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DAFTAR ISI

Halaman
HALAMAN JUDUL................................................................................................i
HALAMAN PERSETUJUAN................................................................................ii
KATA PENGANTAR............................................................................................iii
DAFTAR ISI...........................................................................................................iv
DAFTAR TABEL...................................................................................................vi
DAFTAR GAMBAR.............................................................................................vii
DAFTAR LAMPIRAN........................................................................................viii
DAFTAR SINGKATAN........................................................................................ix
BAB I PENDAHULUAN........................................................................................1
1.1 Latar Belakang............................................................................................1
1.2 Identifikasi Masalah....................................................................................7
1.3 Pembatasan dan Rumusan Masalah............................................................9
1.4 Tujuan dan Manfaat Penelitian...................................................................9
1.4.1 Tujuan Umum.....................................................................................9
1.4.1 Tujuan Khusus....................................................................................9
1.4.3 Manfaat Penelitian............................................................................10
BAB II TINJAUAN PUSTAKA............................................................................12
2.1 Pencemaran Udara....................................................................................12
2.1.1 Pengertian Pencemaran Udara..........................................................12
2.1.2 Sumber Pencemaran Udara...............................................................13
2.1.3 Klasifikasi Bahan Pencemar Udara...................................................15
2.1.4 Emisi Gas Buang Kendaraan Bermotor............................................16
2.1.5 Efek Bahan Pencemar Udara............................................................16
2.1.6 Usaha Pencegahan Efek Negatif Kemacetan Lalu Lintas.................17
2.1.7 Penanganan Pencemaran Udara........................................................18
2.2 Infeksi Saluran Pernafasan Akut (ISPA)..................................................19
2.2.1 Definisi ISPA....................................................................................19
2.2.2 Insidens dan Prevalensi.....................................................................21
2.2.3 Patogenesis ISPA..............................................................................21
2.2.4 Etiologi (Penyebab) ISPA.................................................................22
2.2.5 Penularan ISPA.................................................................................22
2.2.6 Klasifikasi ISPA................................................................................23
2.2.7 Gejala ISPA.......................................................................................23
2.2.8 Anatomi dan Fisiologi Saluran Pernafasan.......................................24
2.2.9 Faktor Risiko Penderita ISPA...........................................................26
2.3 Konsep Segitiga Epidemiologi.................................................................32
2.4 Perilaku.....................................................................................................33
2.5 Perilaku Berkendara..................................................................................35
BAB III KERANGKA KONSEPTUAL DAN HIPOTESIS PENELITIAN.........38
3.1 Kerangka Konseptual................................................................................38
3.2 Hipotesis Penelitian..................................................................................40
BAB IV METODE PENELITIAN........................................................................41
4.1 Jenis dan Rancang Bangun Penelitian......................................................41

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4.2 Populasi Penelitian....................................................................................41
4.3 Besar Sampel dan Cara Pengambilan Sampel..........................................42
4.3.1 Besar Sampel.....................................................................................42
4.3.2 Cara Pengambilan Sampel................................................................44
4.4 Lokasi dan Waktu Penelitian....................................................................44
4.4.1 Lokasi Penelitian...............................................................................44
4.4.2 Waktu Penelitian...............................................................................45
4.5 Variabel, Cara Pengukuran, dan Definisi Operasional.............................45
4.6 Teknik dan Instrumen Pengumpulan Data................................................48
4.6.1 Teknik Pengumpulan Data................................................................48
4.6.2 Instrumen Pengumpulan Data...........................................................48
4.7 Teknik Pengolahan dan Analisis Data......................................................49
4.7.1 Teknik Pengolahan............................................................................49
4.7.2 Analisis Data.....................................................................................50
DAFTAR PUSTAKA............................................................................................52
LAMPIRAN 1........................................................................................................55
LAMPIRAN 2........................................................................................................58
LAMPIRAN 3........................................................................................................59

DAFTAR TABEL

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Nomor Judul Tabel Halaman
2.1 Kriteria udara bersih dan udara tercemar oleh WHO 12
4.1 Definisi Operasional 45

DAFTAR GAMBAR

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Nomor Judul Gambar Halaman
1.1 Angka kematian bayi di Provinsi Jawa Timur tahun 4
2009-2012
1.2 Proporsi penyebab kematian pada balita 5
1.3 Kasus ISPA umur >5 tahun di Provinsi Jawa Timur 5
tahun 2014
1.4 Jumlah penderita ISPA periode Januari-Juli tahun 2015 7
1.5 Jumlah penderita ISPA berdasarkan Jenis Kelamin 8
periode Januari-Juli tahun 2015
2.1 Segitiga Epidemiologi 31
3.1 Kerangka Konseptual 37

DAFTAR LAMPIRAN

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Nomor Judul Lampiran Halaman
1 Penjelasan Sebelum Persetujuan bagi Responden dengan 55
Kuesioner
2 Pernyataan Kesediaan Menjadi Responden (Informed 58
Consent)
3 Kuesioner Penelitian 59

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DAFTAR SINGKATAN

AC = Air Conditioning
Pb = Plumbum (timbal)
CO = Karbon Monoksida
CO2 = Karbon Dioksida
O2 = Oksigen
O3 = Ozon
NO2 = Nitrogen Dioksida
NOx = Nitrogen Oksida
SOx = Sulfur Oksida
SO2 = Sulfur Dioksida
H2S = Hydrogen Sulfide
Depkes = Departemen Kesehatan
SIBI = Surveilans ISPA Berat Indonesia
ISPA = Infeksi Saluran Pernapasan Akut
PLK = Pusat Layanan Kesehatan
Unair = Universitas Airlangga
WHO = World Health Organization
RISKESDAS = Riset Kesehatan Dasar
APD = Alat Pelindung Diri
ARI = Acute Respiratory Infection
Dephub RI = Departemen Perhubungan Republik Indonesia

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