392.000 Suhu Tinggi
T2 = 392.000 Suhu Rendah
selisih

LMTD =

Dt = 142.958 o
F
Ft = 0.900
Dt = 128.662 o
F

C. Tc = T avg =
tc = t avg =

Trial UD
- Asumsi UD = 500.000 Btu/jam ft F

A =

A = 116.296 ft2

Karena A < 200 ft2 , maka direncanakan menggunakan Double Pipe Heat Exchanger
dengan klasifikasi sebagai berikut (dari tabel 11, Kern):

Annulus
IPS = 4 IPS
Sch. No = 40 inch Sch. No.
OD = 4.5 inch OD
ID = 4.026 inch ID
a'' = 1.178 ft2 a''

D. ANNULUS : FLUIDA panas

1. Flow area, aa
D2 = 4.026 inch =
D1 = 3.500 inch =

aa =

= 0.022 ft2

Equivalent diameter, De
De =

= 0.094 ft

2. Laju Alir Massa, Ga


Ga = W / aa

= 461900.314 lb/hr ft2

3. Reynold number, Re
pada t avg = 392.000 o
F
= 0.0160 centipoise = 0.0387

Rea =

Rea = 1124381.202

4. jH = 1000.000 (fig.24 Kern)


5. Cp = 0.4666 Btu/lb F
k = 0.0187 Btu/hr (ft) F (Tabel.4 Kern)
k/De = 0.198 Btu/jam ft^2 F
(Cp. /k)^1/3 = 0.989

6. Koefisien Perpindahan Panas


= 1.000
ho = 197.642 Btu/jam ft2 oF

E. INNER PIPE : FLUIDA dingin

1. Flow area ap
Dp = 3.068 inch = 0.256 ft

ap =

= 0.051 ft2

2. Laju Alir Massa, Gp


Gp = W / ap
W = 57179.423
Gp = 1114350.706 lb/hr ft2

3. Reynold Number, Rep


Pada T avg = 248.623 o
F
= 0.5068 cp 1.226
Rep = D.Gp /

= 232297.229

4. jH = 1000.000 (fig.24 Kern)

5. Pada tavg = 248.623 F


o

k = 0.0949 Btu/hr ft F (Tabel 5. Kern) = 0,0106 btu


Cp = 0.505 Btu/lb F o
(fig. 3 Kern) = 0,65 Btu/lb F
lbmole
= 1.867

6. Koefisien perpindahan panas


= 1.000

hi = 693.142 Btu/jam ft2 oF

7. hio = hi x (ID/OD)

= 607.589 Btu/jam ft2 oF

F. Clean Overall coefficient, Uc

Uc =

= 149.131 Btu/jam ft2 oF

G. Design Overall, UD
1 / UD = 1 / Uc + Rd , Rd =
= 0.010
UD = 103.034 Btu/jam ft2 oF

H. Required Surface Area

A =

= 564.356 ft2

External surface / lin ft, a''


a'' = 0.917 ft2 (Tabel.

Required length, L = A / a''

= 615.437 ft HP

Diambil panjang 1 hairpin = 2 x 15 ft 30


Jumlah hairpin yang diperlukan = 20.5146 14 harpin

Dapat dipenuhi dengan menghubungkan 7 hairpin


dengan panjang 15 ft secara series

Mencari panjang dan A actual

Actual length = 20 x (32 x 2)


= 420.000 ft

A sebenarnya = L x a''

= 385.140 ft2

I. Actual Design Overall Coeffesient, UD act


UD =

= 150.979 Btu/hr ft2 oF

J. Dirt Factor, Rd
Rd =

= -0.0001 hr ft2 oF/ Btu

PRESSURE DROP

ANNULUS : FLUIDA panas

De' = (D2 - D1)

= 0.044 ft

Rea' = 522898.513

f =
= 0.005

= 58.340 lb/ft3

Fa =

= 11.9823 ft

Va = Ga / (3600 . )

= 2.199 fps

Ft = ft

= 0.3755284
O

Pa =

= 5.006618 psi

INNER PIPE : FLUIDA dingin

Rep = 232297.229

f =

= 0.005
=

= 47.410 lb/ft3 hysys ρ methanol T 12

Fp =

= 21.590

Pp =

= 7.108 psi

SUMMARY
SUMMARY
ho = 197.642 h outside
Uc =
UD =
RD calculated =
RD required =
5.007 ∆P Calculated (psi)
10.000 ∆P Allowable (psi)
9967.939 lb/hr
392.000 F
392.000 F

57179.423 lb/hr
235.205 F
262.040 F

8312700.595 Btu/hr

Fluida Dingin Selisih


t2 = 262.040 129.960
t1 = 235.205 156.795
26.835 -26.835
Ft tu apa..??

392.000 oF
248.623 oF

"10 - 60" (Tabel 8. Kern) fluida camp.l (200-700)


kern tabel 8

at Exchanger

Inner
= 3
= 40 inch
= 3.5 inch
= 3.068 inch
= 0.917 ft2

0.336 ft
0.292 ft
lb/hr ft (fig 2-32, Perry) / Fig.15 App.Kern

(Tabel.4 Kern) hysis


lb/hr ft (fig.14 Kern) = 0,47 cp

(Tabel 5. Kern) = 0,0106 btu/hr ft F interpolasi dr T 32 n 212, T 122 F


(fig. 3 Kern) = 0,65 Btu/lb F hysys

0.003 (Tabel 12. Kern) Rd = Rd = Rdi + Rdo


(Tabel.11 Kern)

15.386 harpin
dak tahuu.. dr perhitungan sblh
hysys ρ methanol T 122 = 47,41 lb/ft3

SUMMARY
SUMMARY
h outside hio = 607.589
149.131
150.979
0.000
0.003
∆P Calculated (psi) 7.108
∆P Allowable (psi) 10.000
PERHITUNGAN BERDASARKAN BUKU KERN HAL. 150

Fluida Panas : Saturated steam


W1 = 4,521.387 kg/hr =
T1 = 200 o
C =
T2 = 200 o
C =

Fluida Dingin : Aliran gas


W2 = 25936.181 kg/hr =
t1 = 112.89 oC =
t2 = 127.80 oC =

Perhitungan design sesuai dengan literatur pada Kern

1. Beban Panas H - 02
Q = 8,764,707.805 kJ/hr =
2. LMTD
Fluida Panas Fluida Dingin
392 Suhu tinggi 262
392 Suhu rendah 235
Selisih

LMTD =

= 143
Ft = 0.92
Dt = 131.521161158

3. Tc = T avg = 0,5 (392 + 392) =


tc = t avg = 0,5 (167 + 83) =
a. Trial UD
- Asumsi UD = 200 Btu/jam ft2 oF

A =

= 290.552 ft2

Karena A > 200 ft2, maka digunakan Shell & Tube Heat Exchanger dengan ukuran :

Tube side
Panjang tube (L) = 12 ft
Outside Diameter (OD) = 1.50 inch
BWG = 10
Pass = 1
Jumlah tube (Nt) = a" =

Nt = 61.688
dari tabel 9 Kern, didapat Nt yang mendekati adalah 117 (pada 1,5 in triangular pitch = 6 pass)
Nt = 66
- Koreksi UD
A = Nt x L x a''

= 310.8600 ft2

UD =

UD = 186.934 44439.86
karena nilai Ud perhitungan mendekati dengan nilai Ud asumsi, maka data untuk shell :
Shell side
ID = 21.25 inch
Baffle Space = 7.0 inch
Pass = 6

Pt (pitch) = 1.875

0.5625 0.875
Fluida panas : Tube Side aliran mixer 1
4. Flow area/tube (a't) = 1.19 inch 2
Total flow area (at) = Nt x a't / 144 x n

= 0.091 ft2

5. Laju alir, Gt = W / at
= 57179.423 0.091
= 109654.946 lb/(hr) (ft2 )

Linear velocity (V) = Gt / 3600

= 104.916 fps

= 629017.333666 lb/(hr) (ft2)

6. Bilangan Reynold, Ret


Pada tavg = 392 o
F
Viskositas ( ) = 0.134 cp =
ID = 1.230 inc =
Ret = D x Gt / μ

= 34712.078

7. L/D = 117.073
jH = 280

8. Pada tavg = 392 o


F

Prandl Number ( Pr ) =

k = 0.384 Btu/hr ftoF

Cp = 1.168 Btu/lboF

Pr = 0.985

9.

Koreksi viskositas diabaikan karena tidak significant, maka didapat :

hi = 1043.667 Btu/hr ft2 o F

hio = hi (ID / OD)


= 123,0462 x (1,08/1,25)
= 855.807 Btu/hr ft2 o F

Fluida dingin : Shell side

Suhu rata-rata = 249 F


Baffle spacing (B) = 7.00 inch
Clerance (C') = pitch - OD
= 0.37500000

4'. Luas area laluan (as) = (ID x C' x B) / (144 Pt)

= 0.207 ft2

5'. Laju alir, (Gs) = W / as


= 9967.939 / 0.207
276767.627 lb/hr ft2

6'. Reynold Number (Res) = D x Gs / μ

Pada Tavg = 392 F


Viskositas (u) = 0.507 Cp
= 1.226 lb/ft hr
Diameter ekivalen (De) = 1.080 in
= 0.090 ft
Res = 20309.808

7'. jH = 130

8'. Pada Tavg = 392 F


k = 0.095 Btu/lb oF
Cp = 0.505 Btu/lb oF
((Cp x ) / k )1/3 = 1.869
k/D = 1.0544

9'.
Koreksi viskositas diabaikan karena tidak significant, maka didapat :
ho = 256.135 Btu/hr ft2 o F

10. Clean overall coefficient


Uc = (hio x ho) / (hio + ho)

= 197.134 Btu/hr ft2 oF

11. Dirt factor, Rd


Rd = (Uc - UD ) / (Uc x UD)

= 0.00028

PRESURE DROP
Tube side sampe, sini

1. Untuk NRe = 34712.0779


Faktor friksi
Faktor friksi ( f ) = 0.00025
s = 1.070

2. Pt =

= 0.038 psi

3. Gt = 109654.95
s = V2/ 2g (spesific gravity) = 0.002 0.000167

Pr = (4n / s) (V2/ 2g)

= 0.045 psi

4. PT = Pt + Pr

= 0.083 psi

Shell Side
1'. Faktor friksi
Res = 20309.808
f = 0.0012

2'. Number of cross, (N+1)


N+1 = 12 L / B

= 20.571
Ds
= 1.7708 ft
s = 1.0000

3' Ps =

= 0.7128 psi

Shell Side
SUMMARY
256.1349 h outside
Uc = 197.1344
UD = 186.9344
Rd calculated = 0.0003
Rd required = 0.0100
0.7128 psi P calculated
10.00 psi P Allowable

Note : jika Rd calculated = atau > dari required dirt factor maka proses terjadi di bawah pressure drop (
9967.939 lb/hr
392 o
F
392 o
F

57179.423 lb/hr
235 o
F
262 o
F

8307339.934 Btu/hr

Fluida Dingin Selisih


262 130
235 157
27

392 F
249 F
200 - 700 (Tabel 8, Kern) Karena Cold Fluidnya camp.produk dg viskositas < 2,0

nger dengan ukuran :

0.3925 (Tabel 10.Kern)

5 in triangular pitch = 6 pass)

(koreksi memenuhi)
maka data untuk shell :

(Tabel 9. Kern)

tabel 9 kern

tabel 9 kern clearance (C") = 0.38 in

(Tabel 10.Kern)
0.324 lb/ft hr hysis 0.336 cp
0.103 ft id pd tabel 10

(Figure 24. Kern)

(Tabel 4 Kern halaman 800)(atau trial Hysys) 0.0949

(hysys) 0.5048
(Fig. 28 Kern) yang tabel

(Fig. 28 Kern)

dr tabel 4 hysys
hysys

total surface (A) = Nt x pnjg x a"


310.8600
(Eq. 6.38 Kern)

design overall coef. = Q/A.dT

(Fig.26 Kern)
tabel 6 kern ngambil as.asetat 70 % (karena kandungan ddlm camp. Asam asetatnya 70 %)

d. Cross sectional area tube


Flow area per tube
inchi gbr 27 At =
=

e. Diameter Down Take, Dd


Dd =

f. Diamater Evaporator, DE
De =
=
=
(Fig.29 Kern)
g. Tinggi Evaporator, TE
Te =
(Eq.7.43 kern)

tabel 6 kern

Tube Side

855.8070

0.0827 psi
10.00 psi

roses terjadi di bawah pressure drop (Kern hal. 150)

IDENTIFIKASI
Nama Alat Heater
Kode Alat H-01
Jumlah 1 buah
Operasi Kontinyu
Fungsi Memanaskan
uap etanol
sebelum masuk
reaktor (R-01)
DATA DESIGN
Tipe Shell and Tube Heat Exchanger
Bahan Konstruksi Carbon steel
Tube Side Shell Side
Jumlah 66 ID 21.25
Panjang 12 Baffle space 7.00 inch
OD, ID 1,25 in, 1,08 in Pass 6
BWG 10 ΔP 0.7128 psi
Pitch 1 (9/16) -in,Triangular pitch
ΔP 0.0827 psi
Pass 6
mp.produk dg viskositas < 2,0 cp
0.507
p. Asam asetatnya 70 %)

sectional area tube


1.190 in2 = 0.09877 ft2
n x flow area per tube

6.519 ft2

ter Down Take, Dd


(4/phi) x At
(4/3,14) x 48,908 ft2
8.304 ft2
0.879 m

ter Evaporator, DE
3 x Dd 3.281079
2.636 m 28.34846 ft

i Evaporator, TE
3 x tinggi tube
3 x 16 ft
36 ft
3.348 m