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Module Information

Module Title Metal Casting and Joining Technologies

Module Code AMT503


Aims and Summary

In this module, students learn advanced casting and joining processes and technologies. The principles,
parameters and application areas of traditional and advanced moulding / casting processes will be
discussed. Students will learn casting design, gating system design, mould filling simulation through
process modelling using ProCast.

Fusion and non-fusion welding, brazing, soldering and adhesive bonding techniques and their adaptability
to advanced engineering materials will be elucidated. Welding metallurgy, physics of arc welding,
welding design considerations, weldability and welding defects will be discussed. Students will be trained
on welding process modelling and simulation using SYSWELD.

Module Size and Credits

Module size Single

CATS points 12
ECTS credits N/A
Open / restricted Restricted
Availability on/off campus On Campus/Off campus
Total student study hours 120
Number of weeks 4 weeks Full-time or 8 weeks Part-time.
Centre responsible Centre for Manufacturing /Department of Mechanical and Automotive
Academic Year 2009

Entry Requirements (pre-requisites and co-requisites)

Normally to be qualified for entry to the Postgraduate Engineering Programme
Excluded Combinations
Composition of Module Mark (including weighting of components)
Full-time / Part-time : 50% Written Examination and 50 % Assignment
Pass Requirements

A minimum of 40 % marks in the written examination and a minimum of 40% marks in the assignment
and overall 40% marks are required for a pass
Special Features
80% attendance in theory and 80% attendance in laboratory are required.
It is likely that considerable time will be spent in School facilities outside of normal timetabled class time.
Courses for which this module is mandatory

M.Sc. [Engg] in Advanced Manufacturing Technologies

Courses for which this module is a core option


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Intended Module Learning Outcomes
On completion of this module the student should be able to:
1. Select and apply a suitable casting process based on material, component features, production volume
and application
2. Model and simulate gating, risering and casting solidification using ProCast software
3. Select, model, simulate joining process based on material, component features, production volume
and application
4. Analyse the reasons for defects and suggest suitable remedies for reducing the casting and welding
5. Select appropriate non-destructive testing technique for inspection of castings and welded

Indicative Content
Class Room Lectures
Casting Technology

1. Casting Processes : Introduction to Casting technology, Principle, Operation, Applications of shell

moulding, Gravity die casting, Low pressure die casting, High pressure die casting, Centrifugal
casting, Continuous casting, Squeeze casting, Investment casting and Spray casting. Review of
casting processes for special alloys used in aeronautical and automotive applications.

2. Solidification of Castings : Solidification of alloys, Nucleation and Grain growth, Solidification

characteristics of alloys, Mechanism of dendrite formation, Solidification time, Chvorinov’s rule,
solidification microstructures of ingots, Progressive and Directional solidification, Methods of
achieving directional solidification.

3. Principles Gating and Risering : Gating system, Functions of gating system, Design of gating
system, Pressurised and un pressurised gating system, Feeding aids like chills, Insulators and
Exothermic, Filters Risers, function, types, riser and directional solidification, Riser design methods
– Caine’s method, modulus method, NRL method, feeding distances.

4. Melting and Pouring of Castings: Furnaces, melting practice, ladle treatments- refining,
degasification, grain refinement, desulphurization, liquid metal cleanliness

5. Casting defects and Design of Castings : Casting defects and remedies, Design considerations in
casting- Design for economical molding, Design for eliminating defects, Non-destructive
examination- Dye penetrant test, Magnetic particle testing, Ultrasonic inspections, X- radiography,
Industrial computed tomography, Eddy current inspection

6. Heat Treatment Processes : Ferrous and non ferrous alloy heat treatment - techniques, phase
diagram, TTT diagram, process parameters and applications

Joining Technology

1. Solid State Welding Processes: Classification, Working principles of joining processes, Principle of
operation, equipment, process parameters, capability, application examples: Cold welding: Pressure,
ultrasonic, Explosive welding, Friction welding, Diffusion welding (diffusion bonding), Hot forge
welding. Resistance Welding – Spot welding, Seam welding, Projection welding, and High frequency
butt welding, and Flash butt welding.

2. Fusion Welding Principle of operation, equipment, process parameters, capability, application

examples of consumable electrode and non consumable electrode processes (SMAW/MMAW, CAW,
GTAW, GMAW, SW, SAW, ESW, FCAW, and PAW), Arc welding electrodes- classification and
selection. Oxy Fuel Gas welding

3. Special Welding Processes – Principle of operation, equipment, process parameters, capability,

application examples: Thermit welding process, Electron Beam Welding, Ion Beam Welding, Laser
Beam Welding and Atomic Hydrogen Welding.

4. Brazing and Soldering – Principle of operation, equipment, process parameters, capability,

application examples Brazing Principle, methods (torch brazing, furnace brazing, induction brazing

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and dip brazing). Soldering Principle and methods.

5. Adhesive Bonding – Principle and steps in adhesive bonding, type of adhesives and application

6. Welding Physics, Instrumentation and Automation – Effect of polarity, arc physics, power
sources (self controlled arc and self adjusted arc), Metal transfer modes and heat transfer aspects of
fusion welding. Arc welding equipments, Automation in welding arc sensing & vision, seam
tracking, welding robots.

7. Metallurgy of Welding, Weldability, Welding Design and Process Selection – Weld

solidification, effect of heat (HAZ) Weldability and Weldability testing, welding characteristics of
alloys, process selection. Design consideration for welding, characterization and testing of welds
(Strength – tension, bending, fatigue and corrosion, composition and microstructure), Residual
stresses and stress relieving. Weld Defects, Failure of weldments - analysis and remedies, Safety
considerations in welding. Welding of special alloys/nuclear materials/aerospace alloys – processes
and equipments

Laboratory Practice
Modelling and Simulation Exercises using Process Modelling Software: Modelling and simulation of
casting process and optimisation of process parameters using ProCast
Modelling and Simulation Exercises using Process Modelling Software: Modelling and simulation of
welding processes using SYSWELD

Teaching and Learning Methods

1. Theoretical Knowledge [~30% of module time]
a. Face to face lectures from a module leader- 30 hours
b. Case study teaching and discussion from a practicing engineer- 6 hours
36 hours
2. Laboratory Practice [~ 25% of module time]

30 hours
3. Application Orientation and Problem Solving [45% of module time]
a. Reading
b. Research
c. Written Examination
d. Assignment Solving and Documentation
54 hours

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Method of Assessment


Written Examination [50% Weightage]

At the end of the module, normally on the last day of the last week of the module, written examination is
conducted to test students’ understanding of taught theoretical concepts. The question paper will comprise
either or a combination of the following:
- 6 questions, out of which 5 questions need to be answered

- Practical laboratory work

- Presentations

- Field work

- Creation of a physical model

The marks scored by the student will be scale down to 50% weight.

Part –B

Assignment [50% Weightage]

Students are required to submit word processed assignment report on formally announced last day of the
module. Assignment tests students’ problem solving skills based on taught concepts. The assignment is
assessed for 100 marks but scored marks is scaled down to 50%

Learning Outcomes 1 2 3 4 5
Part A X X X X
Part B X X X X X
Both written examination scripts and assignment reports will be double marked/valued


A minimum of 40 % marks in the written examination and a minimum of 40% marks in the assignment
are required for a pass in the module.
A student failing in any one of the components or both is considered as FAIL in the module. A failed
student is required to retake the module at the next opportunity. A maximum of 3 attempts including the
original are allowed.
Date of Last Amendment

May -2009


Essential Reading

1. Module Notes

Recommended Reading

1. Paul Degarmo E, Black Jt, Materials and Processes In Manufacturing, 9th edition, JWS, 2004
2. P N Rao, Manufacturing Technology, 2nd edition, TMH, 2003
3. ASM Metals hand book, Volume 15, Casting, 1998
4. ASM Metals Handbook, Volume 17 Non Destructive Evaluation and Quality Control,
5. Peter Beeley, Foundry Technology, 2nd edition ,Butterworth-Heinemann, 2001,
6. ASM Metals Handbook, Volume 04 Heat Treatment,1998

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7. ASM Metals Handbook, Volume 03 Alloy Phase Diagrams,1998
8. Serope Kalpakjian and Steven R. Schmid, Manufacturing Engineering and Technology, 4th edition
,Pearson Education,2004
9. Heine, Loper and Rosenthal, “Principles of Metal Casting”, McGraw-Hill, NY, 2008
10. American Society of Metals, Welding, brazing and Soldering, Metals Hand Book, Volume 9 1993
11. American Society of Welding, Hand Book of Welding, Vol. I to V, ASM international 1994
12. Larry Jeffus, Welding principles and applications, Thomson publishers, 6th edition, 2007
13. Howard B Cary and Scott, Modern welding technology, Prantice hall, 2004
14. P N Rao, Manufacturing Technology, TMH, 2001
15. Amitabha Gosh and Mallik, Manufacturing Science, East-West Press, 1985
16. John Geoffrey Hicks, Industrial Joining Processes, Industrial Press, 3rd edition, 1999
17. M. G. Nicholas, Joining Processes, Chapman and Hall, 1998
18. Peter J Shull (ed), Nondestructive evaluation – theory practice and application, Marcel-Decker Inc,

1. Journal of Manufacturing Processes, Society of Manufacturing Engineers (SME), ELSEVIER
2. International Journal of Metal Casting, American Foundry Society
3. Indian Foundry Journal, Institute of Indian Foundrymen
4. International Welding Journal, American Welding Society
5. Indian Welding Journal, Indian Institute of Welding
6. International Journal for the Joining of Materials, Elsevier
7. Acta Materialia, Pergamon Press

Internet Sites


Hardware: PCs

Software: ProCast, Sysweld

Software Manual: ProCast, Sysweld manual


Module Leader

Name Dr. K. Gnanamurthy

Room G-02

Telephone number 080-2360 5539-110


Date and Time of Examination

As per time table

Subject Quality and Approval Information

Subject Quality Group / Subject Board Mechanical and Automotive Engineering

Subject Assessment Board Postgraduate Engineering Programmes

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Shortened title MCJT
Date of approval by MARP May 2009

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