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General Product Support

Hydraulic Hints &

Trouble Shooting Guide

Revised 8/96 694

General Hydraulic Hints . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3

Troubleshooting Guide & Maintenance Hints . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4

Chart 1 Excessive Noise . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5

Chart 2 Excessive Heat . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6

Chart 3 Incorrect Flow . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7

Chart 4 Incorrect Pressure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8

Chart 5 Faulty Operation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9

Quiet Hydraulics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10

Contamination Control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11

Hints on Maintenance of Hydraulic Fluid in the System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13

Aeration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14

Leakage Control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15

Hydraulic Fluid and Temperature Recommendations for Industrial Machinery . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16

Hydraulic Fluid and Temperature Recommendations for Mobile Hydraulic Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19

Oil Viscosity Recommendations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20

Pump Test Procedure for Evaluation of Antiwear Fluids for Mobile Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21

Oil Flow Velocity in Tubing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23

Pipe Sizes and Pressure Ratings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24

Preparation of Pipes, Tubes and Fittings Before Installation in a Hydraulic System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25

ISO/ANSI Basic Symbols for Fluid Power Equipment and Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26

Conversion Factors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29

Hydraulic Formulas . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29

General Hydraulic Hints

Good Assembly Pipes Tubing Do’s And Don’ts

Practices Iron and steel pipes were the first kinds Don’t take heavy cuts on thin wall tubing
of plumbing used to conduct fluid with a tubing cutter. Use light cuts to
Most important – cleanliness. between system components. At prevent deformation of the tube end. If
All openings in the reservoir should be present, pipe is the least expensive way the tube end is out or round, a greater
to go when assembling a system. possibility of a poor connection exists.
sealed after cleaning.
Seamless steel pipe is recommended
No grinding or welding operations for use in hydraulic systems with the Ream tubing only for removal of burrs.
should be done in the area where pipe interior free of rust, scale and dirt. DO NOT over ream tubing as it can
hydraulic components are being weaken the connection.
Early classifications of pipe wall
installed. Do not allow chips to accumulate in the
thicknesses were: standard, extra heavy
All cylinder, valve, pump and hose and double extra heavy. tubing. They can be difficult to remove
connections should be sealed and/or after bending.
Today, pipes are classified by schedule
capped until just prior to use. Follow the manufacturers
number as specified by the American
Mineral spirits should be kept in safety National Standards Institute (ANSI). The recommendations on the use of flaring
containers. schedule numbers vary from 10 through tools. Don’t overtighten the feed screw
160. The larger the number, the heavier handle on a compression type flaring tool.
Air hoses can be used to clean fittings the wall thickness. The outer pipe Improper use of a tool can cause washout
and other system components. However, diameter stays the same for a given pipe and/or splitting of the flare connection.
the air supply must be filtered and dry to size, while the inside opening becomes
prevent contamination of the parts. smaller as schedule number increases. Bend tubing instead of cutting and using
a fitting. This reduces pressure drop and
Examine pipe fittings and hose A comparison of early classifications minimizes system losses. The minimum
assemblies prior to use to be certain that versus the ANSI classification follows: radius of a tubing bend should be at
burrs, dirt and/or scale are not present. least three times the inside diameter of
Standard – Schedule 40 the tube. Larger bends are preferred.
All pipe and tubing ends should be Extra Heavy – Schedule 80
reamed to prevent restriction and Sketch the optimum tubing route before
turbulent flow. The double extra heavy classification beginning the bending process. Be sure
does not compare with a schedule to use tubing with the proper temper to
Do not use Teflon tape on straight number. However, the inside diameter of prevent wrinkles and flattened bends.
thread connections. a double extra heavy pipe is
approximately one half that of a schedule Most flares are made by hand or power
When installing pumps or motors, 160 pipe. tools that swage the tube end over a
always align coupling halves as closely split die. The standard flare angle is 37
as possible, within 0.007 inch. In many cases, flanges are welded to degrees from the centerline. For best
the pipe ends and gaskets or “O” rings results, heavy wall tubing should be cut,
When using flexible couplings, follow the are used to seal the connections. deburred, and flared and bent using
manufacturer’s recommendations or Various pipe fittings are used to route power equipment.
allow 1/32 to 1/16 inch clearance the piping to and from each system
between the coupling halves. component. These fittings can be For information on sealing technology, or
threaded or welded in place as the need how to prevent leakage of hydraulic fluid,
Do not drive couplings on pump or arises. Threaded connections are used refer to “Leakage Control” in this catalog.
motor shafts. They should be a slip fit, in low pressure applications and welded
or shrunk on using hot oil. connections are used if high pressure,
Always use a dry spray-on lubricant on high temperature, or a severe
splines when installing. This prevents mechanical load exists.
wear and adds to the life of the splines. All piping should be secured with
When using double universal joint clamps to prevent vibration and
couplings, the shafts must be parallel excessive stress due to the weight of
and the yokes must be in line. the fluid. Do not weld the clamps to the
pipe as it may weaken the pipe and
When installing V-belt pulleys on pumps cause a stress crack.
or motors, line up both pulleys as closely
as possible. Always install the pulleys with
a minimum amount of overhang as close
to the pump or motor face as possible.
This increases bearing service life.

Troubleshooting Guide & Maintenance Hints

General 1. Know the capabilities of the system. 1. Excessive heat means trouble. A
Each component in the system has a misaligned coupling places an
The troubleshooting charts and maximum rated speed, torque or excessive load on bearings and can
maintenance hints that follow are of a pressure. Loading the system beyond be readily identified by the heat
general system nature but should the specifications simply increases generated. A warmer than normal
provide an intuitive feeling for a specific the possibility of failure. tank return line on a relief valve
system. More general information is indicates operation at relief valve
covered in the following paragraphs. 2. Know the correct operating pressures. setting. Hydraulic fluids which have a
Effect and probable cause charts Always set and check pressures with a low viscosity will increase the internal
appear on the following pages. gauge. How else can you know if the leakage of components resulting in a
operating pressure is above the heat rise. Cavitation and slippage in a
maximum rating of the components? pump will also generate heat.
System Design The question may arise as to what the
correct operating pressure is. If it isn’t 2. Excessive noise means wear,
There is, of course, little point in correctly specified on the hydraulic misalignment, cavitation or air in the
discussing the design of a system which schematic, the following rule should be fluid. Contaminated fluid can cause a
has been operating satisfactorily for a applied: relief valve to stick and chatter. These
period of time. However, a seemingly noises may be the result of dirty filters,
uncomplicated procedure such as The correct operating pressure is the or fluid, high fluid viscosity, excessive
relocating a system or changing a lowest pressure which will allow drive speed, low reservoir level, loose
component part can cause problems. adequate performance of the system intake lines or worn couplings.
Because of this, the following points function and still remain below the
should be considered: maximum rating of the components
and machine. Maintenance
1. Each component in the system must
be compatible with and form an Once the correct pressures have been Three simple maintenance procedures
integral part of the system. For established, note them on the hydraulic have the greatest effect on hydraulic
example, an inadequate size filter on schematic for future reference. system performance, efficiency and life.
the inlet of a pump can cause
cavitation and subsequent damage to 3. Know the proper signal levels, 1. Maintaining a clean sufficient quantity
the pump. feedback levels, and dither and gain of hydraulic fluid of the proper type
settings in servo control systems. If and viscosity.
2. All lines must be of proper size and they aren’t specified, check them
free of restrictive bends. An when the system is functioning 2. Changing filters and cleaning
undersized or restricted line results in correctly and mark them on the strainers.
a pressure drop in the line itself. schematic for future reference.
3. Keeping all connections tight, but not
3. Some components must be mounted to the point of distortion, so that air is
in a specific position with respect to excluded from the system.
other components or the lines. The Developing Systematic
housing of an in-line pump, for Procedures
example, must remain filled with fluid
to provide lubrication. Analyze the system and develop a Guidelines
logical sequence for setting valves, The following charts are arranged in five
4. The inclusion of adequate test points mechanical stops, interlocks and main categories. The heading of each
for pressure readings, although not electrical controls. Tracing of flow paths one is an effect which indicates a
essential for operation, will expedite can often be accomplished by listening malfunction in the system. For example,
troubleshooting. for flow in the lines or feeling them for if a pump is exceptionally noisy, refer to
warmth. Develop a cause and effect Chart 1 titled Excessive Noise. The
troubleshooting guide similar to the noisy pump appears in Column A under
charts appearing on the following pages.
Knowing the System The initial time spent on such a project
the main heading. In Column A there are
four probable causes for a noisy pump.
Probably the greatest aid to could save hours of system down-time. The causes are sequenced according to
troubleshooting is the confidence of the likelihood of happening or the ease
knowing the system. The construction and of checking it. The first cause is
operating characteristics of each one Recognizing Trouble cavitation and the remedy is “a”. If the
should be understood. For example, first cause does not exist, check for
knowing that a solenoid controlled Indications cause number 2, etc.
directional valve can be manually actuated The ability to recognize trouble
will save considerable time in isolating a indications in a specific system is
defective solenoid. Some additional usually acquired with experience.
practices which will increase your ability However, a few general trouble
and also the useful life of the system indications can be discussed.

Troubleshooting Guide & Maintenance Hints

Chart 1



1. Cavitation 1. Coupling misaligned 1. Setting too low or too

Remedy: a Remedy: c close to another valve
Remedy: d

2. Air in fluid 2. Motor or coupling 2. Worn poppet and seat

Remedy: b worn or damaged Remedy: e
Remedy: b
3. Coupling Misaligned
Remedy: c

4. Pump worn or
Remedy: e

a. Any or all of the following: b. Any or all of the following: c. Align unit and check condition of
seals, bearings and coupling.
Replace dirty filters; wash strainers in Tighten leaking connections; fill
solvent compatible with system fluid; reservoir to proper level (with rare d. Install pressure gauge and adjust to
clean clogged inlet line; clean or exception all return lines should be correct pressure.
replace reservoir breather vent; below fluid level in reservoir); bleed
change system fluid; change to air from system; replace pump shaft e. Overhaul or replace.
proper pump drive motor speed; seal (and shaft if worn at seal
overhaul or replace supercharge journal).
pump; fluid may be too cold.

Troubleshooting Guide & Maintenance Hints

Chart 2



1. 1. Fluid heated 1. Fluid heated 1. System pressure too

Remedy: See column D Remedy: See column D Remedy: See column D high
Remedy: d

2. Cavitation 2. Relief or unloading 2. Valve setting incorrect 2. Unloading valve set

Remedy: a valve set too high Remedy: d too high
Remedy: d Remedy: d

3. Air in fluid 3. Excessive load 3. Worn or damaged valve 3. Fluid dirty or low supply
Remedy: b Remedy: c Remedy: e Remedy: f

4. Relief or unloading 4. Worn or damaged 4. Incorrect fluid

valve set too high motor viscosity
Remedy: d Remedy: e Remedy: f

5. Excessive load 5. Faulty fluid cooling

Remedy: c
Remedy: g

6. Worn or damaged 6. Worn pump, valve, motor,

pump cylinder or other
Remedy: e
Remedy: e
a. Any or all of the following: c. Align unit and check condition of g. Clean cooler and/or cooler strainer;
seals and bearings; locate and replace cooler control valve; repair or
Replace dirty filters; clean clogged correct mechanical binding; check for replace cooler.
inlet line; clean or replace reservoir work load in excess of circuit design.
breather vent; change system fluid;
change to proper pump drive motor d. Install pressure gauge and adjust to
speed; overhaul or replace correct pressure (keep at least 125
supercharge pump. PSI difference between valve
b. Any or all of the following: settings).

Tighten leaking connections; fill e. Overhaul or replace.

reservoir to proper level (with rare
exception all return lines should be f. Change filters and also system fluid if
below fluid level in reservoir); bleed improper viscosity; fill reservoir to
air from system; replace pump shaft proper level.
seal (and shaft if worn at seal

Troubleshooting Guide & Maintenance Hints

Chart 3



1. Pump not receiving fluid 1. Flow control set too low 1. Flow control set too high
Remedy: a Remedy: d Remedy: d

2. Pump drive motor not 2. Relief or unloading 2. Yoke actuating device

operating valve set too low inoperative (variable
displacement pumps)
Remedy: e Remedy: d
Remedy: e

3. Pump to drive coupling 3. Flow by-passing thru 3. RPM of pump drive

sheared partially open valve motor incorrect
Remedy: c Remedy: e or f Remedy: h

4. Pump drive motor turning 4. External leak in system 4. Improper size pump
in wrong direction Remedy: b used for replacement
Remedy: g Remedy: h

5. Directional control set in 5. Yoke actuating device

wrong position inoperative (variable
displacement pumps)
Remedy: f
Remedy: e

6. Entire flow passing 6. RPM of pump drive

over relief valve motor incorrect
Remedy: d Remedy: h

7. Damaged pump 7. Worn pump, valve,

Remedy: c motor, cylinder or
other component
8. Improperly assembled Remedy: e
Remedy: e

a. Any or all of the following: c. Check for damaged pump or pump f. Check position of manually operated
drive; replace and align coupling. controls; check electrical circuit on
Replace dirty filters; clean clogged solenoid operated controls; repair or
inlet line; clean or replace reservoir d. Adjust. replace pilot pressure pump.
breather vent; fill reservoir to proper
level; overhaul or replace e. Overhaul or replace. g. Reverse rotation.
supercharge pump.
b. Tighten leaking connections. h. Replace with correct unit.

Troubleshooting Guide & Maintenance Hints

Chart 4




1. No flow 1. Pressure relief path 1. Air in fluid 1. Pressure reducing,

exists Remedy: b relief or unloading
Remedy: See Chart 3, valve misadjusted
column A Remedy: See Chart 3,
column A and B Remedy: d

2. Yoke actuating device

2. Pressure reducing valve 2. Worn relief valve inoperative (variable
set too low Remedy: e displacement pumps)
Remedy: d Remedy: e

3. Pressure reducing 3. Contamination in fluid 3. Pressure reducing,

valve damaged Remedy: a relief or unloading
Remedy: e valve worn or damaged
Remedy: e
4. Damaged pump, motor 4. Accumulator defective
or cylinder or has lost charge
Remedy: e Remedy: c

5. Worn pump, motor or

Remedy: e

a. Replace dirty filters and system fluid.

b. Tighten leaking connections (fill

reservoir to proper level and bleed air
from system).

Troubleshooting Guide & Maintenance Hints

Chart 5




1. No flow or pressure 1. Low flow 1. Erratic pressure 1. Excessive flow

Remedy: See Chart III Remedy: See Chart 3 Remedy: See Chart IV Remedy: See Chart 3

2. Limit or sequence 2. Fluid viscosity too high 2. Air in fluid 2. Feedback transducer
device (mechanical, Remedy: a Remedy: See Chart I malfunctioning
electrical or hydraulic) Remedy: e
inoperative or
Remedy: e

3. Mechanical bind 3. Insufficient control 3. No lubrication of 3. Misadjusted or

Remedy: b pressure for valves machine ways or malfunctioning servo
Remedy: See Chart 4 linkage amplifier
Remedy: See Chart 4 Remedy: c

4. No command signal 4. No lubrication of machine 4. Erratic command signal 4. Over-riding work load
to servo amplifier ways or linkage Remedy: f Remedy: h
Remedy: f Remedy: g

5. Inoperative or mis- 5. Misadjusted or malfunc- 5. Misadjusted or malfunc-

adjusted servo amplifier tioning servo amplifier tioning servo amplifier
Remedy: c Remedy: c Remedy: c

6. Inoperative servo valve 6. Sticking servo valve 6. Malfunctioning feedback

Remedy: c Remedy: c
Remedy: e

7. Worn or damaged 7. Worn or damaged 7. Sticking servo valve

cylinder or motor cylinder or motor Remedy: d
Remedy: e Remedy: e

8. Worn or damaged
cylinder or motor
Remedy: e
a. Fluid may be too cold or should be c. Adjust, repair or replace. f. Repair command console or
changed to clean fluid of correct interconnecting wires.
viscosity. d. Clean and adjust or replace; check
condition of system fluid and filters. g. Lubricate.
b. Locate bind and repair.
e. Overhaul or replace. h. Adjust, repair or replace
counterbalance valve.

Quiet Hydraulics

Today, buyers are demanding quiet Acoustic Isolation Reservoirs

machines because of their concern
about meeting industry’s noise limits. The greatest sound level reductions are Reservoirs provide the means for
Vickers is helping to meet this demand attained with the pump acoustically as releasing entrained bubbles. These
by supplying quiet hydraulic well as mechanically isolated. This can come from sources other than the
components. Sound levels of some requires that the pump be completely pump inlet and are usually present in
pumps today, for example, are fifty enclosed in a non-porous shell weighing the fluid returning to the reservoir. It is
percent lower than the same model at least 10 kg per square meter of important to note that low reservoir
pumps of a few years ago. surface. No openings can be tolerated temperatures reduce the rate of
and all joints must be sealed with bubble escape and may result in
resilient gaskets or moldings. incomplete release. As pointed out
Sound Advice Grommets of rubber or other soft
earlier, high temperatures promote
bubble formation. The best balance
Producing quiet, hydraulically-actuated material should be used to close between these two alternatives is
machines requires more than just the openings around piping and to prevent achieved by maintaining the
use of quiet components. mechanical contact between the temperature of oil leaving the
enclosure and piping. It must be reservoir in the range of 120 to
Meeting the stringent sound-level emphasized that while mechanical 150F and the temperature of
specifications of today’s industrial hydraulic isolation by itself can reduce noise, water-based fluids between 100 and
systems and machines takes careful acoustic isolation can only be effective 120F.
engineering. The pump should be when used in combination with
considered first. It not only produces sound mechanical isolation. A simple reservoir has to be large
directly but generates vibrations and fluid to effect complete bubble release.
pulsations. These react with other machine By providing baffles to guide the fluid
parts which produce more sound. Fluids through a circuitous path and by
locating return and pump inlet lines
The condition of the fluid being pumped as far apart as possible, a reservoir
Pump Selection is also important in controlling sound.
Fluid viscosity, temperature and
holding between two to three minutes
of maximum pump flow can be
Pumps generate more acoustic energy vacuum by themselves have no effect adequate.
per unit of hydraulic power by running at on sound levels. It is important to
high speed rather than at low. For this control them, however, to prevent the
reason, a pump should operate at 1200 formation of entrained air or vapor
RPM whenever sound is critical. Below bubbles that can double sound levels,
3000 PSI, the trade-off between pressure and reduce pump life.
and pump size for a given drive power
has little effect on noise, so you are free A combination of high fluid
to select any combination of these factors temperature and inlet vacuum
that otherwise meet your needs. generates what are called cavitation
bubbles. However, at low
temperatures, a high viscosity fluid in
a very long suction line can also
Mechanical Isolation produce sufficient vacuum to cause
To meet lower sound level limits, the cavitation. Important methods of
pump should be mechanically isolated suppressing bubble formation include:
from the rest of the machine using Using short runs or large diameter
anti-vibration mountings. This also inlet lines; keeping the reservoir
requires that all connections to the elevation close to or above that of the
pumps be made with flexible hose. pump; using low pressure-drop inlet
filters that signal when they are
Flexible hose will often reduce noise even producing high vacuums and need
where anti-vibration mountings are not changing; and, providing adequate
used. It prevents vibrations from reaching fluid controls. These are all good
other lines and components to keep them hydraulic practices that become
from becoming sound sources. In long increasingly important where you
lengths, this hose is, itself, a good sound must achieve low sound levels.
generator so only short lengths should be
used. For long runs, use solid pipes with
short hoses at the ends. All long lines must
be supported every meter or so, preferably
with clamps providing vibration damping.
Lines must not contact panels that are
good sounding boards. Where they pass
through such panels, allow sufficient
clearance to prevent direct contact; never
use bulkhead fittings in such cases.

Contamination Control

Contaminant in hydraulic systems is Control of Contamination

now recognized as the most frequent
cause of malfunction or failure of The following table prescribes
hydraulic equipment. Dependent on the preventative measures relative to the
nature, size and/or amount of different common types and causes of
contaminant, it can cause: contamination. For additional information,
request Vickers Guide to Systemic
– Reduced component service life. Contamination Control, catalog 561.

– Machine malfunction, particularly

when operating near maximum
Fluid degradation by:
– Risk of frequent breakdowns under Solid High Water Air
the same conditions. Preventive Measures Contam. Temp.
– Production rates below schedule. For Storage Drums:
– Store in cool, dry location.  
– High product scrap rates and quality – Ensure that closures fully seal in the fluid.  
faults. – Wipe away any dirt and moisture from around the  
closure before loosening and emptying.
– Use a portable filtration and transfer unit for  
Nature of Contaminant emptying and refilling.
Contaminant can be either particle For Storage Tanks:
contaminant or the product(s) of fluid – Install in cool, dry location.  
degradation. – Ensure that all covers and stop valves effectively  
seal in the fluid.
Particle contaminant can be metal, – Keep filling lines clean; cap ends when not in use.  
rubber, plastic, dirt, dust, fibre, sand, – Use a portable filtration unit for filling and emptying.  
paint, etc.; several types may be present For Hydraulic Systems:
at any time. It can enter the fluid at any
time after the fresh clean fluid has been – Provide fluid filter(s) in location(s) that assure the 
produced by the fluid manufacturer. required protection.
There is usually little likelihood that fresh – The ideal steady-state flow conditions through an 
fluid became contaminated during the off-line filter make this a must for most applications.
refining and blending processes. – Whenever possible, use filters having element 
condition indicators.
Fluid degradation results in: – Vented systems must be fitted with an air breather   
appropriate to the environment(s) in which the
– Oxidation and/or the formation of machine is to be operated and the requirements of
gummy deposits and sludge from the the system.
combined effects of high – Fit strainers to pump inlet lines if there is risk of 
temperatures, air, water and particle large contaminant particles (i.e. string, rag, screws,
contaminant. These can increase etc.) entering the lines.
viscosity, cause gummy deposits to – Prevent air entering the system, particularly through 
coat moving parts, clog orifices and pump inlet lines. Ensure air-tight joints in any
small passages, thus impairing sub-atmospheric zone or pump inlet lines. Also
smooth mechanical movements and make sure that those lines and all return and drain
form sludge. lines terminate below the minimum fluid level in the
reservoir; pump inlet lines should be sufficiently
– Unstable emulsions of poor lubricity below to prevent air entering through a vortex at
formed when water accidently low fluid levels.
emulsifies with oil. These impair smooth – Design for, and maintain, fluid temperatures at 
movements and promote wear. optimum levels for the application. Apply coolers if
– Aeration or air bubbles in the fluid,
particularly at low pressures. In
– Locate or screen hydraulic systems away from high  
temperature sources (e.g. furnaces).
excess, they cause noise in pumps
and valves leading to erratic or – Assemble system in clean conditions using clean  
spongy machine movements, practices.
premature wear and failure. – Pre-clean pipes and reservoir immediately before  
installation. Cap any ends that cannot immediately
be connected to mating components (e.g. between

Fluid degradation by:
Solid High Water Air
Preventive Measures Contam. Temp.
For Hydraulic Systems:
– Remove protective caps only just before connecting  
mating components.
– Use a portable filtration and transfer unit to fill the 
reservoir system.
– Flush new systems, and those that have undergone 
major repairs, before starting up. Temporarily
remove actuators and replace with flushing
manifolds or valves. Servo valves and similar high
precision units should also be replaced with
flushing manifolds or valves for flushing operations.
Make sure that actuators are clean internally before
connecting to the system.
– Make sure that air breathers and reservoir covers  
are at all times properly installed and tightly
– Stop any leakage of water into the system from 
coolers or other sources. Make a leak-tight repair.
– By planned maintenance, ensure that clean filter   
elements are applied (or metallic elements cleaned
when appropriate) when indicators or visual
inspection shows this to be necessary.
– Take fluid samples periodically and analyze to    
determine whether effects of particle contaminant,
heat, water and air indicate need for more control of
those factors or replacement of the fluid.
– Whenever the reservoir is emptied, clean it out  
thoroughly and remove all residual contaminant. If
necessary, restore protective paint or other finishes.
On completion, cap all openings unless the system
is to be refilled immediately.

Hints On Maintenance Of Hydraulic Fluid In The System

Hydraulic Fluid Changes finer) can be used. It is important that Preparation of pipes, tubes and fittings
fluid be clean and free of all substances in this catalog should be referred to and
Good maintenance procedures make it which will cause improper operation. followed. This will lower the possibility
mandatory to keep the hydraulic fluid of premature failure due to
clean. A daily, weekly or monthly log contamination of the system.
should be kept on the hydraulic fluid Fluid Contamination –
condition. Causes and Effects Adverse Operating Conditions
No hard and fast rules can be Contamination From experience, we have found that
established for changing the fluid machines used in a very dusty
because of the great variety of operating A contaminated system can be the result atmosphere and in windy areas require
conditions. However, we do know that of several factors; system design special components. For example,
when filter elements are replaced inadequate, poor maintenance of the heavy duty breathers, chrome plated
frequently, service life of a system system, poor housekeeping of the system piston rods, plus frequent changes of
increases. Periodic testing of the fluid by and adverse operating conditions. the filter cartridges are also required.
the supplier is recommended to confirm
suitability for continued use and to
establish the correct fluid and filter
System Design Inadequate Effects of Contamination
element replacement interval. – Reservoirs which cannot be cleaned.
– Breathers that permit abrasives Contamination affects all types of
inherent in the atmosphere to enter hydraulic equipment adversely.
Some of the considerations affecting Precision high tolerance parts are very
hydraulic fluid are: operating the system.
susceptible to the effects of
temperature, type of service, – Poor cylinder packing design (no contamination. Dirty fluid causes wear
contamination levels, filtration, and the wiper to clean dirt from the piston which accelerates leakage and the
chemical composition of the fluid. rod). development of heat in a system. Heat
– Improper piston rod design (piston lowers the lubricity of a hydraulic fluid
Fluid Recommendations rods with poor wear characteristic). and causes additional wear.
– Improper valving (anti–cavitation
The basic recommendations for fluid checks omitted from cylinder circuits If a hydraulic pump or motor should fail,
are stipulated in the Hydraulic Fluid and with rapid drop characteristics). the system becomes contaminated.
Temperature Recommendations for Remove the unit for repair. The
– Failure to provide adequate filtration. reservoir must be drained, flushed, and
Industrial Machinery in this catalog.
The fluids recommended give the cleaned. All hoses, lines, cylinders and
Poor Maintenance of the System valves should be inspected for wear
assurance of adequate wear protection
and excellent chemical stability under – Improper and unclean practices when and particles of the unit that failed.
the most adverse operating conditions. adding fluid to the system. Flush all components of the complete
– Failure to clean breathers. system to remove metallic particles.
On mobile applications, the viscosity – Failure to change pitted cylinder rods
grade of the fluid should be changed in Replace filter elements. Dispose of the
and worn cylinder packings. fluid removed from the system and fill
spring and autumn as is done with – Failure to use good cleanliness
automotive engines. Hydrostatic the reservoir with clean hydraulic fluid.
practices when changing system Install a new or rebuilt unit and start-up
transmissions and control mechanisms components.
may require a different viscosity fluid. the system. Allow the system to run for
Fluid requirements are normally – Failure to change filter cartridges a period of time to verify normal
outlined in the original equipment and/or filter at proper intervals. operation. Filter elements should be
manufacturers operation and – Failure to purge debris from the changed after 40 or 50 hours of
maintenance manuals. system after a pump failure. operation. This guarantees that the
system is essentially clean and free of
Poor Housekeeping of the any residue of the failed unit.
Draining The System System A very good reference catalog on
The system should be started and fluid Surgical cleanliness is not required, contamination is available titled Vickers
heated before draining. This will lower however, ordinary clean practices Guide to Systemic Contamination
the time it takes to drain the system and during assembly will pay off in Control. This catalog describes types
allow impurities suspended in the fluid increased service life of the equipment. and sources for contamination, effects
to be removed. It is desirable to remove of types and sizes of particles,
all fluid from the system. Bleeding of Excessive and improper use of pipe specifying contamination levels,
the fluid at the lowest point in the thread sealer on lines and gaskets in selecting a filter, locating a filter, design
system will help in most cases. the system can cause pump failures. steps and worked examples of fluid
This is especially true when a type of sampling analysis. Order catalog 561
Systems which have accumulated sealer is used that hardens. from your local Vickers representative.
deposits that were not removed during
draining must be flushed with a light Another source of contamination is
viscosity fluid. The fluid should contain fittings, hoses and lines which are
a rust inhibitor to protect metal surfaces received from a vendor uncapped. The
against rust formation after draining. use of brazed or welded fittings, and
unpickled steel plating can also
When hydraulic fluid is added to
contribute to the contamination.
replenish the system, it should be
pumped through a 25 micron filter. If
such a filter is not available, a funnel
with a fine wire screen (200 mesh or


Aeration have a high sulphur content tend to Reservoir must be deep enough to
accelerate “O” ring hardness. This is one prevent aeration.
Causes of the principle reasons for keeping
Vortexing Fluid in the Reservoir
system operating temperatures down.
The following are candidates for the Normal operating temperature of a
If the fluid level in the reservoir is low
formation of air in a system. system is 90 degrees above ambient.
and the inlet demand is great, a vortex
– Leaking inlet lines. When operating temperatures are in
condition can develop which pulls air
– Control valve “O” rings leaking. excess of this value, trouble may result.
into the pump inlet. In a hydraulic
Maximum operating temperatures should
– Shaft seal leakage. system, vortexing is normally the result
be checked at the pump outlet port.
– Leaking cylinder packings caused of low fluid or poor reservoir design.
by cavitating cylinders. Shaft Seal Leakage One of the best ways of curing a
– Turbulence or sloshing in the vortex problem is to place an
reservoir. Most vane pumps are internally drained.
The shaft seal cavity is connected to the anti-cavitation plate over the outlet of
– Vortexing fluid in the reservoir pump inlet. Excessively high inlet the reservoir. This is a common piece
– Release of air suspended within vacuums can cause air leakage at the of sheet metal at lease 1/8 inch thick
the fluid. shaft seal. The maximum vacuum set over and above the outlet opening.
measured at the pump inlet should not This plate will allow flow into the outlet
Effects exceed five inches of mercury. from a horizontal direction and
effectively extends and enlarges the
Aeration can be in many forms; large Shaft misalignment can increase the reservoir opening. This prevents the
bubbles, foam or in various degrees of probability of air leakage past the shaft vortex condition from developing.
suspension. It usually causes pump noise seal. Universal jointed couplings or
(cavitation). Small bubbles cause extreme splined couplings can cause seal Release of Air Suspended in Fluid
and rapid ring wear, with corresponding leakage if not properly aligned. Straight
vane tip wear. Larger bubbles cause vanes (direct) coupling should never be used. There is considerable air suspended in
to collapse and pound. This pounding cold hydraulic fluid. As the fluid warms,
effect develops rippling in the ring and the The use of the wrong type of tools can air is released into the system. A
ring will have a dull appearance. This is cause distortion or mutilation of a shaft reduction of fluid pressure will also
more apparent on straight vane rings seal at installation. The outer diameter of release air out of suspension. A simple
which are hardened cast iron. With the shaft should be lightly polished before relief valve poppet can create an orifice
extreme aeration cases, the wear is so installation to remove any burrs or that increases velocity of the fluid and
rapid that a ring and vanes can be roughness in the area of the shaft seal. lowers its pressure. The reduced
destroyed within an hour. In many cases, a Shaft seals must be made of the correct pressure condition releases air out of
large step will be worn in the ring contour material for a given application. A material suspension into the system. Relief valves
at the pressure quadrant. When the step that is not compatible with system fluid can should be returned below the fluid level
reaches a depth where the vane extends deteriorate and result in a leakage of the reservoir as far from the reservoir
and locks, the vane and/or ring will break. problem. outlet as possible. This allows time for
Also, the shaft can break where it enters the air released by the relief valve to be
the rotor if the torque is great enough. Leaking Cylinder Packings removed before leaving the reservoir and
entering the inlet area of the pump.
Caused By Cavitating Cylinders
Cures In some cases, special return line
On applications where a rapid raise and configurations are needed, or air bleed
Leaking Inlet Lines lower cycle is experienced, air can enter valves used, to remove air from the
the system through a cylinder rod seal. system.
– Pipe threaded fittings can be porous. Vacuums in excess of 20 inches of
Use an approved type of pipe thread mercury have been recorded in systems A special baffle made of 60 mesh screen
sealer on all pipe threads. without anti-cavitation check valves. This is can be installed into the reservoir. This
– If the pump inlet flange surface is enough to force dirt particles past the shaft baffle should be positioned at a 30 angle
rough, scored or mutilated, air leakage seal into the system with the air. An in the reservoir so that inlet oil is above the
past the “O” ring seal can result. anti-cavitation check will allow flow from screen and outlet oil is below the screen.
the reservoir to enter the rod area of the The top of the screen should be below the
With any of the above defects, air can cylinder during a vacuum condition from reservoir fluid level far enough to prevent
be pulled into the system. developing. This will lower the possibility of surface foam from coming in contact with
fluid contamination through the rod seal of the screen. Surface foam can penetrate
Control Valve “O” Rings Leaking a working cylinder. through the screen into the outlet area.
“O” rings are used to seal against port The screen baffle will eliminate all
leakage in many control valves. These Turbulence or Sloshing in the bubbles except the very small ones
seals can be checked by applying heavy Reservoir from the fluid if designed properly.
grease around the part to be checked. If
Return lines, if improperly located,
the noise stops, the trouble has been can cause turbulence and aeration. A
located and repair can be initiated. Plexiglass window should be placed
On systems which have been operating in the prototype reservoir to study flow
at excessive high temperatures, the “O” conditions. Return lines emptying
rings can harden and take a set. If this above the fluid level cause bubbles to
occurs, air leakage can result. This is form in the system. Return lines
true not only in a pump, but also in the should always be terminated below
rest of the components of the system. the fluid level. Vehicle movement can
Another factor enhancing air leakage is cause sloshing within the reservoir.
the actual fluid composition. Fluids which
Leakage Control

Cost Of Leakage 4. Use a minimum number of fittings and Mounting Plates

connectors. Use welded joints
Concern for safety at work and the wherever practical. When valve packages or subplates are
rapidly increasing cost of oil makes bolted to mounting plates, the condition
industry sensitive to leakage. 5. Use parallel thread connectors, tees of the plate is important to obtain a
Leakage creates safety hazards, and elbows in place of tapered pipe satisfactory initial seal and prevent
wastes costly oil, increases machine threads. extrusion and wear. Requirements are:
down-time, decreases production
rates, generates product spoilage and 6. Use manifolds instead of individual – Flat mounting surfaces
increases replacement parts lines wherever possible.
inventory. The cost of effective – Good sealing surface finish -64
leakage control is minor when 7. Specify proper bolt and plug torques micro-inches with no radial scratches
compared to the long term costs of for expected peak pressures to
leakage. prevent surface separation and static – High enough bolt preload to prevent
seal nibbling. surface separation.
8. Stress good workmanship to avoid
Leak-Free Design poorly assembled fittings and
Hydraulic systems do not need to leak. connectors. Preventing Seal
Today’s designer must create a more Deterioration
leak resistant system, where static
seal leakage should not occur and Reducing Dynamic Seal Premature deterioration of the seal can
dynamic seal leakage will be result from other factors. A primary
controlled. Before presenting some Wear factor is excessive fluid temperature. A
design practices proved effective in good guide is that seal life is halved by
Most dynamic seals are well designed every 20 F. rise. The cure: Incorporate
stopping leaks, we should consider the and will provide long, relatively
sources of most leaks. sufficient heat exchangers to keep fluid
leak-free service if given reasonable temperatures below 150 F.
chance. Four things a designer can do
to extend the life of dynamic seals are: Another factor may be compatibility of
Cause Of Leaks the fluid with the seal material where
1. Eliminate side loads on cylinder rod special fluids are used. If a doubt arises,
Almost all hydraulic system leaks and drive shaft seals. contact your Vickers representative. The
occurring after extended service result
following brief review of seal materials
from three conditions: 2. Protect cylinder rods from abrasive may be helpful.
dirt with scrapers, shields or rubber
– Loosening of fittings and connectors gaiters. Nitrile (Buna N) is the most widely used
by shock and vibration
and best all around elastomer for
3. Provide the requisite filtration and petroleum (mineral) oils, fuel and
– Wear of dynamic seals and mating easily cleaned reservoirs to prevent fire-resistant fluids – with the exception
parts especially in hydraulic cylinders dirt build-up in the oil. of phosphate esters.
– Deterioration of the elastomer 4. Keep cylinder rod and shaft speeds
because of elevated fluid Fluoroelastomer (Viton or Fluorel)
as low as possible. costs more than Nitrile, can be used
temperatures or an incompatibility with
the hydraulic fluid instead of Nitrile but has the added
advantage of longer life when fluid
Requirements For temperatures consistently run above
150 F. It can be used with phosphate
Combatting Shock And Static Seals ester fluids (except Skydrol).
Vibration A static seal retains fluid between rigid,
Polyurethane shows extrusion and
stationary surfaces. The seal must be
Many things can be done to minimize compressed as with a gasket or abrasion resistance superior to Nitrile
leakage from loose fittings and deformed as with an “O” ring, to flow in petroleum oils, fuel and silicate
connectors subject to shock and into the microcrevices in the mating esters, but deteriorates if
vibration: surface and also raise the seal’s contaminated with hot water.
internal stress level higher than the
1. Support all pipe lines with damped pressure to be sealed. When parts are Refer to “Stop Leaks” bulletin 394 for
mountings to absorb both shock and not rigid enough or bolt preload is not more comprehensive coverage of
vibration. high enough, the mating surfaces will leakage control.
separate under the action of fluid
2. Reduce shock with low-shock valves pressure, creating clearances of
or accumulators. enlarging those that might exist
because the sealing surfaces were not
3. Use pressure controls with low initially flat enough. With movement of
override and strategically placed to mating surfaces, the static seal
protect all parts of the system. becomes a dynamic seal. Rough
surfaces will wear the seal and
changing clearances nibble seal edges.

Hydraulic Fluid And Temperature
Recommendations For Industrial Machinery

Unit Type Viscosity Anti-wear Characteristicts

Inline Piston  Viscosity
(Pumps & Motors) Grades: 32-68 cSt (150-315 SUS) @ 40C. (104F)
Running: 13-54 cSt (70-250 SUS)
At Start Up: 220 cSt (1000 SUS) Max. Antiwear type
y hydraulic
y oils such as:
Angle Piston  Viscosity
Vane (Except MHT) automotive crankcase oils having API
Grades: 32-68 cSt (150-315 SUS) @ 40C. (104F)
Gear letter designations “SE”, “SF”, “SG”, or
Running: 13-54 cSt (70-250 SUS)
(Pumps & Motors) “SH” per SAE J183
At Start Up: 860 cSt (4000 SUS) Max.
MHT (High Torque/ Grades: 32-68 cSt (150-315 SUS) @ 40C. (104F)
Low Speed Running: 13-54 cSt (70-250 SUS)
Vane Motors At Start Up: 110 cSt (500 SUS) Max.
cSt: Centistokes
SUS:Saybolt Universal Seconds

 Adhere to the oil recommendations for MHT

units rather than the pumps involved.

 Viscosity Grades are the standard viscosity

grades listed in ASTM D-2422 titled “Viscosity
System for Industrial Fluid Lubricants”, but any
intermediate viscosity is acceptable.

Selection Of Viscosity Grades

Use the following tabulation to The SAE 10W grades fall between
determine the temperature extremes the 32 cSt (150 SUS) and 46 cSt
between which the viscosity grades (215 SUS) grades and the SAE
can be used to remain within Vickers 20–20W approximates the 68 cSt
start–up and running viscosity range (315 SUS) grade.
Viscosity Start Up Start Up Start Up Running Running
Grade 860 cSt 220 cSt 110 cSt 54 cSt 13 cSt
40C (104F) (4000 SUS) (1000 SUS) (500 SUS) (250 SUS) Max. (70 SUS) Min.
32 cSt (150 SUS) –12C (11F) 6C (42F) 14C (58F) 27C (80F) 62C (143F)
46 cSt (215 SUS) –6C (22F) 12C (54F) 22C (72F) 34C (94F) 71C (159F)
68 cSt (315 SUS) 0C (32F) 19C (66F) 29C (84F) 42C (108F) 81C (177F)

General Data Some of the factors especially important Two specific types of oil meet the
in the selection of oil for use in an requirements of modern industrial
industrial hydraulic system are: hydraulic systems:
Oil in hydraulic systems performs the
dual function of lubrication and 1. The oil must contain the necessary 1. Antiwear type industrial hydraulic oils.
transmission of power. It constitutes a additives to ensure high antiwear A new generation of industrial
vital factor in a hydraulic system, and characteristics. Not all hydraulic oils hydraulic oils containing adequate
careful selection should be made with contain these in sufficient amounts. quantities of antiwear compound is
the assistance of a reputable supplier. recommended by VIckers for general
Proper selection of oil assures 2. The oil must have proper viscosity to hydraulic service.
satisfactory life and operation of the maintain adequate sealing and
system components with particular lubricating quality at the expected
emphasis on hydraulic pumps and operating temperature of the
motors. Generally, oil selected for use hydraulic system.
with pumps and motors are acceptable
for use with valves. Critical servo 3. The oil must have rust and oxidation
valves may need special consideration. inhibitors for satisfactory system

Hydraulic Fluid And Temperature
Recommendations For Industrial Machinery

These oils are generally developed maximum and minimum viscosity ranges Cleanliness
and evaluated on the basis of pump of the oil at start-up and during running be
wear tests such as the Vickers maintained. (See chart) Very high Thorough precautions should always be
35VQ25A and ASTM D-2882. These viscosities at start-up temperatures can observed to ensure that the hydraulic
oils offer superior protection against cause noise and cavitational damage to system is clean.
pump and motor wear and the pumps. Continuous operation at
advantage of long service life. In moderately high viscosities will tend to hold 1. Clean (flush) entire system to remove
addition, they provide good air in suspension in the oil as well as paint, metal chips, welding shot, lint,
demulsibility as well as protection generate higher operating temperatures. etc.
against rust. This can cause noise and early failure of
pumps, motors and erosion of valves. Low 2. Filter each change of oil to prevent
2. Automotive type crankcase oils viscosities result in decreased system introduction of contaminant into the
having API letter designation “SE”, efficiency and impairment of dynamic system.
“SF”, “SG”, “SH”, per SAE J183. lubrication which causes wear. 3. Provide continuous oil filtration to
remove sludge and products of wear
The above classes of oils in the Choose the proper oil viscosity for your and corrosion generated during the
10W and 20-20W SAE viscosity particular system so that over the entire life of the system.
ranges are for severe hydraulic temperature range encountered, the
service where there is little or no start-up viscosity and the running 4. Provide continuous protection of
water present. The only adverse viscosity range shown in the chart is system from entry of airborne
effect is that the “detergent” met. This is important, and assurance contamination by proper filtration of
additive tends to hold water in a should be obtained from your oil air through breathers.
tight emulsion and prevents supplier that the viscosity of the oil being 5. During usage, proper oil filling of
separation of water, even on long used will not be less than the minimum reservoir and servicing of filters,
time standing. recommended at maximum oil breathers, reservoirs, etc. cannot be
temperature encountered. over emphasized.
Automotive type crankcase oils
generally exhibit poorer shear stability A number of antiwear hydraulic oils
which could result in some loss of
viscosity during their service life.
containing polymeric thickeners (V.I. Sound Level
improvers) are available and are used for
More shear stable multiple viscosity low temperature application. The Noise can be an indication of system
industrial grade hydraulic fluids will temporary and permanent viscosity loss of problems. Fluid selection and the
provide improved viscosity control. some of these oils at operating condition of that fluid in service will
temperature may adversely affect the life affect the noise levels of your systems.
Over the years, Vickers hydraulic oil and performance of components. Be
recommendations have been based on certain you know the extent of loss of Some of the major factors affecting the
oils that: (1) provide adequate wear viscosity (shear stability) of polymer fluid conditions that cause the loudest
protection, (2) have proper viscosity, and containing oils under hydraulic service noises in a hydraulic system are:
(3) are sufficiently stable to withstand the before using them so that you do not
chemical, thermal and mechanical stresses operate below the recommended minimum 1. Very high viscosities at start-up
of severe hydraulic service. There are viscosity. The selection of an oil with good temperatures can cause pump noises
automotive crankcase oils that are outside shear stability, is recommended for low due to cavitation.
of the API SE, SF, SG and SH classes temperature applications.
that meet the above basis of 2. Running with moderately high
recommendation. viscosity fluid will impede the release
of entrained air. The fluid will not be
With these oils, it is highly desirable to Temperature completely purged of such air in the
have acceptable data from pump wear time it remains in the reservoir before
To obtain optimum service life from recycling through the system.
tests (35VQ25A and ASTM-D-2882). In both the oil and the hydraulic system,
exceptional cases where the requirements operate between 49C (120F) and
of speed, pressure, temperature and 54C (130F). The maximum oil
ambient conditions exceed the temperature normally recommended
recommendations for industrial machinery, is 66C (150F).
please refer to the oil recommendations.
These fluids must also pass the Vickers MHT motors are permitted to operate at
35VQ25 pump test. higher temperatures, but this is
permissible by meeting special
application requirements. For this
Viscosity service, oils should have antiwear
characteristics required to pass pump
Viscosity is the measure of the fluid’s test on page 20. Pumps can be
resistance to flow. The selection of a approved to operate MHT motors at
hydraulic oil of specific viscosity range these higher temperatures. Contact your
must be based on the needs of the Vickers representative for
system, limitations of critical components, recommendations.
or proper performance of specific types of
units. Vickers recommends that certain

3. Aerated fluid can be caused by Water Based Fluids Water-Glycol Fluids
ingestion of air through the pipe joints
of inlet lines, high velocity discharge Water-glycol fire-resistant fluids are
lines, cylinder rod packings, or by
General Data typically water and diethylene glycol
fluid discharging above the fluid level To assure an effective emulsion or mixtures. They have approximately 40%
in the reservoir. Air in the fluid will solution, the water should not have water content.
cause abnormal noise and wear in excessive hardness or have an acid
your system. nature, and it should be distilled or
Oil-In-Water Fluids
deionized with less than 300 parts per Oil-in-water fluids are emulsions of oil
4. Contamination fluids can cause million hardness. and water. When preparing these
excessive wear of internal pump mixtures, the soluble oil should always
parts which may result in increased Hard water containing excessive mineral be added to the water while maintaining
sound levels. content, such as calcium and iron, may good fluid agitation. The water should
cause deposits in the hydraulic system never be added to the soluble oil. Do not
5. Systems using water based fluids or result in additive separation or mix soluble oil brands.
are susceptible to noise created by emulsion breaking.
vaporization of the fluid if excessive Filters
vacuums and temperatures are Proper maintenance of water containing
encountered. fluids requires periodic testing for pH, oil Many Vickers standard indicating type
and water concentrations. The pH inlet filters and return line filters are
should be maintained at 8.0-9.5 in approved with water-based fluid types.
Fire Resistant Fluids accordance with the supplier’s
A reduction of predicted life of hydraulic
recommendation. If the pH number
Hydraulic systems using fire resistant exceeds these limits, discard the fluid. components should be expected when
fluids require special engineering Always use a premixed fluid to replenish using water-based fluid types.
considerations. For applications using the system. The recommended storage
fire resistant fluids, consult Vickers or operating temperature range of water Synthetic Fluid Type
Guide to Alternative Fluids, Bulletin containing fluids is 4C (39F) to 49C
579, for the specific component being (120F), unless otherwise specified by Phosphate Ester
used or contact your local Vickers the fluid supplier.
representative for assistance. Phosphate ester type fluids are
manufactured from chemically produced
Proper design, operation and
Types Of Water Based esters. These types of fluids require
maintenance of fluid power systems is Fluids fluorocarbon seals. Consult your fluid
of paramount importance to obtain the supplier for the types of seals which are
optimum performance of fire resistant Invert Emulsions compatible.
fluids such as synthetics, water glycol Invert emulsions are inverted
and water-in-oil emulsion types. Environmental Hydraulic Oil
water-in-oil emulsions consisting of a
continuous oil phase surrounding finely If you have equipment that operates in
Additionally, you should consult your fluid divided water droplets that are uniformly environmentally sensitive areas, you may
supplier for specific fluid maintenance dispersed throughout the mixture. consider use of more environmentally
and application data on their fluid. aware fluids. These fluids perform well in
our hydraulic systems but may require
extra caution in order not to exceed their
performance capabilities.

Hydraulic Fluid And Temperature
Recommendations For Mobile Hydraulic Systems

The oil in a hydraulic system serves as index. The viscosity index of hydraulic Antiwear Hydraulic Oil
the power transmission medium. It is system oil should not be less than 90.
also the system’s lubricant and coolant. Multiple viscosity oils, such as SAE These oils are produced by all major oil
The selection of proper oil is a 10W-30, incorporate additives to improve suppliers and should consist of good
requirement for satisfactory system viscosity index (polymer thickened). These quality base stocks compounded with
performance and life. oils should have a minimum viscosity index antiwear, antioxidation, antifoam and
of 120. Oils of this type generally exhibit antirust additives. These may be
In most cases, use of these both a temporary and permanent decrease petroleum, vegetable or synthetic base oil.
recommendations will lead to selection of in viscosity due to oil shear encountered in
a suitable oil. However, due to the the operating hydraulic system. The actual Due to the large number of different
complex nature of oil formulation, the viscosity can, therefore, be far less in the antiwear hydraulic oils, it is impossible
variety of oils available and peculiarities of operating hydraulic system than what is for Vickers to test its products with all of
individual hydraulic applications, there will shown in normal oil data. Accordingly, the available fluids. Because of this, an
be rare instances where an oil selected when such oils are selected, it is evaluation procedure was developed for
on the basis of these recommendations necessary to use those with high shear fluid suppliers to establish the suitability
may yield unsatisfactory results. Vickers stability to insure that viscosity remains of their products for use in Vickers
cannot be responsible for such within recommended limits while in service. components. Refer to “Pump Test
exceptions. In this respect, the customer Procedure For Evaluation Of Antiwear
is encouraged to consult his Vickers Chemical Stability Hydraulic Fluids For Mobile Systems”,
representative or a reputable oil company page 20, for details of the 35VQ25 test
when selecting an oil. Oxidation and thermal stability are procedure. It is the responsibility of your
essential characteristics of oils for mobile oil supplier to assure that their fluids
hydraulic systems. The combination of meet Vickers requirements.
Important Factors In base stocks and additives should be
stable during the expected lifetime of the Environmental Hydraulic Oil
Selecting An Oil oil when exposed to the environment of
these systems. If you have equipment that operates in
Additives environmentally sensitive areas, you
may consider use of more
Hydraulic fluids contain a number of
additive agents which materially improve Suitable Types Of Oil envionmentally aware fluids. These
fluids perform well in our hydraulic
various characteristics of oil for systems but may require extra caution in
hydraulic systems. These additives are Crankcase Oil order not to exceed their performance
selected to reduce wear, increase capabilities. For further clarification,
chemical stability, inhibit corrosion and Oil having an API letter designation SE,
SF, SG or SH per SAE J183. Note that refer to Vickers Guide to Alternative
depress the pour point. Fluids, Bulletin 579.
one oil may meet one or more of these
Antiwear Other Oils
Pump performance and reliability are Certain other types of petroleum oil are
directly affected by the antiwear additive suitable if they meet the following
formulation contained in the oil. Oils provisions:
providing a high level of antiwear
protection are recommended for 1. Contain the type and content of
optimum performance and long life. antiwear additives found in the above
designated crankcase and antiwear
Viscosity hydraulic oils, and have passed the
pump tests.
Viscosity is the measure of the fluid’s
resistance to flow. The oil selected must 2. Have sufficient chemical stability for
have proper viscosity to maintain an mobile hydraulic system service.
adequate lubricating film at system
operating temperature. 3. Meet the viscosity requirements
shown in the following tables.
In addition to dynamic lubricating
properties, oil must have sufficient body
to provide an adequate sealing effect
between working parts of pumps, valves,
clylinders and motors, but not enough to
cause pump cavitation or sluggish valve
action. Optimum operating viscosity of
the oil should be between 16 cSt (80
SUS) and 40 cSt (180 SUS).

“Viscosity Index” reflects the way viscosity

changes with temperature. The smaller the
viscosity change, the higher the viscosity
Oil Viscosity Recommendations

Oil Viscosity Recommendations

Crankcase Oils Antiwear Hydraulic Oils
Hydraulic System Hydraulic System
Operating Tem- SAE Viscosity Operating Tem- ISO Viscosity
perature Range1 Designation perature Range1 Grade
–23C to 54C 5W, 5W-20, –21C to 60C 22
(–10F to 130F) 5W-30 (–5F to 140F)
–18C to 83C 10W –15C to 77C 32
(0F to 180F) (5F to 170F)
–18C to 99C 10W-30, –9C to 88C 46
(0F to 210F) 10W-40 (15F to 190F)
10C to 99C 20-20W –1C to 99C 68
(50F to 210F) (30F to 210F)

1 Temperatures shown are cold (ambient) start-up to maximum operating. During cold start-up,
avoid high-speed operation of hydraulic components until the system is warmed up to provide
adequate lubrication.

Pump Test Procedure For Evaluation Of
Antiwear Fluids For Mobile Systems

Test Pump 3. Increase pressure to 205-210 bar Test Circuit

gage (2975-3025 psig). When
35VQ25A-11*20 (Cartridge Kit P/N temperature stabilizes at 90-96C
413421) (195-205F), record operating
parameters, including flow. Terminate
test if flow is below 136 L/min (36 10
gpm) after five hours of operation. 2″ Line Size
Test Conditions With production tolerances, low flow 9 5
Speed: 2350-2400 rpm sometimes occurs while pumping
Outlet Pressure: 205-210 bar gage light fluids. This condition tends to
increase the wear rate. M
(2975-3025 psig) 8
Inlet Pressure: 0-.15 bar gage 6 3 2
(0-2 psig) with
flooded inlet Test Duration
Inlet Temperature: 90-96C
(195-205F) Continue operation of the unit for 50
hours total (including break-in time),
periodically monitoring operation
Operating Mode parameters. 7 4
Steady-state pressure at above rated
conditions for 50 hours. Terminate test if Description of Components
flow degradation exceeds 7.5 L/min Number Of Cartridges
(2 gpm) prior to the completion of the 1. Reservoir (50 gallons minimum;
50-hour test. Such terminations are not Evaluation requires a minimum of three
elevated above pump centerline to
considered to be failures since this flow pump cartridges. The fluid should not be
provide gravity feed)
degradation can be due to causes other changed during the total 150-hour test
than excessive wear, such as erosion on period.
2. Temperature gage or thermocouple
the side plates resulting from insufficient
inlet pressure. Accept/Reject Guidelines 3. Inlet pressure gage
1. Total weight loss of all vanes from 4. Pump: 35VQ25A-11*20 (cartridge kit
Initial Fluid Condition individual cartridge tested should be P/N 413421)
Water Content: .075% maximum less than 15 mg (not including
Contamination Level: ISO Code intravanes). 5. Electric motor (125 HP)
18/16/14 or better
particle count. 2. Weight loss of ring from individual 6. Outlet pressure gage
Alternatively, 30 cartridge tested should be less than
mg/liter maximum 75 mg. 7. Pressure relief valve
gravimetric con-
tamination (using 3. Regardless of weight loss 8. Filter (10 micrometer nominal)
filter membrane measurements, the pump parts,
of 0.8 micrometer especially the rings, should not have 9. Cooler
porosity). evidence of unusual wear or stress in
contact areas. There may be 10. Flow meter
instances when unsatisfactory
performance is indicated even though
Pump Break-In the weight loss is low; for example,
Procedure galling or excessive burning would
not show as excessive weight loss
1. Increase pump speed to test level but would be unacceptable.
and apply 70 bar gage (1000 psig)
outlet pressure. When inlet When any one cartridge out of three
temperature of approximately 50C fails for any reason, two more
(125F) is achieved, maintain it for cartridges should be tested. In this case,
elapsed time of 1/2 hour at pressure. four of the five tested cartridges must
meet the above accept/reject guidelines.
2. Increase pressure to 140 bar gage
(2000 psig). When inlet temperature This procedure is offered only as a fluid
of approximately 80C (175F) is screening method. Successful
achieved, maintain it for elapsed time completion of this test does not
of 1/2 hour at pressure. constitute endorsement or approval of
fluids by Vickers.

Acceptable Rings Unacceptable Rings

Oil Flow Velocity In Tubing

Oil Flow Capacity Of

Figures in the chart are USgpm flow
capacities of tubing, and were
calculated from the formula:
GPM = V A B .3208,
in which V = velocity of flow in feet per
second, and A is inside square inch
area of tube.

Figures in Body of Chart are USgpm Flows

Tube Wall 2 4 10 15 20 30
O.D. Thick. Ft/Sec Ft/Sec Ft/Sec Ft/Sec Ft/Sec Ft/Sec
.035 .905 1.81 4.52 6.79 9.05 13.6
.042 .847 1.63 4.23 6.35 6.47 12.7
.049 .791 1.58 3.95 5.93 7.91 11.9
1/2 .058 .722 1.44 3.61 5.41 7.22 10.8
.065 .670 1.34 3.35 5.03 6.70 10.1
.072 .620 1.24 3.10 4.65 6.20 9.30
.083 .546 1.09 2.73 4.09 5.46 8.16
.035 1.51 3.01 7.54 11.3 15.1 22.6
.042 1.43 2.85 7.16 10.7 14.3 21.4
.049 1.36 2.72 6.80 10.2 13.6 20.4
.058 1.27 2.54 6.34 9.51 12.7 19.0
.065 1.20 2.40 6.00 9.00 12.0 18.0
.072 1.13 2.26 5.66 8.49 11.3 17.0
.083 1.03 2.06 5.16 7.73 10.3 15.5
.095 .926 1.85 4.63 6.95 9.26 13.9
.049 2.08 4.17 10.4 15.6 20.8 31.2
.058 1.97 3.93 14.8 9.84 19.7 29.6
.065 1.88 3.76 14.1 9.41 18.8 28.2
3/4 .072 1.75 3.51 13.2 8.77 17.5 26.4
.083 1.67 3.34 12.5 8.35 16.7 25.0
.095 1.53 3.07 11.5 7.67 15.3 23.0
.109 1.39 2.77 10.4 6.93 13.9 20.8
.049 2.95 5.91 14.8 22.2 29.5 44.3
.058 2.82 5.64 14.1 21.1 28.2 42.3
.065 2.72 5.43 13.6 20.4 27.2 40.7
7/8 .072 2.62 5.23 13.1 19.6 26.2 39.2
.083 2.46 4.92 12.3 18.5 24.6 36.9
.095 2.30 4.60 11.5 17.2 23.0 34.4
.109 2.11 4.22 10.6 15.8 21.1 31.7
.049 3.98 7.96 19.9 29.9 39.8 59.7
.058 3.82 7.65 19.1 28.7 38.2 57.4
.065 3.70 7.41 18.5 27.8 37.0 55.6
.072 3.59 7.17 17.9 26.9 35.9 53.8
.083 3.40 6.81 17.0 25.5 34.0 51.1
.095 3.21 6.42 16.1 24.1 32.1 48.2
.109 3.00 6.00 15.0 22.4 29.9 44.9
.120 2.83 5.65 14.1 21.2 28.3 42.4

Pipe Sizes And Pressure Ratings

Figures in Body of Chart are USgpm Flows

Tube Wall 2 4 10 15 20 30
O.D. Thick. Ft/Sec Ft/Sec Ft/Sec Ft/Sec Ft/Sec Ft/Sec
.049 6.50 13.0 32.5 48.7 64.9 97.4
.058 6.29 12.6 31.5 47.2 62.9 94.4
.065 6.14 12.3 30.7 46.0 61.4 92.1
.072 6.00 12.0 30.0 44.9 59.9 89.8
.083 5.75 11.5 28.8 43.1 57.5 86.3
.095 5.50 11.0 27.5 41.2 55.0 82.5
.109 5.21 10.4 26.1 39.1 52.1 78.2
.120 5.00 10.0 25.0 37.4 50.0 74.9
.065 9.19 18.4 45.9 68.9 91.9 138
.072 9.00 18.0 45.0 67.5 90.0 135
.083 8.71 17.4 43.5 65.3 87.1 131
.095 8.40 16.8 42.0 63.0 84.0 126
.109 8.04 16.1 40.2 60.3 80.4 121
.120 7.77 15.5 38.8 58.3 77.7 117
.065 12.8 25.7 64.2 96.3 128 193
.072 12.6 25.2 63.1 94.7 126 189
.083 12.3 24.6 61.4 92.1 123 184
1-3/4 .095 11.9 23.8 59.6 89.3 119 179
.109 11.5 23.0 57.4 86.1 115 172
.120 11.2 22.3 55.8 83.7 112 167
.134 10.7 21.5 53.7 80.6 107 161
.065 17.1 34.2 85.6 128 171 257
.072 16.9 33.7 84.3 126 169 253
.083 16.5 32.9 82.3 123 165 247
2 .095 16.0 32.1 80.2 120 160 240
.109 15.5 31.1 77.7 117 155 233
.120 15.2 30.3 75.8 114 152 227
.134 14.7 29.4 73.4 110 147 220

Pipe Sizes And Pressure Ratings

Nominal Outside Number Length Schedule 40 Schedule 80 Schedule 160 Double
Pipe Diameter of of (Standard) (Extra Heavy) Extra Heavy
Size of Pipe Thre d
Threads Effective
Pipe Burst Pipe Burst Pipe Burst Pipe Burst
in. in. Per Inch Threads
ID-in. Pres. ID-in. Pres. ID-in. Pres. ID-in. Pres.
1/8 0.405 27 0.26 – – – – – – – –
1/4 0.540 18 0.40 .364 16,000 .302 22,000 – – – –
3/8 0.675 18 0.41 .493 13,500 .423 19,000 – – – –
1/2 0.840 14 0.53 .622 13,200 .546 17,500 .466 21,000 .252 35,000
3/4 1.050 14 0.55 .824 11,000 .742 15,000 .614 21,000 .434 30,000
1 1.315 11-1/2 0.68 1.049 10,000 .957 13,600 .815 19,000 .599 27,000
1-1/4 1.660 11-1/2 0.71 1.380 8,400 1.278 11,500 1.160 15,000 .896 23,000
1-1/2 1.900 11-1/2 0.72 1.610 7,600 1.500 10,500 1.338 14,800 1.100 21,000
2 2.375 11-1/2 0.76 2.067 6,500 1.939 9,100 1.689 14,500 1.503 19,000
2-1/2 2.875 8 1.14 2.469 7,000 2.323 9,600 2.125 13,000 1.771 18,000
3 3.500 8 1.20 3.068 6,100 2.900 8,500 2.624 12,500 – –

Preparation Of Pipes, Tubes, And Fittings
Before Installation In A Hydraulic System

General Requirements – Threaded fittings should be – Rinse parts in hot water

inspected to prevent metal slivers
When installing the various iron and from the threads getting into the – Place in tank No. 3. The solution in
steel pipes, tubes, and fittings of a hydraulic system. this tank should contain antirust
hydraulic system, it is necessary that compounds as recommended by the
they be absolutely clean, free from – Before filling the system with manufacturer. Usually the parts being
scale, and all kinds of foreign matter. hydraulic oil, be sure that the treated should be left to dry with
To attain this end, the following steps hydraulic fluid is as specified and antirust solution remaining on them.
should be taken: that it is clean. DO NOT use cloth
strainers or fluid that has been If pieces are stored for any period of
– Tubing, pipes and fittings should be stored in contaminated containers. time, ends of the pipes should be
brushed with boiler tube wire brush plugged to prevent the entrance of
or cleaned with commercial pipe – Use at least a No. 120 mesh screen foreign matter. Do not use rags or
cleaning apparatus. The inside edge when filling the reservoir. Use of a waste as they will deposit lint on the
of tubing and pipe should be reamed Vickers clean cart, porta filtering inside of the tube or pipe.
after cutting to remove burrs. Also and transfer unit, is recommended. Immediately before using pipes,
remove burrs from outside edge. Operate the system for a short time tubes and fittings should be
to eliminate air in the lines. Add thoroughly flushed with suitable
– Short pieces of pipe and tubing and hydraulic fluid if necessary. degreasing solution.
steel fittings should be sandblasted
to remove rust and scale. – Safety precautions. Dangerous
Sandblasting is a sure and efficient chemicals are used in the cleaning
method for short straight pieces and and pickling operations to be
fittings. Sandblasting should not be described. They should be kept only
used however, if there is the in the proper containers and
slightest possibility that particles of handled with extreme care.
sand will remain in blind holes or
pockets in the work after flushing.
Pickling Process
– In the case of longer pieces of pipe or
short pieces bent to complex shapes – Thoroughly degrease parts in
where is is not practical to sandblast, the degreaser, using a recommended
parts should be pickled in a suitable vapor degreasing solvent.
solution until all rust and scale is
removed. Preparation for pickling – Tank No. 1 Solution. Use a
requires thorough degreasing in a commercially available derusting
recommended vapor degreasing solvent. compound in solution as
recommended by the manufacturer.
– Neutralize pickling solution. The solution should not be used at a
temperature exceeding that
– Rinse parts and prepare for storage. recommended by the manufacturer,
otherwise the inhibitor will
– Tubing must not be welded, brazed, evaporate and leave a straight acid
or silver soldered after assembly as solution. The length of time the part
proper cleaning is impossible in will be immersed in this solution will
such cases. It must be accurately depend upon the temperature of the
bent and fitted so that it will not be solution and the amount of rust or
necessary to spring it into place. scale which must be removed. The
operator must use good judgement
– If flange connections are used, on this point.
flanges must fit squarely on the
mounting faces and be secured with – After pickling, rinse parts in cold
screws of the correct length. Screws running water and immerse in tank
or stud-nuts must be drawn up No. 2. The solution in this tank
evenly to avoid distortion in the should be a neutralizer mixed with
valve or pump body. water in a proportion recommended
by the manufacturer. This solution
– Be sure that all openings into the should be used at recommended
hydraulic system are properly temperatures and the parts should
covered to keep out dirt and metal remain immersed in the solution for
slivers when work such as drilling, the period of time recommended by
tapping, welding, or brazing is being the manufacturer.
done on or near the unit.

ISO/ANSI Basic Symbols
For Fluid Power Equipment And Systems

Lines Pumps
Line, Working Hydraulic Pump
(Main) Fixed
Displacement Heater
Line, Pilot
(For Control)
Line, Liquid Drain
Variable Cooler
Flow, Direction of

Motors and Cylinders Temperature

Lines Crossing or
Lines Joining Filter, Strainer

Line With Fixed

Restriction Variable
Line, Flexible Pressure Switch

Station, Testing, Cylinder, Single

Measurement or  Acting
Power Take-Off Cylinder, Double
Acting Pressure Indicator
Variable Component
(run arrow through Single End Rod
symbol at 45
Double End Rod Temperature
Pressure Compen- Advance Only
sated Units (arrow Component
parallel to short side Differential Enclosure
of symbol) Piston
Direction of Shaft
Rotation (assume
Miscellaneous Units arrow on near side
Temperature Cause of shaft
or Effect
Electric Motor M
Accumulator, Spring Methods of Operation
Line, To Reservoir Loaded
Above Fluid Level Spring

Below Fluid Level Manual

Accumulator, Gas
Vented Manifold Push Button

Flow Control, Definition Of Functions
Push-Pull Lever Adjustable
(temperature and
Function Definition
Pedal or Treadle compensated Intensified Pressure Pressure in
excess of supply
pressure which is
Two Position
induced by a
Mechanical Two Connection booster or
Two Position Supply Pressure Power-actuating
Detent Three Connection fluid.
Charging Pressure Pump-inlet
Pressure Two Position pressure that is
Compensated higher than
Four Connection
Solenoid, Single pressure.
Winding Three Position Reduced Pressure Auxiliary pressure
Four Connection which is lower
than supply
Servo Control 

Two Position
In Transition Pilot Pressure Control-actuating
Pilot Pressure Metered Flow Fluid at controlled
Valves Capable Of
Remote Supply flow rate, other
Infinite Positioning
(horizontal bars than pump
Internal Supply  delivery.
indicate infinite
positioning ability) Exhaust Return of power
and control fluid
to reservoir.
Valves Note Intake Sub-atmospheric
pressure, usually
Additional symbols are shown in on intake side of
Check Vickers Circuitool booklet available for pump.
a nominal charge. Ask for circuitool Drain Return of leakage
On–Off template kit 352. fluid to reservoir.
(manual shut-off)
Inactive Fluid which is
Color Code For Fluid within the circuit,
but which does
Power Schematic not serve a
Pressure Relief Drawings functional
purpose during
Function Color the phase being
Intensified Pressure . . Black
Supply . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Red
Pressure Reducing Charging Pressure . . . Intermittent Red
Reduced Pressure . . . . Intermittent Red
Pilot Pressure . . . . . . . . Intermittent Red
Metered Flow . . . . . . . . Yellow
Flow Control, Exhaust . . . . . . . . . . . . . Blue
Adjustable– Intake . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Green
Non-Compensated Drain . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Green
Inactive . . . . . . . . . . . . . Blank

Conversion Factors

To convert Into Multiply by

Into To convert Divide by
Unit Symbol Unit Symbol Factor
Atmospheres Atm bar bar 1.013250
BTU/hour Btu/h kilowatts kW 0.293071  10–3
cubic centimeters cm3 liters 1 0.001
cubic centimeters cm3 milliliters ml 1.0
cubic feet ft3 cubic meters m3 0.0283168
cubic feet ft3 liters l 28.3161
cubic inches in3 cubic centimeters cm3 16.3871
cubic inches in3 liters l 0.0163866
degrees (angle)  radians rad 0.0174533
Fahrenheit F Celsius C C=5 (F–32) / 9
feet ft meters m 0.3048
feet of water ft H2O bar bar 0.0298907
fluid ounces, UK UK fl oz cubic centimeters cm3 28.413
fluid ounces, US US fl oz cubic centimeters cm3 29.5735
foot pounds f ft lbf joules J 1.35582
foot pounds/minute ft lbf/min watts W 81.3492
gallons, UK UK gal liters l 4.54596
gallons, US US gal liters l 3.78531
horsepower hp kilowatts kW 0.7457
inches of mercury in Hg millibar mbar 33.8639
inches of water in H2O millibar mbar 2.49089
inches in centimeters cm 2.54
inches in millimeters mm 2.54
kilogram force kgf newtons N 9.80665
kilogram f. meter kgf m newton meters Nm 9.80665
kilogram f. /sq. centimeter kgf/cm2 bar bar 0.980665
kilopascals kPa bar bar 0.01
kiloponds kp newtons N 9.80665
kilopond meters kp m newton meters Nm 9.80665
kiloponds/square centimeter kp/cm3 bar bar 0.980665
metric horsepower kilowatts kW 0.735499
microinches in microns m 0.0254
millimeters of mercury mm Hg millibar mbar 1.33322
millimeters of water mm H2O millibar mbar 0.09806
newtons/square centimeter N/cm2 bar bar 0.1
newtons/square meter N/m2 bar bar 10–5

Conversion Factors

To convert Into Multiply by

Into To convert Divide by

Unit Symbol Unit Symbol Factor
pascals (newtons/sq meter) Pa bar bar 10–5
pints, UK UK pt liters l 0.568245
pints, US US liq pt liters l 0.473163
pounds (mass) lb kilograms kg 0.4536
pounds/cubic foot lb/ft3 kilograms/cubic meter kg/m3 16.0185
pounds/cubic inch lb/in3 kilograms/cubic centimeter kg/cm3 0.0276799
pounds force lbf newtons N 4.44822
pounds f feet lbf ft newton meters Nm 1.35582
pounds f inches lbf in newton meters Nm 0.112985
pounds f/square inch lbf/in2 bar bar 0.06894
revolutions/minute r/min radians/second rad/s 0.104720
square feet ft2 square meters m2 0.092903
square inches in2 square meters m2 6.4516  10-4
square inches in2 square centimeters cm2 6.4516

Hydraulic Formulas
Horsepower: Conversion Factors: Pressure (PSI) = feet head  0.433 
specific gravity.
Horsepower = GPM  PSI 1 hp = 33,000 ft. lbs. per minute
1714 1 hp = 42.4 btu per minute Specific gravity of oil is approximately 0.85.
1 hp = 0.746 kwhr (kilowatt hours)
Torque: Thermal expansion of oil is
1 U.S. gallon = 231 cubic inches. approximately 1 per 1 gal. per
Torque (lb. in.) = CU IN./REV.  PSI Pipe volume varies as the square of the 10F rise in temperature.
2π diameter; volume in gallons = 0.0034 D2L
Torque (lb. in.) = HP  63025
RPM where: D = inside diameter of pipe in
Flow: L = length in inches
Flow (gpm) = CU IN./REV.  RPM Velocity in feet per second =
231 0.408  flow (gpm)
Overall Efficiency: D2

Overall efficiency = Output HP 100 where: D = inside diameter of pipe in

Input HP inches
Atmospheric pressure at sea level =
Volumetric Efficiency: 14.7 PSI
efficiency = Output GPM 100 Atmospheric pressure decreases
(pump) Theoretical GPM approximately 0.41 PSI for each one
thousand feet of elevation up to
Volumetric 23,000 feet
efficiency = Theoretical GPM 100
(motor) Input GPM