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Sample Certification Problems

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Project Tutorials The following are example questions that will test your knowledge of the
concepts within the DEFINE phase of a DMAIC and DFSS Six Sigma

1) The customer specifications for a process, also referred to as

the Voice of the Customer, will provide which of the following.
There may be more than one correct answer.

A) Upper Control Limit - UCL

B) Target value within the specification limits
C) Upper Specification Limit - USL
D) Lower Specification Limit - LSL
E) Lower Control Limit - LCL
Project Management

Answers: B,C,E

Choices A and E are a function of the process, the goal is to have the
Six Sigma Careers voice of the process (VOP) perform within the voice of the customer
(VOC) specifications. You may get one, two, or all three of the customer
specifications and they may also provide attribute information, and more.

2) Which of the following are characteristics of the inputs to a


A) these are referred to as the x variables

B) these are the "causes" that create the effect
Extras C) these are the variables the team seeks to monitor
D) A process output is a function of its inputs

Answer: A,B,D

C is a characteristic of the effect, or y-variable. The team wants to

CONTROL the inputs and MONITOR the outputs.

3) Inferential statistics is

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Subscribe To A) statistics derived from analyzing population

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B) inferring population parameters from samples of data
C) inferring sample statistics from population parameters

Answer: B

4) The Weighted Average Cost of Capital is commonly used to

evaluate capital projects. The WACC is also known as what other
terms, there may be more than one answer.

A) Cost of Capital
B) Hurdle Rate
C) Discount Rate
D) Interest Rate

Answer: A,B,C are all commonly used and interchangeable terms with

Projects should exceed the WACC which is the cost of raising funds for a
capital funding project according to your firm's targeted capital structure.

5) Pareto charts are very commonly used in Six Sigma projects,

often in many phases and throughout all facets of a business.
Which best describes the Pareto Chart.

A) A timeline indicating the progression of the project

B) A risk analysis of input variables
C) A chart used to plot occurrences of categorical data
D) A trend analysis chart to predict future response

Answer: C

A Pareto chart is usually a vertical bar chart with occurrences on the

y-axis and the categories along the x-axis. The are usually sorted with
the highest or most frequent category on the left side and going right in
descending order.

6) The tool used to ensure that all effected people are involved
and engaged is the

A) Stakeholder Analysis
B) Gannt Chart
C) Project Contract
D) Prioritization Matrix

Answer: A

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7) The tool used to organize information about complex or

unfamiliar topics for which the team may have little knowledge is

A) Prioritization Matrix
B) Gantt Chart
C) Affinity Diagram
D) CTQ Diagram

Answer: C

The affinity diagram is the simplest brainstorming exercise that visually

organizes ideas and like concepts. It is easy to use and can get the team
moving forward together by bringing out each person's input, thoughts,
and questions.

The following are example questions that will test your knowledge of the
concepts within the MEASURE phase of a DMAIC Six Sigma project.

1) If more than 25% of the points on a R-chart are equal to zero

than this is most likely a problem with what part of the
measurement system?

A) Stability
B) Repeatability
C) Reproducibility
D) Resolution
E) Linearity

Answer: D

The measurement system should record data ten times greater than will
be used in project metric. If you are using feet as a unit of measurement
for your metric, then take all your measurements in inches (this is 1/12
resolution) and satisifies the 10-bucket rule.

If you are using a metric measured in X.XX (hundredths), then record all
your measurements in X.XXX (thousandths)

What else may indicate poor gage resolution? Plateaus (flat spots) of the
data on the r-chart and if r-bar is too small

2) Repeatability is variation "within", and reproducibility is the

variation "among" or "between all".

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A) True
B) False

Answer: True

Repeatability would describe the variation within one appraisers own

assessments across multiple assessments. Answers the question of how
repeatable are his/her answers each time assessing the same thing.

3) Sampling taken of the first 100 patients in a hospital directory

listed by alphabetical order is known as

A) systematic random sampling

B) random sampling
C) stratified random sampling
D) convenience sampling

Answer: D

4) A sampling strategy that employs a system such as using every

20th part that comes from a machine is an example of

A) systematic random sampling

B) random sampling
C) stratified random sampling
D) convenience sampling

Answer: A

5) A measurement of lumens, decibels, temperature, and ohms,

are examples of

A) continuous data
B) attribute data
C) locational data
D) discrete data

Answer: A

6) Which subjective analysis tool is used to visualize the

relationships between many inputs, x's, and an output, Y. This
tool focuses on the causes, not the symptoms.

A) Cause and Effect (Prioritization) Matrix

B) Fishbone (Ishakawa) Diagram
D) Run chart

Answer: B

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The Fishbone is usually the first in a line of subjective tools to help

reduce the trivial many inputs into the vital few inputs that cause the
effect (Y). The next tool can be the C/E Matrix or the FMEA.

7) Which of the following yield metrics does not account for

rework or hidden factory loss.

A) Rolled Throughput Yield

C) Normalized Yield
E) Final Yield

Answer: E

Final Yield (FY) does not account for the hidden factory or rework. It is
simply the final number of acceptable pieces at the end divided by the
quantity started in a process. It does not tell you how many were
reworked at each step of the process.

8) If there are 11 orders, and each order has 2 items, and there
are 3 opportunities for a defect (such as incorrect item, wrong
price, and damaged), then how many total opportunities are there
for a defect?

A) 22
B) 11
C) 66
D) 33

Answer: 66

9) Which of the following are types of errors in conducting a

survey or other methods of gathering the Voice of the Customer

A) Coverage error
B) Nonrespondent error
C) Sampling Error
D) Measurement Error
E) All of the above

Answer: All of the above

10)What is the probability that Z is greater than or equal to -1.96

and smaller than or equal to -1.4. Z is a standard normal random

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A) 0.9821
B) 0.0555
C) 0.0558
D) 0.98


Reference the Z-table to help solve.

The following are example questions that will test your knowledge of the
concepts within the ANALYZE phase of a DMAIC Six Sigma project.

1) Type I error and Type II error are respectively known as

A) P-value risk
B) Confidence Interval and Power risk
C) Alpha and Beta risk
D) Consumers Risk

Answer: C

Alpha risk is known as Type I Error = Alpha Risk = Significance Level =

Producers Risk = False Positive.

Type II Error = Beta Risk = Consumers Risk = False Negative

2) While ANOVA is "Analysis of Variance", it is used for which


A) Testing variances of two populations

B) Testing variance of two or more populations
C) Testing capability of process
D) Testing means of a population

Answer: D

ANOVA assumes homogeniety of variance which means the variance

within each factor are equal.

3) What other assumption(s) are required to use ANOVA:

A) Measurement system is linear and reproducible

B) Data sets are normally distributed
C) Data sets have equal means

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D) Data sets have equal variances

Answer: B,D

Choice A is already confirmed, you should have an adequate

measurement system as verified in the MEASURE phase. Choice C is the
reason for using ANOVA, which is a test of the equality of the means (can
be used like the student t-test to test the equality of two means).

4) Confidence Intervals are not always symmtrical, but what is

true about confidence intervals when the sample size changes.

A) As sample size, n, decreases the confidence interval spread increases.

B) As sample size, n, increases the confidence interval spread decreases.
C) The sample size, n, does not affect the confidence interval.

Answer: A,B.

The larger the width, or spread, of thr confidence interval the weaker the
estimate of the mean or variance. Logically, the more data and samples
taken within a population, the more confidence you will have in
estimating the population mean or variance. As n approaches infinity, the
sample average approaches the population mean.

5) The standard deviation of a standard normal distribution is

A) always equal to one

B) is always equal to zero
C) can be any positive value
D) can be any negative value

Answer: A

The standard deviation of a standard normal distribution is always equal

to one.

6) Which of the following are characteristics of the normal

probability distribution?

A)89% of the time the random variable assumes a value within plus and
minus 2 standard deviation of its mean
C)The total area under the curve is always equal to 1
D)99.72% of the time the random variable assumes a value within plus
or minus 3 standard deviation of its mean

Answers: B,C,D


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The following are example questions that will test your knowledge of the
concepts within the IMPROVE phase of a DMAIC Six Sigma project.

1) A four level, three factor, DOE is being conducted but due to

time and budget constraints a half factorial is used. What will be
the number of treatment combinations?

A) 64
B) 16
C) 41
D) 32

Answer: D

Recall that factors are the power which the levels are raised. Four cubed
is 64, and a half factorial means that half of the full factorial
combinations will be used, which is 32.

2) Which of the following are true of the Evolutionary Operations


A) Used when process is not in control

B) Limited to two or less input variables
C) high experimental risk
D) uses large samples sizes to detect small experimental differences.

Answer: D

EVOP is evolutionary in that it learns from existing behaviors to predict

future treatments to improve the response. It is normally used when a
process is in statistical control.

3) Waste Elimination is a key component of the IMPROVE phase

and will involve cultural transformation and high assurance that
team members and affected stakeholders are ready to change.
What tools are commonly used (not all depending on the project)
at this time.

A) Stakeholder Analysis

B) Takt Time / Operator Balance Charts

D) Kanban / Pull Principles
E) Standard Work
F) Visual Management
G) Implementation of TPM

Answer: All choices EXCEPT C and H

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4) The goal of IMPROVE is to make a fundamental change or prove

through trials that a fundamental change is possible by
eliminating waste and determining the relationship of the key
input variables that affect the outputs of the process. When a
process is in statistical control what are possible steps to improve
it to a better desired performance level.

A) Target and resolve the special causes

B) Minimize the common cause variation
C) Influence the customer to open up their specification limits
D) Open up the process control limits

Answer: B

The special causes must be eliminated to have an statistically controlled

process. It may be possible that a customer has unrealistic specifications
or those that are too tight that it is not practical or financially viable, it
may be possible to work with them and prove through testing and
validation that the specifications can be opened or changed. It is not
possible to select these values as you would like them, they are set by a
formula through the process itself, they represent the Voice of the

The following are example questions that will test your knowledge of the
concepts within the CONTROL phase of a DMAIC Six Sigma project.

1) Which of the following tools is handed off from the Six Sigma
Black Belt (or other Belt) to the Process Owner after control of the
effect has been established and statistically proven?

A) Pareto
B) Prioritization Matrix
D) Control Plan
E) Gantt Chart

Answer: D

The process owner uses this to help monitor and react to Y and its
behavior after the project is formally closed.

2) Which of the following are characteristics of the RPN? There

may be more than one answer.

A) The lower the value the lower the risk to the project output, Y.

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B) it equals the SEV * DET * OCC

C) it is found on the FMEA as subjective analysis tool
D) it is compared to the P-value to make a decision on null hypothesis.

Answer: A,B,C

It is also the EFFECTS * CAUSES * CONTROLS - which is another way of

saying the SEV * DET * OCC

3) With 50 samples (n=50), a process has a p-bar of 0.25. What

are the upper and lower three sigma limits (UCL/LCL)?

A) 0.25 and -0.25

B) 12.5 and -12.5
C) 21.69 and 3.31
D) 15.56 and 9.44

Answer: C

Must use the formula to calculate the NP Chart control limits.

4) Which of the following a characteristics of the C-Chart, there

may be more than one choice?

A) Plotting number of Defects

B) Plotting continuous data
C) Poisson assumptions satisfied
D) Fixed sample size (constant)

Answer: A,C,D

Visit C Chart for more information.

4) Which type of chart (of the choices below) is typically used

when plotting continuous (can apply to attributes data) data to
detect small changes over a small period of time? The moving
average smoothes the variation of time therefore should not be
used when looking for a point that is outside of the process
control limits.

B) X-bar, R
D) U-Chart

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Answer: C

Visit Exponentially Weighted Moving Average Chart for more information.

The most recent data point is given the most weight and as time
progresses the weight of the older points decreases. The term
exponentially means that the weights of the older points decrease
exponentially with time. CUSUM charts use equals weights for previous
data points.

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