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GUJARAT UNIVERSITY

B.E. – 3nd Year (EC) 6TH sem


EC-601 Optical Communication

Subject Code Teaching Examination Scheme


Scheme
Theory Lab/ Exam Theory Theory Pract TW Total
Pract Paper Marks
Optical EC-601 03 02 Sessional 1.5 Hrs 50 25 25 200
Communication University 3 Hrs 100

1. Overview of Optical fiber Communications :-


Electromagnetic spectrum Evolution of fiber optic system, Elements of an
optical fiber transmission link

2. Optical fibers : Structures, Wave guiding and fabrication :


Optical laws and definitions, optical fiber modes and configurations, Mode
theory, single mode and graded index fibers, fiber materials, fabrication and
mechanical properties, fiber optic cables.

3. Signal Degradation in Optical fibers :


Attenuation, signal distortion in optical waveguides, pulse broadening in graded
index fiber, mode coupling

4. Optical Sources :
Light emitting diode (LEDs)-structures, materials, Figure of merits,
characteristics & Modulation. Laser Diodes -Modes & threshold conditions,
resonant frequencies, structures, characteristics and figure of merits, single mode
lasers, Modulation of laser diodes, temperature effects. Light source linearity.

5. Power Launching and Coupling.


Source-to fiber power launching, Lensing schemes, fiber-to-fiber joints, LED
coupling to single mode fibers, fiber splicing, connectors.

6. Photodetectors :
Principles of operation, types, characteristics, figure of merits of detectors
photodiode materials.

7. Optical Receiver Operation :


Receiver operation, Preamplifier types, Specification of receivers.

8. Transmission Systems :
point –to-point link –system requirements and design of link, Multichannel
Transmission Techniques.

9. WDM Concepts and Components :


Principles of WDM, Passive Optical Components, Tunable sources and Filters

10. Advances in Optical Fiber Systems


Telecommunications & broadband application, SONET/SDH, DWDM, MUX,
Analog & Digital broadband, EDFA, optical switching

11. Fiber Optical Measurements:


Test Equipments, Measurement of Attenuation, Dispersion, NA, OTDR, EYE
pattern Technique.

Text Book :- Optical Fiber Communication by Gerd Keiser, 3rd Edition(Mc Graw Hill)

Reference Books :-
1. Optical Fiber Communication by John M. Senior
2. Fiber optical communication Technology by Djatar Mymbaev & Lowell L, Scheiner.
3. Fiber Optical Communication & Application by Zanger & Zanger Mc Milan
Publications.
4. Optical Fiber Communication by Joseph C. Palais.
5. Optical Fiber Communication : Principles and Systems by Dr. A. Selvarajan TMH
GUJARAT UNIVERSITY
B.E. – 3nd Year (EC) 6TH sem
EC-602 VLSI TECHNOLOGY & DESIGN

Subject Code Teaching Examination Scheme


Scheme
Theory Lab/ Exam Theory Theory Pract TW Total
Pract Paper Marks
VLSI EC-602 03 02 Sessional 1.5 Hrs 50 25 25 200
TECHNOLOG University 3 Hrs 100
Y & DESIGN

1. Introduction: Overview of VLSI design mythology, VLSI design flow, Design


hierarchy, Concept of regularity, Modularity ,and Locality, VLSI design style,
Design quality, package technology, ,computer aided design technology.

2. Fabrication of MOSFET: Introduction, Fabrication Process flow: Basic steps,


C-MOS n-Well Process, Layout Design rules, full custom mask layout design.

3. MOS Transistor:The Metal Oxide Semiconductor (MOS) structure, The MOS


System under external bias, Structure &Operation of MOS transistor, MOSFET
Current-Voltage characteristics, MOSFET scaling & small-geometry effects,
MOSFET capacitances

MOS inverters: Static characteristics: Introduction, Resistive load Inverter,


Inverter with n-type MOSFET load (Enhancement & Depletion type MOSFET load),
CMOS Inverter

MOS inverters Switching characteristics and Interconnect Effects: Introduction,


Delay-time definitions, Calculation of Delay times, Inverter design with delay
constraints, Estimation of Interconnect Parasitics, Calculation of interconnect delay,
Switching Power Dissipation of CMOS Inverters

4. Combinational MOS Logic circuits. :Introduction, MOS logic circuits with


Depletion nMOS Loads, CMOS logic circuits, Complex logic circuits, CMOS
Transmission Gates (TGs)

5. Sequential MOS Logic circuits :Introduction, Behaviour of Bistable elements,


The SR latch circuit, Clocked latch & Flip-flop circuit, CMOS D-latch & Edge-
triggered flip-flop

6. Dynamic Logic Circuits :Introduction, Basic Principles of pass transistor circuits,


Voltage Bootstrapping, Synchronous Dynamic Circuit Techniques, CMOS
Dynamic Circuit Techniques, High-performance Dynamic CMOS circuits
7. Chip I/P and O/P circuits :On chip Clock Generation and Distribution, Latch –Up
and its Prevention

8. Design for testability :Introduction, Fault types and models, Controllability and
observability, Ad Hoc Testable design techniques, Scan –based techniques, built-in
Self Test (BIST) techniques, current monitoring IDDQ test
Text Book :
1. Book: CMOS Digital Integrated circuits – Analysis and Design by Sung – Mo
kang, Yusuf Leblebici, TATA McGraw-Hill Pub. Company Ltd. Third Edition.

Reference Books:
(1) Basic VLSI Design By Pucknell & Eshraghian, PHI,3rd ed.
(2) Introduction to VLSI Systems by Mead C & Conway, Addison Wesley
(3) Digital Integrated Circuits: A Design Perspective By Jan M. Rabaey, PHI

FOR LABORATORY
1. Minimum 9 practicals Based on VHDL/Verilog
2. Minimum 3 Practicals Based on Pspice/spice of MOSFET Characteristics
3. Minimum 2 Practicals on Layout Tools (Magic/Lasi)
VLSI design methodologies should be covered during Laboratory sessions.
One small Project per group of 2/3 students is Optional.

Book for Laboratory :


1. VHDL primer by J.Bhaskar , Addision Wesley , Pearson Ed.
OR
2. Verilog primer by J.Bhaskar , Addision Wesley , Pearson Ed.
GUJARAT UNIVERSITY
B.E. – 3nd Year (EC) 6TH sem
EC-603 Microwave Engineering & Satellite Communication

Subject Code Teaching Scheme Examination Scheme


Theory Lab/ Pract Exam Theory Theory Pract TW Total
Paper Marks
Microwave EC-603 03 02 Sessional 1.5 Hrs 50 25 25 200
Engineering & University 3 Hrs 100
Satellite
Communication

1. Introduction to microwaves
Microwave frequencies, advantages of microwaves, and general applications of
microwaves
2. Microwave transmission lines
Transmission line equations & solutions, reflection and transmission coefficient,
standing wave and standing wave ratio, line impedance and admittance, smith
chart, impedance matching
3. Microwave waveguides
Rectangular waveguides (With all necessary details and derivations)
4. Microwave components & their s-parameters. Wave-guide tees, magic tees,
wave-guide corners, bends, twists, directional couples, circulars and isolators.
5. Microwave tubes and circuits.
Limitations of conventional tubes at UHF & Microwave, Klystrons, velocity
modulation, multicavity klystron, reflex klystron, travelling wave tube,
Magnetron.
6. Semiconductor microwave devices and circuits.
Strip lines and micro strip circuits, microwave transistors and integrated circuits,
varactor diodes, step-recovery diodes, parametric amplifiers, tunnel diode and its
applications, Gunn diode and its applications IMPATT diode, TRAPATT diode,
PIN diode, schottky barrier diodes.
7. Radar systems
Basic principle, radar range equation: powers and frequencies used in radar, basic
pulsed radar system, moving target indication, CW Doppler radar, Factor
Influencing maximum range, Effect of noise, Pulsed system, Modulators,
Receiver band with requirements, Factors governing pulse characteristics,
Antennas and Scanning, Display Methods, Search and Tracking radar systems,
Moving target indicator (MTI), radar beacons, Other radar systems, CW Doppler
Radar, Frequency Modulated CW radar, Phased Array Radar, Planar Array Radar.
8. Satellite communication
Kepler’s laws, geostationary orbits, power systems, altitude control, satellite
station keeping, transponders, uplink power budget, down link power budget,
overall link budget, digital carrier transmission, multiple-access methods,
Antenna look angles, Limits of Visibility, Frequency Plans and Polarization, Brief
study of earth station systems.
9. Introduction to strip lines:
Microstrip lines, parallel strip lines, coplanar strip lines, shielded strip lines

Practical/TW: Practical / Term Work [minimum 8-10 experiments based on above


topics.]
Books:
1) Microwave engineering, Sanjeev Gupta Khanna Pub.
2) Microwave engineering, Manojit Mitra, Dhanpatrai & Co.
3) Microwave Technology, Dennis Roddy , PHI
4) Microwave devices and circuits, by Samuel Liao, PHI
5) Electronic communication systems, by G.Kennedy, McGraw-Hill Book
Company
6) Electronic communications, by Dennis Roddy & Jhon Coolen, PHI
GUJARAT UNIVERSITY
B.E. – 3nd Year (EC) 6TH sem
EC-604, Digital Communication

Subject Code Teaching Examination Scheme


Scheme
Theory Lab/ Exam Theory Theory Pract TW Total
Pract Paper Marks
Digital EC-604 03 02 Sessional 1.5 Hrs 50 25 25 200
Communication University 3 Hrs 100

1. Probability Theory & Random Variables:


Information, Probability, Conditional Probability Of Independent Events, Random
Variable, Variance of a random variable, Relation between probability and
probability density, co relation between random variables, Mean and variance of sum
of random variables, random processes, PSD of digital data, error function and
complementary error function Discrete And Continuous Variable, CDF, PDF,
Gaussian PDF, Threshold Detection, Statistical Average, Chebyshev In Equality,
Raleigh Probability Density, The Central Limit Theorem Correction, Auto
Correction.

2. Information Theory:
Concept & Measure Of Information, Source Coding, Error Free Communication
Over A Noisy Channel. Shannon Theorem, The Channel Capacity Of A Discrete
Memory Less Channel, Optimum System, Channel Capacity Of A Continuous
Channel, Practical Communication Systems In Light Of Shanon’s Equation

3. Formatting A Base Band Modulation:


Base Band System, the Sampling Theorem, Aliasing, Pulse Code Modulation,
DPCM, Uniform And Non-Uniform Quantization, Quantization Error In PCM, Delta
Modulation, Adaptive Delta Modulation, Snr Calculation. Non-Uniform
Quantization, Delta Modulation, Adaptive Delta Modulation, Phase Modulation,
QAM, SNR Calculation.

4. Digital Communication Systems:


Digital Multiplexing, Line Coding, PSD Of On/Off Signal, Bipoplar Signal, Duo
Binary Signal, Pulse Shapping, Nyquist First And Second Criterion For Zero ISI,
Regenerative Repeaters, Detection Error Probability, M-ary System, Scrambling,
Digital Carrier System.

5. Error Correction Codes :Introduction, Linear Block Code, Cyclic Code,


Convolution Code, Burst Error Correcting And Detecting Code, Interlaced Code For
Burst And Random Error Correction, Comparison Of Coded And Un-Coded System.

6. Digital Modulation Techniques:


DEPSK, DPSK, BPSK, QPSK, QASK, MSK, M-ary-FSK, M-Arry-PSK, BFSK,
Comparison Of Various Digital Modulation Techniques.

7. Digital Communication Systems in Presence Of Noise :


Optimum Binary Receiver, Coherent And Non Coherent Detection Of ASK, FSK,
PSK, DPSK.

Text Book : 1. Principle of communication system by Taub & Schilling


(TMH)
2. Digital and analog communication system by simon
haykin(willey)
Ref Book :
1. Communication system by B. Carlon (TMH)
2. Digital and Analog communication system by B.P.Lathi(LCBS)

GUJARAT UNIVERSITY
B.E. – 3nd Year (EC) 6TH sem
EC-605 Audio Video Engineering

Subject Code Teaching Scheme Examination Scheme


Theory Lab/ Pract Exam Theory Theory Pract TW Total
Paper Marks
Audio Video EC-605 03 02 Sessional 1.5 Hrs 50 25 25 200
Engineering University 3 Hrs 100

1. Microphones
2. Loud speakers
3. architectural Acoustics
4. Public Address Systems
5. Digital audio transmission
6. Television standards
7. Video signal characteristics
8. Video cameras
9. TV receivers
10. Digital transmission of video signals

Books:
1. Audio engineering by Kinsler and frey
2. Modern television practice by R. R. Gulati.
GUJARAT UNIVERSITY
B.E. – 3nd Year (EC) 6TH sem
EC-606(a) Radar and navigational Aids(elective-I)

Subject Code Teaching Scheme Examination Scheme


Theory Lab/ Pract Exam Theory Theory Pract TW Total
Paper Marks
Radar and EC- 03 02 Sessional 1.5 Hrs 50 25 25 200
navigational 606(a) University 3 Hrs 100
Aids(elective-I)

1. Navigation: Introduction, Navigational Parameters, Types of Navigational


Aids.

2. Principles of Radar: Introduction, Radar Equation, Radar frequencies, Radar


Set, Radar Applications, Receiver Noise, Signal to Noise Ratio, Transmitter
Power, Pulse Repetition Frequency, Pulse Duration, Propagation Effects,
Displays, Mixers, Duplexers, Targets and Clutters.

3. MTI Radar: Introduction, Operation of MTI Radar, MTI receiver with delay
line canceller, Multiple or staggered, Pulse repetition frequencies, Range gated
Doppler filters, Digital signal processing, MTI from a moving platform,
Limitations to MTI performance
.
4. Modern Radar: Introduction to pulse Doppler Radar, Block diagram,
Detection of multiple target moving with different velocities, FMCW Radar,
Military Radar & Application.

5. Navigational and Remote Sensing Radar: Introduction, Airport Radar,


Meteorological Radars, Airborne Radar, Doppler Navigation , Doppler
Navigation equipment, Distance Measuring equipment, Navy Radar, Remote
Sensing Radar, Synthetic aperture Radar, Rainfall measurement.

6. Direction Findings: Introduction, Loop Antenna, Sense Finder, Increasing the


Sensitivity of Direction Finder, Goniometer method of increasing Loop Voltage,
Errors in Direction Finding, Automatic Direction Finder.

7. Aircraft Homing System and Instrument Landing System: Four course


Radio range, VOR, Doppler VOR, TACAN, ILS, Ground controlled Approach,
Radio altimeter, FMCW altimeter, Microwave landing system.

8. Hyperbolic Navigation:LORAN, DECCA, OMEGA etc.

Text Books:
1. Radar Systems and Radio AIDS to Navigation by Dr. A.K. Sen & A.B.
Bhattacharya ‘Khanna Pub’
2. Introduction to Radar System by Skolnik (TMH)
3. Elements to Electronic Navigation by Nagraj (TMH)

GUJARAT UNIVERSITY
B.E. – 3nd Year (EC) 6TH sem
EC-606(b) Biomedcal Instruentation(Elective- I)

Subject Code Teaching Scheme Examination Scheme


Theory Lab/ Pract Exam Theory Theory Pract TW Total
Paper Marks
Biomedcal EC- 03 02 Sessional 1.5 Hrs 50 25 25 200
Instruentation 606(b) University 3 Hrs 100
(Elective- I)

1. Bio signals and Recording: source of bio electricity, action and resting potential,
electrical activity of cell, biological control concept.
2. Bio Medical transducer: sensor for nerve systems, cardiac vascular system, flow
pressure measurement.
3. Electrodes: Electrolyte electrodes, interface, stability of electrode potential, circuit
models, stimulating type electrodes, reference electrodes, ph, po, pco electrodes.
4. Bio Medical Equipment: ECG, EEG, Diathermy unit, x ray machines, pace
maker, blood pump, hurt lung machine, dialysis, laser in surgery, ultrasonic
medical equipment, equipment in intensive care unit, detararilator high frequency
equipment.
5. Bio signals, amplifier, and Signal processing: basic requirements, transient
protection, interface reduction circuit, active filters, rate measurement, averaging
and integrating circuit, noise reduction technique.
6. Respiratory system measurement: Respiratory system measurement, spirometers,
and regulation of respiration, artificial respiration.
7. Electrical safety: Significance of electrical danger, physiological effect of
electrical current, ground shock, hazards and methods of accident prevention.
8. Instrumentation in ophthalmology and orthinology
9. Miscellaneous: Muscle stimulation, EMG, Ultrasonic scanner.

Practical/TW: Practical/TW [minimum 8-10 experiments on above topics]


Reference Books:
1. Human Physiology: the mechanism of function by Vander, Sherman
2. Introduction to biomedical equipment technology- by Carr & brown
3. Biomedical instrumentation and measurements- by Cromwell
4. Handbook of biomedical instrumentation by R. S. Khandpur
5. Biomedical instrumentation –by Dr. M. Arumugam, Anuradha.
GUJARAT UNIVERSITY
B.E. – 3nd Year (EC) 6TH sem
EC-606(c) Operating Systems (Elective-I)

Subject Code Teaching Scheme Examination Scheme


Theory Lab/ Pract Exam Theory Theory Pract TW Total
Paper Marks
Operating EC- 03 02 Sessional 1.5 Hrs 50 25 25 200
Systems 606(c) University 3 Hrs 100
(Elective-I)

Introduction:
Evolution Of Operating Systems, Operating System Services, Types Of Operating
System, Different View Of Operating System

1. Process Management:
Process, Process Control Block, Process States, Threads, Types of Threads,
Multithreading, Scheduling Algorithms, Performance Evaluation Of Algorithms.

Interprocess Communication: Race Conditions, Critical Section, Mutual Exclusion,


Hardware Solution, Strict Alternation , Peterson’s Solution, The Producer Consumer
Problem, Semaphores, Event Counters, Monitors, Message Passing, Classical IPC
Problems: Reader’s & Writer Problem, Dinning Philosopher Problem etc.

2. Deadlock
Deadlock Problem, Deadlock Characterization, Deadlock Prevention, Deadlock
Avoidance : Banker’s Algorithm For Single Resource & Multiple Resources, Deadlock
Detection

3. Memory Management:
Paging: Principle Of Operation, Page Allocation, H/W Support For Paging,
Multiprogramming With Fixed No. Of Task, Multiprogramming With Variable No. Of
Task, Segmentation, Virtual Memory : Concept, Performance Of Demand Paging, Page
Replacement Algorithms, Thrashing, Locality.

4. Input Output Management


Principles Of Input/Output H/W : I/O Devices, Device Controllers, Direct Memory
Access, Principles Of Input/Output S/W : Goals Of The I/O S/W, Interrupt Handler,
Device Driver, Device Independent I/O Software
Disks : Disks Arm Scheduling Algorithm, Error Handling

5. File Systems
Files : File Naming, File Structure, File Types, File Access, File Attributes, File
Operations, Memory Mapped Files, Directories : Hierarchical Directory System,
Pathnames, Directory Operations, File System Implementation, Implementing Files :
Contiguous Allocation, Linked List Allocation, Linked List Using Index, Inodes,
Implementing Directories In C, MS-DOS, UNIX. Shared Files, Disk Space Mgmt, File
System Reliability, File System Performance, Security : Security Environment, Design
Principles Of Security, User Authentication, Protection Mechanism : Protection Domain,
Access Control List

6. Case Study: Unix, Linux, Windows 2000.

7. Unix/Linux Operating System

Development Of Unix/Linux, Roll Of Kernel & Function Of Kernel, System Calls,


Elementary Shell Programming, Directory Structure, System Administration

Introduction To Multiprocessor And Distributed Operating System

Practical and Term work


The Practical and Term work will be based on the topics covered in the syllabus.
Minimum 12 experiments should be carried out.

Text Books
1 Modern Operating Systems
-By Andrew S. Tanenbaum (PHI)

Reference Books
1 Operating System – Internals & Design Principles
-By William Stallings (PHI)
2 Operating Systems By D.M.Dhamdhare (TMH)
3 Unix System Concepts & Applications By Sumitabha Das (TMH)
4 Operating System Concepts By Peterson
5 Unix Shell Programming By Yashwant Kanitkar
GUJARAT UNIVERSITY
B.E. – 3nd Year (EC) 6TH sem
EC-606(d) Nano Technology & Applications(Elective –I)

Subject Code Teaching Scheme Examination Scheme


Theory Lab/ Pract Exam Theory Theory Pract TW Total
Paper Marks
Nano EC- 03 02 Sessional 1.5 Hrs 50 25 25 200
Technology & 606(d) University 3 Hrs 100
Applications(El
ective –I)

1. Overview of current research in nano-scale electronics and devices


2. Semiconductor and Device 1(Materials and building blocks)
Semiconductor and Device 2(Photonic Device and Materials)
3.CMOS Device Limit of CMOS technology
-Scaling Theory
4.Nano-Physics
-Quantum Mechanics
5. Quantum Device
-Length Scales/Transport
-Ballistic Electron Transport
-Coulomb Blockade
-RTD
-Electron-Wave Coupling Devices
7. Fundamental of chemistry
Organic Chemistry
8. Molecular Electronics
(Molecular Semiconductors and Metals)
(Logic Gates)
10. Carbon Nanotube and Its Application
11. Spintronics
12. Quantum Computation
13.DNA Computation
14.Nano-Fabrication
-Photolithography
: e-beam lithography
: Advanced Nano-lithography
: Thin Film Technology:
- MBE, CVD, PECVD
- LB and Self Assembly, Spu n-Coating
15.Nano-Characterization
- Scanning Probe Microscopy
- Electron Microscopy (TEM, SEM)
- Photon Spectroscopy
- Electron Spectroscopy
- Nanomanipulator

Textbook: Nanoelectronics and Information Technology (Advanced Electronic


Materials and Novel Devices), Rainer Waser, Wiley-VCH (2003).