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Chapter 2 Cell Structure and Cell Organisation

2.1 Cell Structure and Function

Cellular components of animal and plant cells

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Components of a cell
1. The cellular components of a cell as seen through an electron
microscope are:
(a) plasma membrane (both animal and plant cells) and cell wall (in
plant cell only)
(b) cytoplasm
(c) organelles
2. Organelles are specialised structures which are each surrounded by its
own membrane and perform specific functions.

Cellular Structure Function


component
A Plasma Semi-permeable membrane It regulates the movement of
membrane at the surface which encloses substances into and out of the
the content of a cell. cytoplasm.
B Cell wall A rigid outer layer that Maintains the _____________ of
surrounds the plasma the plant cells.
membrane of plant cells.
Provides __________________
Made of ________________ for the plant cell.
and fully permeable.
C Cytoplasm Region between the nucleus Acts as a _________________
and the plasma membrane. for biochemical reactions in the
cell.
Contains organelles.

Organelle Structure Function


1 Nucleus Large, dense, spherical It controls all the
organelle enclosed by a _________________ which take
nuclear membrane. place in the cell.

Contains _______________,
______________________,
______________________.
2 Vacuole Fluid-filled sac which is Acts as a storage place in the
surrounded by cell. The vacuole contains
__________________, a ____________, ____________,
semi-permeable membrane. ______________ __________.

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3 Mitochondria Small spherical or cylindrical- Involves in cellular
shaped organelles. _________________ to release
energy.
4 Ribosomes Compact spherical organelles Synthesis of _______________.
found attached to the surface
of rough endoplasmic
reticulum or suspended freely
in the __________________.
5 Endoplasmic A network of folded Transport system for
reticulum (ER) membranes forming _______________ and
interconnected tubules or _____________ within the cell.
sacs. The rough ER Rough ER – transports proteins
membrane is continuous with made by the ribosomes to other
the _______________ parts of the cell.
_______________. Rough Smooth ER – sites of important
ER has _________________ metabolic reactions, including
attached to its surface while synthesis of _______________
smooth ER does not have and cholesterol, and transport
ribosomes. them within the cell.
6 Golgi apparatus A stack of flattened As a processing, packaging, and
membranous sacs. transporting centre of
carbohydrates, ____________,
Also called the Golgi body.
_________________________
and _____________________.

• Receives protein and


lipids from ER and
modify them to form
specific secretions such
as enzymes and
hormones.

• Pack the secretions into


vesicles and transport
them to the plasma

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membrane to be
secreted.
7 Lysosomes Membrane-bound sacs that The enzymes _____________
contain _________________ or ____________ ___________
____________. complex organic molecules such
as proteins and lipids.

Eliminate worn out mitochondria


and other damaged organelles.
8 Centrioles A pair of small cylindrical Form spindle fibres during
structures located just outside ________ ________________ in
the nucleus. animal cell.

Found only in animal cells.


9 Chloroplasts Disc-shaped organelle with Carry out
membranous structures in it __________________________.
which contain
_____________________.
• Structures A, B and C are non-organelles.
• Organelles with double membrane are: ___________________,
_________________, ____________________.

Organelles found in:


Plant and animal cells Animal cell only Plant cell only