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10/14/2010

Tujuan Pembelajaran
PERENCANAAN AGREGAT • Mahasiswa mampu menggunakan teknik
agregasi
• Mahasiswa mampu menyusun Master
Production Schedule (MPS) atau Jadwal Induk
Kuliah 3 Produksi (JIP).
LSiPro – FT Untirta
Muhammad Adha Ilhami

Muhammad Adha Ilhami Muhammad Adha Ilhami

Pemahaman Dasar Company Top Level Plan


• Bahwa aggregate plan (AP) merupakan tahap • Alur informasi
perencanaan awal dimana hasilnya adalah MPS (Top
Level Production Plan) dan dilakukan oleh Top Level dalam AP.
Business Plan.
• AP memperhatikan kapasitas dan kapabilitas
perusahaan.
• Analisa AP dilakukan dalam kelompok produk (product • Data (input)
family) dengan unit agregat. dan Hasil
• AP melibatkan pemilihan strategi manufaktur. (output) AP.
• AP berperan dalam sebagai interface antara
perusahaan/sistemmanufaktur dan pasar produknya.
Muhammad Adha Ilhami Muhammad Adha Ilhami

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10/14/2010

Overview of Planning Level


Planning Horizon
Aggregate planning: Perencanaan kapasitas jangka • Short-range plans (Detailed plans)
menengah, biasanya dilakukan untuk 2 sampai 12 bulan. AP – Machine loading
prinsipnya menyesuaikan kapasitas dan permintaan – Job assignments
• Intermediate plans (General levels)
– Employment
Long range – Output
• Long-range plans
Intermediate – Long term capacity
range – Location / layout
Short – Product/Process design
range

Now 2 months 1 Year

Muhammad Adha Ilhami Muhammad Adha Ilhami

Why Aggregate Plan? Rencana Agregat


• Detil lebih sulit diperoleh untuk waktu yang lebih panjang Strategi perencanaan dalam tahapan Perencanaan dan
Pengendalian Produksi yang bermuara pada perencanaan
• Detil membawa banyak ketidakpastian: agregasi yang dilakukan kapasitas yang optimal.
ditujukan mengurangi variabilitas Proses agregasi (aggregation) ialah pengelompokan beberapa
– Permintaan total pakaian lebih sedikit mengandung bias dibandingkan jenis item menjadi product family.
permintaan kaos, celana, dan kemeja.
Proses disagregasi (disaggregation) adalah proses derivasi
product family menjadi item.
• Jika terdapat variabilitas kenapa repot-repot membuat rencana
detil, bagaimanapun juga input akat berubah.
– Buat rencana yang fleksibel
– Fleksibilitas dan agregasi biasanya sejalan

Muhammad Adha Ilhami Muhammad Adha Ilhami

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10/14/2010

Istilah Berkaitan dengan Produk Satuan Agregat


• Type: kelompok beberapa product families. • Unit agregat yang biasa
• Product family: kelompok beberapa items. digunakan dalam proses
• Item: produk akhir individual yang dibeli (digunakan) oleh agregasi :
konsumen. Jam kerja buruh, mesin atau
• Biasanya hirarki tersebut dimulai dari product family, karena resource lainnya.
bila sebuah pabrik membuat lebih dari satu jenis type maka Waktu standar.
operasi perusahaan itu akan menjadi sangat kompleks. Harga jual, Ongkos produksi.
• Pengelompokan sejumlah item ke dalam sebuah product Satuan agregat dummy
family dilakukan dengan teknik Group Technology (GT). (pseudo product).

Muhammad Adha Ilhami Muhammad Adha Ilhami

Aggregate plan units Contoh Proses Agregasi


• At this level of planning, there is not a lot of detail. IBM memproduksi komputer laptop, desktop, notebook
Individual end product identity is typically not present. dan mesin teknologi tinggi lainnya. Proses agregasi
Instead, planning is performed for a composite, or adalah pengelompokkan jenis – jenis komputer tersebut
average unit of product in a particular family of similar ke dalam family product (misalnya famili komputer).
products. For example, we may plan for units of hair Sebuah rumah sakit bisa melakukan agregasi jasa yang
dryers, without regard for whether they are 1500 watt diberikan menjadi jumlah perawat atau dokter yang
dryers, 1600 watt dryers, 1875 watt dryers, travel
dryers, etc. dibutuhkan.
• Decisions are typically aggregated into monthly time PT. Telkomsel bisa melakukan agregasi jumlah unit
periods. Weekly or daily detail is not needed at this penjualan kartu prabayar (kartu simpati) dan kartu
level of decision making. Those finer time breakdowns pascabayar (kartu hallo) menjadi jumlah rupiah
will be made at lower levels of decision making still to penjualan yang diterima. Kartu hallo juga terdiri dari
come. beberapa item.

Muhammad Adha Ilhami Muhammad Adha Ilhami

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10/14/2010

Prinsip Aggregate Plan Aggregate Plan Input


• Aggregate planning: General plan • Biaya
• Sumber daya
– Combined products = aggregate product – Biaya inventori
– Tenaga Kerja
• Short and long sleeve shirts = shirt – Biaya back order
– Single product
– Fasilitas
• Ramalan Permintaan – Biaya Hiring/firing
– Pooled capacities = aggregated capacity – Biaya Overtime
• Statemen Kebijakan
• Dedicated machine and general machine = machine Perusahaan – Biaya subkontrak
– Single capacity
– Subkontrak
– Time periods = time buckets – Overtime
• Consider all the demand and production of a given – Tingkat Persediaan
month together
– Back order
– Quite a few time buckets
– When does the demand or production take place in a time
bucket?
Muhammad Adha Ilhami Muhammad Adha Ilhami

Aggregate Plan Output Strategi Umum AP


• Biaya total Perusahaan • Proactive
• Projected levels of inventory – Mengubah demand menyamai kapasitas.
– Inventory • Reactive
– Output
– Mengubah kapasitas menyamai permintaan.
– Employment
– Subcontracting
• Mixed
– Backordering – Gabungan proaktif dan reaktif

Muhammad Adha Ilhami Muhammad Adha Ilhami

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10/14/2010

NATURE OF THE AGGREGATE


AGGREGATE PLANNING STRATEGIES
PLANNING PROBLEM
Units of
“Aggregate”
Product Aggregate
Demand Planning Strategies
Forecast

Operations Oriented Marketing Oriented


Regular (or Normal) Capacity Limit
Leveling strategy Shifting demand
Time Chase strategy Counter seasonal products
1 year

Muhammad Adha Ilhami Muhammad Adha Ilhami

Operation Oriented Marketing Oriented


Strategi untuk mengatasi demand yang berfluktuasi dikategorikan Strategi/taketik marketing berhubungan dengan demand siklis.
sebagai strategi berorientasi operasi atau berorientasi market/pasar.
Ilustrasi :
Leveling strategy: Maintain output at a constant (level) rate Biasanya produksi tertentu (tetap) namun jika demand berada di
throughout the planning horizon. Accommodate seasonal variations bawah produksi,maka marketing harus diandalkan sehingga demand
in demand through the accumulation and depletion of inventories. setara dengan produksi.

Chase strategy: Vary the output rate to match the seasonal


variations in demand. Output rate can be varied by (1) hiring and
firing workers, (2) utilizing overtime and idle time, or (3)
subcontracting.

Hybrid strategy: A cost effective aggregate plan may require the use
of a combination of the pure strategies listed above. Such a plan is
referred to as a hybrid plan.

Muhammad Adha Ilhami Muhammad Adha Ilhami

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10/14/2010

Alur Proses Pengolahan Data – Contoh Hasil Peramalan Permintaan


Peramalan – Rencana Agregat (Dalam agregat)
Item Family Family
Month
Data Produk Agregasi Disagregasi JAN FEB MAR APR MAY JUN JUL AUG SEP OCT NOV DEC
A

Demand Forecast
100 150 250 400 250 50 90 160 260 390 240 60
Agregasi Perancangan Disagregasi
Data Produk Peramalan
Data B Family
Agregat MPS
Family

Agregasi Disagregasi Additional Data


Data Produk
C Hiring cost: $200 per worker hired
Firing cost: $100 per worker fired
Regular pay: $5000 per worker per month
Perancangan Disagregasi
Data family Agregasi Peramalan
Agregat
Overtime pay: 1.5 times regular pay
A Family
Family Inventory carrying cost: $10 per unit (based on end of month balances)
Backorder cost: $20 per unit (based on end of month shortage)
Data family Agregasi Peramalan Perancangan Disagregasi Productivity: 10 units per worker per month (this has also been scaled down from what
Data B Family Agregat MPS
Family
was originally expressed in thousands of units per month)
Beginning workforce size: 20 workers (available at the beginning of January)
Data family
Agregasi
Peramalan Perancangan Disagregasi Beginning inventory: 0 units (no inventory available at the beginning of January)
C Family Agregat
Family
Muhammad Adha Ilhami Muhammad Adha Ilhami

LEVEL STRATEGY WITH INVENTORY


LEVEL STRATEGY WITH SUBCONTRACT
AND BACKORDERS
• Total annual demand = 2,400 units. • Total annual demand = 2,400 units.
• Average monthly production needed = 2,400 units/12 months = 200 units per month. • Average monthly production needed = 2,400 units/12 months = 200 units per month.
• Current work force size is 20 workers. This is just enough (because productivity = 10 units per • Current work force size is 20 workers. This is just enough (because productivity = 10 units per
worker per month). worker per month). Subcontract fee is $30 per unit.

Month JAN FEB MAR APR MAY JUN JUL AUG SEP OCT NOV DEC Month JAN FEB MAR APR MAY JUN JUL AUG SEP OCT NOV DEC
Demand Forecast 100 150 250 400 250 50 90 160 260 390 240 60 Demand Forecast 100 150 250 400 250 50 90 160 260 390 240 60
Production 200 200 200 200 200 200 200 200 200 200 200 200 Production 200 200 200 200 200 200 200 200 200 200 200 200
Beginning Inv. 0 100 150 100 -100 -150 0 110 150 90 -100 -140 Beginning Inv. 0 100 150 100 -100 -150 0 110 150 90 -100 -140
Ending Inv. 100 150 100 -100 -150 0 110 150 90 -100 -140 0 Ending Inv. 100 150 100 -100 -150 0 110 150 90 -100 -140 0
Carrying Cost 1000 1500 1000 1100 1500 900 Carrying Cost 1000 1500 1000 1100 1500 900
Backorder Cost 2000 3000 2000 2800 Subcontract Cost 3000 4500 3000 4200
Regular Labor Cost 100,000 100,000 100,000 100,000 100,000 100,000 100,000 100,000 100,000 100,000 100,000 100,000 Regular Labor Cost 100,000 100,000 100,000 100,000 100,000 100,000 100,000 100,000 100,000 100,000 100,000 100,000
Overtime Cost Overtime Cost

Total Inventory Carrying Cost: $7,000 Total Inventory Carrying Cost: $7,000
Total Backorder Cost: $9,800 Total Subcontract Cost: $14,200
Total Hiring Cost 0 Total Hiring Cost 0
Total Firing Cost 0 Total Firing Cost 0
Total Regular Payroll Cost: $1,200,000 Total Regular Payroll Cost: $1,200,000
Total Overtime Payroll Cost: 0 Total Overtime Payroll Cost: 0
Total Annual Cost: $1,216,800 Total Annual Cost: $1,221,200
Muhammad Adha Ilhami Muhammad Adha Ilhami

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10/14/2010

CHASE STRATEGY WITH HIRING AND CHASE STRATEGY WITH OVERTIME


FIRING AND IDLE TIME
• Total annual demand = 2,400 units. • Total annual demand = 2,400 units.
• Average monthly production needed = 2,400 units/12 months = 200 units per month. • Average monthly production needed = 2,400 units/12 months = 200 units per month.
• Current work force size is 20 workers. This is just enough (because productivity = 10 units per • Current work force size is 20 workers. This is just enough (because productivity = 10 units per
worker per month). worker per month).
Month Month
JAN FEB MAR APR MAY JUN JUL AUG SEP OCT NOV DEC JAN FEB MAR APR MAY JUN JUL AUG SEP OCT NOV DEC
Demand Forecast 100 150 250 400 250 50 90 160 260 390 240 60 Demand Forecast 100 150 250 400 250 50 90 160 260 390 240 60
Workers Needed 10 15 25 40 25 5 9 16 26 39 24 6 Capacity * 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20
Number Hired 5 10 15 4 7 10 13 Capacity Needed * 10 15 25 40 25 5 9 16 26 39 24 6
Number Fired 10 15 20 15 18 Overtime * 5 20 5 6 19 4
Hiring Cost 1,000 2,000 3,000 800 1,400 2,000 2,600 Idle Time * 10 5 15 11 4 14
Firing Cost 1,000 1,500 2,000 1,500 1,800 Regular Labor Cost 100,000 100,000 100,000 100,000 100,000 100,000 100,000 100,000 100,000 100,000 100,000 100,000
Overtime Cost 37,500 150,000 37,500 45,000 142,500 30,000
Labor Cost 50,000 75,000 125,000 200,000 125,000 25,000 45,000 80,000 130,000 195,000 120,000 30,000
Overtime Cost
Total Inventory Carrying Cost: 0
Total Backorder Cost: 0
Total Inventory Carrying Cost: 0
Total Hiring Cost 0
Total Backorder Cost: 0
Total Firing Cost 0
Total Hiring Cost $12,800
Total Regular Payroll Cost: $1,200,000
Total Firing Cost $7,800
Total Regular Payroll Cost: $1,200,000 Total Overtime Payroll Cost: $442,500
Total Overtime Payroll Cost: 0 Total Annual Cost: $1,642,500
Total Annual Cost: $1,220,600
Muhammad Adha Ilhami Muhammad Adha Ilhami

Pilih Yang Mana? Linear Programming


Total Inventory Carrying Cost: $7,000 Total Inventory Carrying Cost: 0
Total Backorder Cost: $9,800 Total Backorder Cost: 0
Total Hiring Cost 0 Total Hiring Cost $12,800
Total Firing Cost 0 Total Firing Cost $7,800
Total Regular Payroll Cost: $1,200,000 Total Regular Payroll Cost: $1,200,000
Total Overtime Payroll Cost: 0 Total Overtime Payroll Cost: 0
Total Annual Cost: $1,216,800 Total Annual Cost: $1,220,600 Keterangan:
Level Inventory & Backorder Chase Fired & Hired r : ongkos produksi per unit reg time
Total Inventory Carrying Cost:
P : jumlah unit yang diproduksi reg time
0
Total Inventory Carrying Cost: $7,000 Total Backorder Cost: 0
h : ongkos kenaikan per unit produk
Total Backorder Cost: $14,200 Total Hiring Cost 0 At : jumlah unit kenaikan produksi
Total Hiring Cost 0 Total Firing Cost 0 f : ongkos penurunan per unit produk
Total Firing Cost 0 Total Regular Payroll Cost: $1,200,000 Rt : jumlah unit penurunan produksi
Total Regular Payroll Cost: $1,200,000 Total Overtime Payroll Cost: $442,500
Total Overtime Payroll Cost: 0
Total Annual Cost: $1,642,500
v : ongkos produksi per unit overtime
Total Annual Cost: $1,221,200 Ot : jumlah unit diproduksi overtime
Chase Overtime & Idletime c : ongkos inventori per unit
Level Subcontract

Apa Konsekwensinya?
Muhammad Adha Ilhami Muhammad Adha Ilhami