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EFFECT OF

ADVERTISMENT ON
MALE Vs FEMALE
BUYING BEHAVIOR

GROUP MEMBERS

Anila Muhammed
Bashir

Fatima Syed

Moeeza Saeed

Syed Usman Wazir

Zain Malik
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

“Only until you have climbed the mountains can you look behind you and
see the vast distance you have covered, and remember those you’ve met
along the way who made your trek a little easier”.

Our Report has finally been completed, after many miles of weary travel, We
look back to those who helped us turn it into reality and offer our heartfelt
thanks: to Allah almighty, for the strength and wisdom: to our Instructor Mr.
Ammar Waheed, for his precious time and instructions. We would also like to
thank to Mr Salman Shehzad who really helped us in using the statistical
tools. And last but certainly not the least, to each other, whose presence
served help more than anyone.

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CHAPTER 1
RESEARCH
PROPOSAL

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Abstract
In this research paper, we have studied the impact of advertisements on
male vs. female consumer buying behavior. We have take into account
various variables like age, gender, brand recall and effect of
advertisement in order to drive a relationship between advertising and
consumer’s decision-making regarding purchase. Men and women
perceive advertisements differently and hence both genders require
different persuasive techniques. We have taken neutral products/services
for this analysis so as to provide both the genders with same
circumstances to come up with an objective comparison. A broader age
bracket of 18-60 years has been taken as the sample for this research,
which was further divided into sub groups as per our requirements. For
this, we focused on the Rawalpindi/Islamabad region in order to support
the market trends of that particular region. This would help the firms in
creating marketing strategies focused to both the genders, separately. In
the end, we worked on our research topic to either prove or disapprove
our proposed hypotheses.

Problem Statement
Men and women have different tendencies of being affected by
advertisements. This is why companies do not know exactly that which
customer group, men or women are easier to influence through marketing
campaigns. Therefore, the advertising budget is not spent accordingly to
come up with a precise promotional campaign needed. If targeting men is
easier, then the marketing should be done accordingly and if affecting
women is easier, then the marketing campaign should be tailor made in
order to reach that customer segment in a more effective manner.

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This shows that companies lack the awareness of whom to target through
their promotional campaigns. Whether females would be easier to effect
through the advertisements or males, this still hasn’t been proven according
to the Pakistani market.

Based on all this, it can be stated that the companies end up spending a lot
of their advertising budget on irrelevant target audience. Sometimes, when
`targeting and attracting one specific gender would be more profitable,
companies keep wasting their resources on marketing on a mass scale,
which results in an unnecessary burden on the already scarce resources.

Research Objectives
This research paper was basically intended towards identifying the general
trend in the effect that advertising has on the buying behavior of consumers.
The consumers have been specifically studied in accordance to their
respective gender. An important factor under study was that who is
impacted more by any advertisement; whether it is males or females.
Another important factor that was studied was that customers belonging to
which gender have a better brand recall. This is because brand recall plays a
very important role in the resulting purchase; if a consumer can recall the
brand, he/she will most probably buy it.

For this research, a few hypotheses have been enacted:


Hypotheses

I- Women have more spontaneous buying habits as compared to men.

II- Men and women perceive advertisements differently.

III- Brand recall leads to purchase.

IV- Women have better brand recall as compared to men.

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V- Brand recall differs in different age brackets.

The main form of our research was exploratory study because there was not
much material regarding this specific topic already available. The data that
was already available was mainly regarding the foreign markets. We
intended to conduct this research in our domestic market, which is Pakistan
and hence we needed data regarding the consumers from this region
specifically. Therefore, first hand research was carried out by exploring the
consumer characteristics in this region specifically on a sample of around
500 people within the chosen age bracket of 18-50years in Rawalpindi.

Literature Review
Consumer buying behavior is an important area of research for marketers
and business developers. The importance of studying consumer buying
behavior is imperative from the fact that most product launch features,
marketing strategies and positioning strategies are made under the
influence of consumer buying trends. These trends are further integrated
with regards to gender i.e. male consumer buying behavior vs. female
consumer buying behavior. In this regard the persuasiveness of a particular
product is different for each gender. This paper builds on earlier papers to
propose a model of gender based buying behavior with regards to the impact
of advertisements leading to a higher brand recall.

We included gender based on Block and Morwitz’s (1999) study about the
use of shopping lists. Cobb and Hoyer (1986) found that women are more
likely to plan their purchases than men are. Block and Morwitz (1999)
attribute this tendency to three reasons. First, traditionally, females have
been in charge of grocery shopping. Second, because of such traditions,
females tend to know more about stores and products. Third, also due to

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their traditional role, females have a better idea about inventory levels when
they go shopping than males do (Goldman and Johansson, 1978; Urbany et
al., 1996).

Thus, it is not surprising that Block and Morwitz (1999, pp. 361-2) found that
the probability that a purchased product was on a planned list was higher for
females than for males. They concluded:

“The probability that an external memory aid [formal or informal shopping


list] was used for an item given the item was purchased, is greater if the
shopper is female.”

Therefore, females, who abide by pre-planned lists (written or mental), will


exhibit lower levels of compulsive purchase behavior than males will.

Measuring advertising effectiveness differences offers the direct marketers


the opportunity to spend the advertising money in a more targeted mode.
Studies concerning males vs. female’s general advertising effectiveness
levels indicate that gendered differences are apparent. Genders magnitude
as a variable for market segmentation is positioned on the fact that it meets
several requirements for successful implementation including:

• Identifiability

• Accessibility

• Measurability

• Responsiveness to marketing mix elements; and

• Profitability (Darley and Smith 1995)

Three types of processes/purchase types have been recognized in the


context of this research (Solomon, 2002). First, unplanned buying occurs
mostly when a consumer is unfamiliar with a store’s layout, is under time
pressure, or is reminded of the need to buy if an item when seeing it on the

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shelf. In contrast, impulse buying is an outcome of a sudden consumer’s
irresistible urge to buy an item spontaneously. Finally, compulsive buying
refers to consumers’ repetitive shopping, at times excessive, because of
boredom, tension, or anxiety (Solomon, 2002), which both can then be
attributed to brand recall and advertisement effect.

Previous research has shown that In line with our theoretical arguments,
gender was a significant predictor of buying behavior based on brand recall.
Thus, our study has provided additional support to earlier research on impact
of advertisement on males vs females with regards to brand recall (Block
and Morwitz, 1999) and leading to buying decision (Cobb and Hoyer, 1986).
Apparently, as argued by Block and Morwitz (1999), Pakistani females are
still in charge of grocery shopping and serve as family experts on stores and
products in many families. Additionally, in line with their traditional roles,
females recognize inventory depletion when they go shopping (Goldman and
Johansson, 1978; Urbany et al., 1996). “Because of their traditional roles as
house-makers, females in our study were more likely to exhibit a tendency
for advertisement based purchasing. As house chores are split more evenly
in developed countries, the expertise of both husbands and wives may be
more evenly divided than it was in the past. Future research might examine
the impact of gender in more complex societies, such as certain mid-east
and central asian countries”.1

Additionally, previous research has established differential gender roles


across products. The seminal work of Davis and Rigaux (1975) added
structure to the study of family decision-making roles (Davis, 1970). They
identified three phases of decision-making: problem recognition; search for
information; and final decision. The roles and relative influence of husbands
and wives differed based on decision-making stage and product type (Moore-

1
Shoham A., Makovec Brenčič M. (2003), Consumer Buying Behavior, Journal of consumer marketing, volume 20
Issue 2, p 127-138

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Shay and Wilkie, 1988; Wilkes, 1975; Yavas et al., 1994). Davis and Rigaux
(1974), Bonfield (1978), and Putnam and Davidson (1987) found that
decision-making tends to become more syncratic or joint in more advanced
stages (Moore-Shay and Wilkie, 1988; Shuptrine and Samuelson, 1976). It is
a notable fact that women plan what to buy; therefore a topic for significant
future research is to analyze if their purchases are planned, for all the
products or if the compulsive decisions are restricted to the female dominant
products.

Hence the basis of our research was established on following research


papers:

1. Web advertising: gender differences in beliefs, attitude and behavior,


Lori D wolin, Pradeep Korgaonkar

2. Gender, Identity and the consumption of advertising, Margaret K Hogg


and Jade Garrow

3. The effects of Multiple ads and multiple brands on consumer attitude


and purchase behavior, Lefa Teng et al

4. Understanding demographic effects on marketing communications in


services, Maureen Fitz Gerald, David Arnott

5. Effectiveness of advertisement on a high and low loyalty consumer


segments by S.P. Raj, 1982

6. Pioneering experiment in assessing advertisement effectiveness by


T.E.Coffin 1963

Importance/Benefit of study
This research is beneficial, firstly, for the advertising agencies, as it will
become easier for them to formulate the exact integrated marketing
strategies for their customers so as to target the respective audience of the
organization. It will also help the organizations to optimally distribute their

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marketing expenditure over different mediums of advertising, catering to
their target group. It will also provide a platform to the market researchers of
the respective organization to devise the marketing budget in accordance
with a perfect balance between the medium chosen and the audience
targeted. This will support them in identifying their target segment that they
can influence and which can work in their favor. Hence getting the maximum
return on what they will invest for marketing their product/services.

It will also guide the marketers to identify the factors that influence the
audience more effectively in any advertisement and so those can be worked
on. Also it will be analyzed that how men and women perceive
advertisements differently and hence what are the factors that lead to their
purchase decision.

This study has helped us in solving the dilemma as we have become able to
identify the factors of advertisement that co-relate with each other or in any
way affect the male and female buying decision. How well the product or
service is communicated, can be analyzed by the buying trends of the
consumers. It can be further broken down into different genders, as both the
genders perceive advertisements regarding the neutral products/services
differently and hence require different persuasive techniques.

Research Design
The basic point of this research paper was to analyze how advertising affects
male and female consumers differently. For this, a few hypotheses had been
developed which have been stated above. We observed the behaviors of
both these consumers through different means so that the hypotheses that
we have come up with can be verified or proven otherwise.

Considering the extensive nature of the topic under study and the level on
which we were, it was obvious that we had to bind our research to a

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controllable scale. For this purpose, our research was limited to data related
to just two cities namely Rawalpindi and Islamabad. Dependant and
Independent variables were identified as per the data collected. The age
bracket that was being analyzed for this purpose was between 18-50 years
of age that is covering the young and adult age group. We selected this
group because we believed that a major chunk of our population of
purchasers fell in this age bracket.

Some of the techniques that were used to collect the data for our research
was mainly qualitative as no previous data was available on such a topic
especially for Pakistan. They were as follows:

1. Surveys – a sample size of 1000 will be surveyed constituting of both


the female and male population with equal proportions. This survey
would help us to analyze how males and females respond differently to
different advertisements and this will show how their attitudes towards
products are shaped.
The surveys would provide us with data directly filled out by the
customers themselves and as was said earlier that there isn’t much
data available regarding the customers of the area that we are
researching on, these surveys will act as the starting point for some of
the variables that we have to study.

2. Interviews – This would involve interviewing some customers


randomly in order to analyze customer behavior through a more
personal approach. A discussion with the customer can sometimes
uncover several factors, which we could have previously missed out
on.
3. Focus Group – this will involve carrying out a discussion in a
controlled environment. This discussion will basically help us in
determining whether males and females have different views
regarding different advertisements that we will raise a discussion on.

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Both the genders will be in the same environment and under same
conditions because of which unreasonable variations cannot arise in
the response.
Based on this data, the qualitative techniques will give us an in-depth
analysis that would lead to our findings.

Data Analysis
As per the objective of our research that is to study the impact of
advertisement on male vs. female consumer buying behavior, we plan to
carry out the preliminary research through the surveys, interviews and
focused group discussions of random consumers.

The quantitative techniques being regression analysis and few selected SPC
tools, will then be employed once the data has been collected which will give
us an objective overview of the data. Once the data has been analyzed,
conclusions will be drawn based on the extensive study that would be
completed.

For this purpose, the following quantitative techniques will be utilized:


1. Regression Analysis – this will measure several relationships
between some dependant and independent variables that we will be
indentifying in this research. These relationships will assist us in
reaching to conclusions regarding whether advertising has a different
impact on males and females.
2. Coefficient of correlation – to analyze the correlation between the
different variables so as to support the respective hypothesis.
3. SPC (Statistical Process Control) – identify the relationship
between the cause and effect variables.
The previously mentioned hypotheses will be analyzed by qualitative and
quantitative techniques. As for assumptions, we have assumed
advertisement being the independent variable; dependent variables that we

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have identified up till now would be brand recall, gender, age and
educational level.

The data required for this will directly be collected from surveys and
interviews of the consumers of our sample. For this the survey form will be
built such as to cater to these data requirement.

Limitations for our research study would be that it will just cater to the
Rawalpindi/Islamabad region. Other would include the dependent variables
identified above.

Our research study can be generalized provided the similar circumstances


that we have taken up for this paper. It may also include other cities or even
countries with similar cultural and demographical aspects. Further research
in such regions would help in generalizing the findings of this research.

Nature and Form of Results


We have presented our result in different forms for example graphical
representation of statistical data, tables, charts and figures. These
techniques would help us in the evaluation of our results.

Facilities, Resources & proposed Budget

Following are some of the items and their approximate costs that might be
required for the conduction of our research:

Recourses Quantity Cost Total Cost

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Computer N/A N/A

1) Personal Computer at Pc – 2
home
E-com computers – 5
2) E-commerce Lab computer
3) Laptops Laptops - 2

Internet

1) Micronet Broadband (DSL) --- Rs. 1200 Rs. 1200


(home)
2) Micronet Broadband (DSL)
(E-commerce Lab) N/A N/A N/A

Printer Rs. 1400 per Rs. 1400


cartridge
1) HP (At home) 2 Printers
2) E-commerce Lab Printer N/A
N/A N/A

Stationary & binding --- Rs. 500 Rs. 500

Online Journals/Emerald N/A N/A N/A

Instructors Cooperation N/A N/A N/A

Traveling Expenses 5 persons --- Rs. 1000

Total --- --- Rs. 4100

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CHAPTER 2
RESEARCH DESIGN

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Description of Research Design

Description
The degree to which the research question Formal Study
has been crystallized
The method of data collection Communication Study
The power of the researcher to produce Experiment
effects in the variables under study
The purpose of the study Casual Study
The time dimension Cross-sectional Study
The topical scope, breadth and depth of Statistical Studies
the study
The research environment Field conditions
The participants perceptions of research Daily Routine
activity

Formal Study – In our study we formulated four basic hypothesizes and


then carried out the whole research process to test those hypothesizes.
Basically it was to check which one among those holds true or even false in
some of the cases. In short this is a formal study because hypothesizes were
formulated in the very beginning and the entire research was carried out to
prove or disapprove those.

Communication Study – In this method of data collection it is the


responsibility of the researcher to question the subjects and record the
respondents’ response by personal or impersonal means so that the data
could be used as a basis for testing the hypothesis by using various
statistical tools. We call our study a communication study because in the
initial stages we devised a formal questionnaire. Also to have a fair idea
about consumer response we had a pilot testing session taken place online

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as well. Both the questionnaires are attached in the appendix. Therefore our
method of data collection falls under the communication study.

Experiment – Experiment provides the researcher with enough flexibility to


manipulate the variables in the study so as not to distort the overall result of
the study. For example one of our hypotheses was that women are more
spontaneous shoppers than men; that is they tend to buy things which they
have not even planned. In order to test this hypothesis we have assumed
that all the women in our sample size belong to the income group who has
the purchasing power of buying products/services on instinct while they are
shopping; which actually means that money is not a constraint in this case
whereas a more practical approach would be that there are income groups
where women do not have the budget to accommodate products/services
bought at an impulse.

Casual Study – The main objective of research was to analyze the


effectiveness of marketing mediums on the male/female buying behavior;
with our main focus on their brand recall ability. Therefore through out the
research we made an effort to explain the relationship among our variables
and that is it true that females have a better brand recall then men or for
that matter what is the effect of using television as a marketing medium
compared to a billboard.

Cross-sectional Study – We believe our study to be so as our study wasn’t


extended over a period of time but it was conducted over a continuous point
in time. The entire project was completed within a time frame of
approximately 12 weeks.

Statistical Studies - These types of studies mainly emphasize on


highlighting the breath of the topic. This means that the one aspect of the
entire topic will not entirely discuss the problem statement in detail with
relation to the male/female buying behavior and marketing medium

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effectiveness. The results of the study are being supported by using
statistical tools and techniques such as descriptive statistics.

Field Conditions – The whole study was conducted under the actual
environmental conditions so as not to leave any room for manipulation.

Participant Perceptions – the participants involved were surveyed under


the routine environment so as not to effect, mould or manipulate the natural
perception of the respondent.

Independent Variables (IV) & Dependent Variables ( DV)

The dependent variable is the effect of advertisement; and the independent


variables are brand recall, gender and age respectively. Below is a tabular
representation of the two types of variables categorizing the data types that
they individually fall into.

Variables
Dependent Independent Variable
Variable
Data Type Effect of Brand Recall Gender Age
Advertisement
Nominal 
Ordinal  
Ratio 

Research Methods

Communication Methods Chosen

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1. Self-administered Survey – A Survey was conducted in the Rawalpindi/
Islamabad region.

a. Sample survey & measurement scale types:

Gender: Male/Female

Age: (18-25)/(26-40)/(41-50)

City: Rawalpindi/Islamabad

The following table shows the variables that are measured in specific
hypotheses along with their data types, respectively. It also tells about the
corresponding types of measurement scales used against the respective
data types. Sample questions from the survey can be seen.

Hypotheses Variable Data Type Measurement Sample


Measured Scales Question
Number

H-I Gender Nominal Multiple Choice 1 and 2


(single
response)

H-II Affect of Ordinal Ranking 3, 4, 5 and 6


advertisemen (forced),
ts Multiple Choice
(single
response)

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H-III Brand Recall Ordinal Multiple Choice 7, 8, 9, 10
(single and 11
response), Free
response

The questions were categorized as per the hypothesis taken up for the
research. Following measurement scales were used in making the survey.
The survey is attached in the appendix.

• Multiple choice—single response

• Forced Ranking Scale

• Free Response

2. Interviews – although we could not conduct formal interviews. However


while conducting the surveys we realized that most of the respondents
did not have the know how of how to go about it. So during those
sessions we not only administered them but also interacted with them
so as to make things sensible and easier for them.

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CHAPTER 3
FINDINGS

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H-1

Women have more spontaneous buying habits as compared to


men

Following findings were made on the basis of our survey; the findings
are represented on the basis of males vs. females.

Females:

36% females in the age strata of 18-25 have responded YES to the
question that they make a shopping list and plan their shopping.
Similarly, 56% of females in the strata of 26-40 responded that they
also plan their shopping and 48% of the females in the age strata of
40-50 responded that plan their shopping. On the other hand 12% of
the females in age strata 18-25 responded YES to the question that
they “stick to the shopping list they have planned for”. In this regard,
6% of the females in the age strata 26-40 were the ones that stuck to
the planned shopping list and 24% of females in age strata 40+ stuck
to their shopping list.

Males:

10% males in the age strata of 18-25 have responded YES to the
question that they make a shopping list and plan their shopping.
Similarly, 28% of males in the strata of 26-40 responded that they also
plan their shopping and 58% of the females in the age strata of 40-50
responded that plan their shopping. On the other hand 20% of the
males in age strata 18-25 responded YES to the question that they
“stick to the shopping list they have planned for”. In this regard, 36%
of the males in the age strata 26-40 were the ones that stuck to the

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planned shopping list and 34% of males in age strata 40+ stuck to
their shopping list.

H-2

Men and women perceive advertisements differently

In this regards our questionnaire was as such so that to measure the


perception of advertisement depending on gender. The questionnaire
was designed to find the most effective medium of advertising that
influences males vs. females and theme of the advertisement as well
as the perception that whether advertisements portray a true picture
of a particular add or not. Similarly, the attractive attention of a
particular add was also found with regards to respective gender as
well.

Females:

64% of the females in the Strata of 18-25 rate TV as the highest


medium of influence through advertisement, where as 92% of females
in the strata of 26-40 rated TV as the highest medium of influence and
similarly 76% of the females in the strata of 40+ have rated TV as the
highest medium as well.

On the same note, 40% of the females in the strata of 18-25 rated
humorous theme followed by 28% rated that celebrity endorsed
themes are most appreciated in advertisements. Where as 46%
females in the strata of 26-40 rated emotional theme as the most
influential factor followed by 32% females in the strata of 40+ rated
humorous data as most influential.

When asked whether advertisements give a true picture of a product


or service and to what extent advertisements attract their attention.
52% of the females in the 18-25 strata rated that they are not sure

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whether the advertisement portrays a true picture of a product or not.
This is followed by 44% females of the same strata that feel that they
are to some extent attracted by the advertisement. Similarly none of
the females in the strata of 26-40 feels that advertisements give a true
picture of the product or service that is marketed. Followed by 35%
females of this strata felt that they are somewhat influenced/attracted
by an advertisement that catches their attention. Where as 22% of the
females in the strata of 40+ says that advertisements do portray a
true picture of the product or service being marketed. And 50% of the
females of this stratum feel that advertisements attract their attention
a lot.

Males:

70% of the males in the Strata of 18-25 rate TV as the highest medium
of influence through advertisement, where as 52% of males in the
strata of 26-40 rated TV as the highest medium of influence and
similarly 66% of the males in the strata of 40+ have rated TV as the
highest medium as well.

On the same note, 34% of the males in the strata of 18-25 rated
humorous theme followed by 24% rated that celebrity endorsed
themes are most appreciated in advertisements. Where as 44% males
in the strata of 26-40 rated informative theme as the most influential
factor followed by 66% males in the strata of 40+ rated celebrity
endorsed themes as most influential.

When asked whether advertisements give a true picture of a product


or service and to what extent advertisements attract their attention.
64% of the males in the 18-25 strata rated that advertisements do not
portray a true picture of a product. Similarly 52% of the males in the
strata of 26-40 feel that advertisements don’t give a true picture of the
product or service that is marketed. Where as 44% of the males in the

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strata of 40+ says that advertisements do not portray a true picture of
the product or service being marketed. And 50% of the males of this
stratum feel that advertisements attract their attention a lot.

H-3(a)

Brand Recall leads to purchase:

In this regard our questionnaire was as such so that to find whether


brand recall leads to purchase or not. And we found that 58% of
females in the strata of 18-25 against 58% of males in the same strata
are sure that an advertisement had created an inert feeling in them to
try out a product thus leading to purchase behavior on the basis of
brand recall. Whereas 56% of the females in the strata of 26-40
against 36% of the males in the same strata feel that an advertisement
had created an inert feeling in them to try out a product thus leading
to purchase behavior on the basis of brand recall. Similarly 52% of
females in the strata of 40+feels that an advertisement had created an
inert feeling in them to try out a product thus leading to purchase
behavior on the basis of brand recall against 44% males in the same
strata felt that advertisement had not created an inert feeling in them
to try out a product so that to lead to a purchase behavior on the basis
of brand recall.

H-3(b)

Brand Recall

In this regard our questionnaire was designed to ask both the genders
whether their purchase decision is based on brand recall or not and
how often. And to test their brand recall capacity with regards to
gender we designed questions that specifically targeted their brand
recall capability.

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Our findings thus are that 78% females in the strata of 26-40 rarely
make their purchase on the basis of brand recall and 60% of the males
in the strata of 40+ rarely make a purchase on the basis of brand
recall. And 38% females and males of the same strata of 18-25 often
make a purchase on the basis of brand recall.

With regards to the analysis of brand recall capacity, we found that


37.33% females have a strong brand recall while 21.33% males have
the same capacity of a strong brand recall.

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CHAPTER 4
ANALYSIS

27
Hypothesis 1: Women have more spontaneous buying habits as
compared to men.

The first two questions were meant to test this hypothesis. The respondents
were asked whether they make a list before going for shopping or not and
that whether they stick to that list or not. According to the response that we
got, we came to know that around 32% males did planned shopping while
46.7% of the females agreed that they made a shopping list. This obviously
shows females are more planned shoppers as compared to men. Males who
did not plan their shopping were 50.7% which is far higher than 26.7%
females; this shows that males are much more spontaneous than females
when it comes to shopping.

In the second question, we observed that 39.3% men did not stick to what
they had planned for shopping while most of the females, i.e. 57.3% claimed
that they did not stick to their shopping lists. This means that even if these
women had planned their shopping, they did not end up following it and
hence they can be proved to be more spontaneous buyers as compared to
men. Hence the first hypothesis can be safely taken as true.

H1: ACCEPTED

Hypothesis 2: Men and women perceive advertisements differently.

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This hypothesis was tested from four different angles. Firstly we observed
that which advertising medium was more effective for each gender, then we
saw that what kind of advertisement themes were preferred by males and
females, after that it was inquired whether men and women believed that
advertisements were true or not and lastly it was asked that to what extent
did advertisements attract their attention. These different angles gave us the
opportunity to see how advertisements were perceived differently by men
and women.

The exposure of different advertising mediums is different among both the


genders. This was evident by the results in which we saw that although men
and women both ranked TV as the most effective while billboards as the
second most effective medium, the percentage of women ranking TV as the
most important was much more than that of men (women: 77.3, men: 62.7)
and the percentage of men ranking billboards as the second most effective
medium was much more than that of women (women: 10.7, men: 18.7). Also
we see that in men’s rankings, newspaper turns out to be the third most
effective medium while females have ranked radio as the third most
important. Side be side, men have ranked radio as the fourth most important
and internet as the least important while females have ranked internet as
the fourth most important while newspaper as the least important. These
findings can be attributed to specific reasons as well. We see that women in
our society mostly stay at home while men have to go out for their jobs. This
is why men have a higher exposure rate to billboards as compared to women
and women have a higher exposure rate to TV as opposed to men. Staying
mostly at home, women also tend to listen to radio more as opposed to
reading newspapers while men tend to read newspapers more as opposed to
radio. These are the reasons why men and women have different
perceptions about different mediums.

Coming to the second question, we see that women were seen to be most
influenced by humorous, emotional and celebrity endorsed advertising

29
themes. Men on the other hand were most affected by celebrity endorsed,
informative and humorous advertising themes. When we compare the
percentages, we see that 40.7% men ranked celebrity endorsed advertising
as the most effective while only 27.3% women ranked it as the most
important. For men, the second most important was informative advertising
and third was humorous. For women, the percentage was equal at 27.3% for
all their most favored themes. We also see that 14.7% men ranked
adventurous advertising as most effective while only 8% women agreed on
that. These differences are clearly attributable to the gender differences.
Men are more affected by celebrity endorsed advertising as for them, a
beautiful model marketing a product would obviously be more attractive
than anything else; we can conclude that to be men’s nature. Also men are
more interested in the facts and figures about everything and so obviously
informative advertising is preferred. Women are more emotional as opposed
to men and so for them, emotional advertisements are more effective. They
are often more affected by the emotional themes and so they aren’t really
bothered about the information being delivered in the ad and that is why
that theme has not been ranked very high. Also they are not rough and
tough and adventurous like men and so they have ranked the adventurous
adverting theme the lowest. So by this we can see that men and women may
slightly have similar advertisement choices but the percentages, which
prefer different advertisements, are quite different.

In question number five; respondents were specifically asked what they


thought about advertisements giving a true picture of the products being
marketed. As expected, a very small percentage of men and women agreed
that advertisements were true. The number of males and females choosing
that option were roughly the same. As for people who did not believe that
advertisements were true, there was a huge difference in the number of men
and women, which believed so. Around 60% males confidently said that
advertisements do no portray the products very truly and around 40%

30
women believed the same. This shows the differing perceptions very clearly.
Around 45% women chose the option ‘maybe’ because they were not really
sure about advertisements’ authenticity. Compared to that, only 24% males
chose this option; yet again a visible difference.

In the last question for this hypothesis, people were asked that to what
extent did advertisements attracted their attention. Around 35% women
chose the ‘a lot’ option whereas only 20% men chose this option. There was
also an option of ‘somewhat’ for people who were not very confident about
whether advertisements did or did not attract their attention. Around 61%
males resided to this option whereas approximately 49% females ticked it
too. The percentage of males who confidently believed that advertisements
did not attract their attention at all was clearly more than that of women at
about 9% as opposed to just 2%. These percentage differences between men
and women clearly depict the differing perceptions that they have about
advertisements. It can also be related to the previous two questions. We saw
that nearly 60% men believed that advertisements did not give a true
picture of the products being marketed. Still around 61% said that
advertisements somewhat attracted their attention. This shows that men
may not believe that advertisements are true, still they attract their
attention due to possible reasons like men ranking the celebrity endorsed
advertisements very high.

H2: ACCEPTED

Hypothesis 3: Brand recall leads to purchase.

Here two questions were posed to test this hypothesis. In the first one,
respondents were asked whether an advertisement ever created an inert
feeling in them to try out a product. Around 37% men said yes to this
question while a visibly greater percentage of women (55%) said yes to this

31
question. Therefore it can also be induced that it is easier to attract women’s
attention through advertising than men. In men, the percentage, which said
a clear “No”, was around 25% while women who said that an advertisement
never created a feeling in them was only approximately 11% as opposed to
that. Why men are at a higher percentage here and at a lower percentage in
the “Yes” option is because the emotional quotient is lower in men and that
it why they are not easily convinced by advertisements as compared to men.

In the second question for this hypothesis, the respondents were asked how
often their purchase decision was based on brand recall. Most of the
respondents in both males and females chose the “Rarely” option. Second in
line was the “often” option. This shows an interesting fact; people may like
different sorts of advertising themes, they may say that an advertisement
did create an inert feeling to try out a product, but when it comes to actually
purchasing the products, their buying decision is rarely based on brand
recall. This means that the inert feeling created by advertisements was not
strong enough to make people actually buy the product. Just getting a
feeling is different than getting an intention to buy the product.

This means that the hypothesis that brand recall leads to a purchase would
not be very authentic as the results show that people may remember a
product due to it’s advertisements but its not necessary that they would buy
it too when they remember it.

H3: REJECTED

Hypothesis 4: Women have a better brad recall then men.

The last three questions of the questionnaire were meant to test this
hypothesis. Respondents were asked to list out brands that they recalled
from some specific colors, tag lines and celebrities. The results were pretty
straight forward here.

32
In the first question, which was regarding brands recalled from five specific
colors, it was seen that the percentage of women who scored the maximum
marks, i.e. got all their answers correct, was double than that of men. On
average, men scored far less than women in terms of remembering brands
from different colors.

In the next question, in which respondents were supposed to recall brands


from different tag lines, once again females were the maximum scorers.
Around 70% women scored seven or above out of a total of ten while men
who scored seven or above were only around 40%. This clearly shows the
huge difference in terms of better brand recall.

For the last question too, the total score was ten and respondents had to list
the brands that they remembered from different celebrities. Once again,
around 69% of the women were seven and above scorers which was more
than double than the males which stood at approximately 30%.

We see that when women were inquired about the most effective marketing
medium and advertising theme in their opinion, they had chosen TV and an
emotional advertising theme. This shows that women usually spend more
time at home watching TV as the working woman concept has not evolved in
our society very deeply till now and also they are more emotionally attracted
to the ads as opposed to men. This is why women tend to remember what
they see more as compared to men. We also saw that when it was inquired
whether advertisements give a true picture of the product being marketed or
not, it was seen that mostly women chose the “maybe” option because of
which we can say that they may tend to believe more that ads can be honest
and that is why they may watch the ads with a greater interest than men
who had mostly chosen that ads are not true.

H4: ACCEPTED

33
Hypothesis 5: Brand recall differs in different age brackets

In the results obtained from brand recall questions, it was seen that younger
consumers in both the genders had a better brand recall than the other two
strata of both males and females. This is because the memory recall is better
in younger age and the younger generation today is more in touch with
media than the older generations. Another reason for this is that companies
tend to target the younger age bracket through advertising campaigns as
the younger consumers can influence the buying behavior of their parents
and grand parents too. So as this younger age bracket is specifically
targeted, the promotional campaigns are bound to affect them more than
the older generations and this is also a reason why younger consumers have
a better brand recall.

H5: ACCEPTED

34
CHAPTER 5
STATISTICAL
MODEL

35
Statistical Tool
We have not used regression analysis as the variables under analysis cannot
be regressed with the current format of questionnaire that was prepared for
data collection in the initial stage of conducting this research. Currently
Mean is the statistical tool that is being used for question number 9, 10 and
11 because of the fact that all the respondents have provided a score as a
response to the three questions and therefore it is easier to calculate the
mean of both the genders (150 females: 150 Males) so that the average
figures of the two major strata can be statistically analyzed. The rest of the
questions have been analyzed using mode as the major statistical tool
whereas Count was the secondary tool in use.

Question 1 & 2

The hypothesis (I) for these particular questions was formulated to analyze
whether women had more spontaneous buying habits as compared to men
or not. The three response for both the questions were yes, no and
sometimes; and the scores given to them were 1, 2 and 3 respectively.

Table 1- Descriptive Statistics Q1 & Q2 (Female)

Q1 Q2

Mean 2.2333 Mean 2.74


33

Median 2 Median 3

Mode 2 Mode 3

Table 2 - Descriptive Statistics Q1 & Q2 (Male)

Q1 Q2

Mean 2.1133 Mean 2.5333

36
33 33

Median 2 Median 3

Mode 2 Mode 3

Table 15 & 16 show that the most recurring score for question 1 for both the
genders is 2 which means that the majority of respondents in the sample
size have chosen the option “No” for this particular question. This means
that men and women do not plan their shopping and make a shopping list as
well. The mode (3) for question 2 for the both gender indicates that majority
of the subjects in the sample size have opted for “sometimes”(response=3)
as a response, making it clear that they sometimes stick to what they have
planned for shopping where as sometimes the shopping is done
spontaneously

Table 3 - Count Q2

Q2 Female

Count - Yes 23 Table 17 shows that 86 females out of the 150


Count - No 86 strata size do not stick to what they have planned

Count - Sometimes 41 for shopping and there are 50 males who admit
that they stick to what they have planned for; this
Q2 Male
means that males have a less spontaneous
Count - Yes 50
shopping behavior than women even though the
Count - No 60 mode for both the genders was the same.
Count - Sometimes 39

37
Table 18 shows that females (Yes=61) are more prone to making a shopping
list and where as males are less prone to doing so as only 52 males have
opted for “yes”; nut the fact remains that the mode value for both the
genders was 2 indicating that shopping lists are not made by majority of
males or females; on the other hand 71 males out of the entire strata of 150
opted for “No” implying that males generally do not make shopping lists.

Table 4 - Count Q1

Q1 Female

Count - Yes 61

Count - No 45

Count - Sometimes 44

Q1 Male

Count - Yes 52

Count - No 71

Count - Sometimes 27

Question 3 & 4

Question 3 & 4 were included in the questionnaire to analyze hypothesis (II);


question 3 had five responses namely TV, billboard, newspaper, internet and

38
radio and the ranks given to then in the data sheet were 1,2,3,4,5
respectively with 5 being the highest and 1 the lowest. According to table 19,
in the female strata of the sample size the most recurring value for TV,
billboard, newspaper, internet and radio was 5,4,3,2,1 respectively which
indicates that TV ranked 5th by majority of the female elements of the
sample size.

Table 5 - Descriptive Statistics Q3 (Female)

TV3 Billboard3 Newspaper

Mean 4.2533 Mean 3.4333 Mean 3.2466


33 33 67

Median 5 Median 4 Median 3

Mode 5 Mode 4 Mode 3

Internet Radio

Mean 2.1266 Mean 1.94


67

Median 2 Median 2

Mode 2 Mode 1

The statistics in table 10 indicate the same trend as that of table 19 which
means that the male strata of the sample size have given the same ranks as
that of female strata that is, 5,4,3,2,1 for TV, billboard, newspaper, internet
and radio with 5 being the highest and 1 being the lowest.

Table 6 - Descriptive Statistics Q3 (Male)

TV Billboard Newspaper

39
Mean 4.4066 Mean 3.5266 Mean 2.74
67 67

Median 5 Median 4 Median 3

Mode 5 Mode 4 Mode 3

Internet Radio

Mean 2.1266 Mean 2.2


67

Median 2 Median 2

Mode 2 Mode 1

According to the figures shown in table 21 & 22 it can be easily analyzed that
the count of males ranking TV on the 5th position are less as compared to
that of the female strata of the sample size where as greater number of
males have ranked newspaper with the 5th position indicating that men give
more importance to newspaper advertisements than men where as for
females TV is a more significant advertisement medium. Another trend that
can be analyzed is that internet is a medium proffered by males rather then
females because the male count oft internet is greater than the male count.

Table 7 - Count Q3 (Male)

TV Billboard Newspaper

Rank 5 Count 93 Rank 5 Count 27 Rank 5 16


Count

Rank 4 Count 30 Rank 4 Count 52 Rank 4 40

40
Count

Rank 3 Count 9 Rank 3 Count 82 Rank 3 64


Count

Rank 2 Count 8 Rank 2 Count 19 Rank 2 25


Count

Rank 1 Count 10 Rank 1 Count 11 Rank 1 5


Count

Internet Radio

Rank 5 Count 7 Rank 5 Count 7

Rank 4 Count 16 Rank 4 Count 12

Rank 3 Count 19 Rank 3 Count 17

Rank 2 Count 55 Rank 2 Count 43

Rank 1 Count 53 Rank 1 Count 71

Table 8- Count Q3 Female

TV Billboard Newspaper

Rank 5 Count 112 Rank 5 Count 16 Rank 5 3


Count

Rank 4 Count 16 Rank 4 Count 80 Rank 4 30


Count

Rank 3 Count 4 Rank 3 Count 30 Rank 3 65


Count

Rank 2 Count 7 Rank 2 Count 15 Rank 2 29

41
Count

Rank 1 Count 11 Rank 1 Count 9 Rank 1 23


Count

Internet Radio

Rank 5 Count 3 Rank 5 Count 7

Rank 4 Count 10 Rank 4 Count 12

Rank 3 Count 25 Rank 3 Count 24

Rank 2 Count 60 Rank 2 Count 57

Rank 1 Count 48 Rank 1 Count 50

Question 5 & 6

These two questions were used to analyze hypothesis II which states that
men and women perceive advertisements differently. Question number three
measured the respondents belief on the statement that “if advertisements
give a true picture of the products/services being marketed”. For question 5
the three responses were Yes, No and Maybe and their scores in the data
sheet were 1, 2 and 3 respectively where as the responses for question 6
were extremely, a lot, somewhat, no and not at all while the score given to
them were 1,2,3,4,and 5 respectively.

Question 5

The most reoccurring value for Q5 fro females and males was 2 whose
corresponding response was “No”; which means that majority of the
respondents (male/female) do believe that advertisements do not give a true
picture of the products/services that they market.

42
Table 9 - Descriptive Statistics Q5 & Q6 (Female)

Q5

Mean 2.1133
33

Median 2

Mode 2

Table 10- Descriptive Statistics Q5 & Q6 (Male)

Q5

Mean 2.2333
33

Median 2

Mode 2

Table 11 - Count Q5 (Female) Table 12 -


Count Q5 (Male)

Q5 Q5

Count - Yes 38 Count - Yes 22

Count - No 57 Count - No 77

Count - Sometimes 55 Count - Sometimes 51

If we analyze the mode value only then the result deduced would be that
men and women do not perceive advertisements differently but the count
values presented in the tables above make it very clear that a greater

43
percentage of men have chosen the response “No” (Male: 77, Female: 57)
and an even lesser number of males have responded “Yes” (Male: 38,
Female: 22); therefore it holds true that men and women do perceive
advertisements differently as the number of individuals opting for
“sometimes” as a response were more or less equal for both the genders.

Question 6

Question 6 determined the extent to which advertisement attracted both the


gender; the responses were extremely, a lot, somewhat, no and never,
where as the scores given to the in the data sheet were 1,2,3,4 and 5
respectively. According to the mode values calculated in table 11 and 10, it
can be stated that majority of the respondents from both the genders opted
for the third response which as undoubtedly “somewhat”. It clearly indicates
the fact that advertisement does attract the attention of both the genders
but to a little extent.

Table 13 - Descriptive Statistics Q6 (Female)

Q6

Mean 2.5333
33 Table 14 - Descriptive Statistics Q6 (Male)

Median 3 Q6
Q6
Mode 3 Count – Extremely 12
Mean 2.74
Count – A lot 53
Median 3
Count – Somewhat 80
Mode 3
Count – No 3

Count – Not at all 2

44
Table 15 - Count Q6 (Female)

According to table 13 and 14 the number of females who opted for the
response “A lot” were greater (53) than that of males (28)which indicates
that although the mode was 3 ( response = “Somewhat”) for the entire
sample size, women did show a comparatively positive trend showing that
women are somewhat more attracted to advertisements than men.
Therefore it is not possible or feasible to completely accept or reject the
hypothesis (II) and it can be stated that men and women perceive
advertisements differently to some extent.

Table 16 - Count Q6 (Male)

Q6

Count – Extremely 16

Count – A lot 28

Count – Somewhat 87

Count – No 17

Count – Not at all 5

45
Question 7

This particular question analyzes if brand recall creates a feeling inert


enough to lead to purchase; the three response for this question were yes,
no and sometimes and the scores entered into the data entry excel sheet of
these responses were 1, 2 and 3 respectively.

Table 17 - Descriptive Statistics Q7 (Female) Table 18 -


Descriptive Statistics Q7 (Male)

Q7 Q7

Mean 1.94 Mean 1.94

Median 2 Median 2

Mode 1 Mode 1

46
The values in the tables show that the most recurring value for this question
for both the genders was 1; and 1 was the score given to the response “Yes”
in this question therefore, it can be said for the entire sample size that
advertisements do create an inert feeling to try out a product although this
does not imply that this particular feeling is strong enough to lead to
purchase as it is very difficult to measure the intensity of the feeling. Anyhow
the mean value is exactly 1.94 for both the genders because of the fact that
although the most recurring score was 1, there were individuals who had
chosen the responses which had been given the score of 2 and 3 ( No and
Sometimes ) as well.

Table 19 - Count Q7 (Female)

Q7

Count - Yes 74

Count - No 11

Count - Sometimes 65

Table 20 - Count Q7 (Male)

Q7

Count - Yes 61

Count - No 37

Count - Sometimes 53

47
But if we critically analyze the independent count figures for both genders
than it can be stated that the count for the response “No” was greater by 26
counts which means that although the most recurring score was 1 but a
greater number of males responded that advertisements were not effective
enough o create an inert feeling to purchase a product. Additionally the
count of females for the response “Yes” was also greater than that of the
males and so it can be deduced that females are more prone to being
effected by the advertisements than men.

Question 8

This question basically analyzes the fact that how often the purchase
decision of a buyer is based on advertisement recall; the provided responses
were mostly, often, rarely and never and the scores given were 1, 2, 3 and 4
respectively. The descriptive statistics of the independent scores of both the
genders have been mentioned below:

Table 21 - Male Descriptive statistics (Q8) Table 22 – Female


Descriptive Statistics (Q8)

Q8

Mean 2.7466
67

Median 3

Mode 3

48
Q8

Mean 2.58

Median 3

Mode 3

The most recurring value (Mode) is 3 for both the genders and this was the
score given to the response “Rarely” among the total four responses; this
actually means that the majority of the respondents out of the total 300
sample size rarely based their purchase decision on their brand recall.
Additionally the mean value of Q8 for the female respondents was 2.7
whereas that of the male strata was 2.6 approximately, therefore it can
safely be said that both the values are roughly equal for both the major
strata’s and hence brand recall rarely leads to purchase. The difference of
16% between the mean value for both the genders (male: 2.74 and female:
2.58) is because of the fact that females have a greater brand recall capacity
then men as analyzed in question number 9, 10 and 11; it can be assumed
that the greater brand recall capacity of women results in the mean which is
lower than that of the male mean value but it anyhow remains in the range
of 2.5 and 3 referring to the earlier mentioned fact that males and females
rarely based their purchase on brand recall.

Question 9,10,11

Female

Q 9 (5/5) Q 10 Q 11 (10/10)
(10/10)

Mean 4.28 Mean 7.0533 Mean 7.6066


33 67

49
Male

Q 9 (5/5) Q 10 Q 11 (10/10)
(10/10)

Mean 3.2617 Mean 5.2550 Mean 5.1140


45 34 94

Brand recall capacity has been measured directly in question number 9, 10


and 11 where the respondents were asked questions and provided with
blank spaces to note down the answer; the respondents have been given
scores out of 5, 10 and 10 respectively. The individual score of all the
respondents (all the age brackets of both the genders) were calculated for
the three questions individually and then their means have been combined
to calculate a final average score of the entire male and female strata of the
sample size.

According to the descriptive statistics the:

Mean of Q9, Q10, Q11 (Female) = 6.49333 where as the,

Mean of Q9, Q10, Q11 (Male) = 4.54362433

Bo the means clearly indicate that females have a better brand recall, as on
average every female score 6.5 out of 10 in the last three questions;
whereas all the males had an average score of 4.5 out of 10 as the mean for
the same set of questions. If the percentage is calculated then it can be
safely said that the brand recall of women is better by 20% than men. This
figure can be marked valuable for marketers as they can increase the

50
marketing expenditure targeted at females by the same percentage so that
their campaigns can be more efficient as the brand recall of females is much
better if compared to men; although it has yet to be analyzed if brand recall
leads to purchase as well.

51
CHAPTER 6
CONCLUSION &
RECOMMENDATIONS

52
Based on all the findings and analysis, we have come to the following
conclusions:

• Women are easier to target and affect through marketing due to their
higher emotional quotient and TV exposure. It is also more beneficial
to target women as their brand recall was also proved to be better so
this obviously means that they are more prone to spread the product’s
awareness through word of mouth. Due to these reasons, companies
should spend a greater proportion of their marketing budget on
targeting women through adverting campaigns based on emotional,
humorous and celebrity endorsed themes.

• TV and billboards are the most effective mediums for marketing to


consumers belonging to both the genders.

• It is not necessary that brand recall leads to purchase but still


promotion is important and effective in terms of creating awareness
and recall potential in the consumers.

• Women have a more spontaneous buying behavior as compared to


men so point-of-sale advertising can be a point of focus for the
companies.

• Men and women perceive advertisements differently so different


advertising themes are important to target both these genders more
effectively.

53
Bibliography

Childs .N & J.Maher, 2003, Gender in food advertizing to children, British


Food Journal, volume 105 issue 7, p 408-419

Hogg. M & G. Jade, 2003, Gender identity and the consumption of


advertizing, Qualitative Market Research: An International Journal, volume 6
issue 3, p 160 174

Klerk. H & S.Lubbe , 2008, female consumers’ evaluation of apparel quality:


exploring the importance of aesthetics, Journal of Fashion Marketing &
Management, volume 12 issue 1, p 36- 51

Ndubisi.N, 2006, Effect of gender on customer loyalty: a relationship


marketing approach, Marketing Intelligence & Planning, volume 24 issue 1, p
48-61

54
Stern.B,1988, Media Use and Gender Differences: Retailing Strategies for
Bank Marketers, International Journal of Bank Marketing, volume 6 issue 2, p
20-30

Wolin .L& P. Korgaonkar, 2003, Web advertizing gender differences in beliefs,


attitudes and behavior, Internet Research, volume 13 issue 5, p 375-385

55
APPENDICES

56
STRATA WISE CHARTS ( FINDINGS)

57
58
59
60
61
62
63
64
65
66
67
68
69
70
71
72
73
74
75
HYPOTHESIZES WISE CHARTS (ANALYSIS)
Hypothesis-I Women have more spontrnous buying habits as compared to men.

Q1 ) Do you plan your shopping: do you make a shopping list?

Q2 ) Do you stick to what you have planned for shopping?

Hypothesis-IIMen and women percieve advertisments differently.

76
Q3 ) Which advertising medium do you think is most effective? (Rate, 5 being
the highest, 1 the lowest)

Q4 ) How would you rate the following advertisement theme? (5 being the
highest, 1 the lowest)

77
78
Q5 ) Do you think that advertisements give a true picture of
products/services being marketed?

Q6 ) To what extent do you think that advertising attracts your attention?

79
Hypothesis-III Brand recall leads to purchase.

Q7 ) Did an advertisement ever create an inert feeling to try out a product?

Q8 ) How often is your purchase decision based on an advertisement recall?

Hypothesis-IV Women have better brand recall as compared to men.

80
Q9 ) Which brand comes to your mind from the following colors? (List as
many as you remember)

Q10) Fill in the following blanks:

Qno:11) Which
advertisement
comes to your
mind when you
think of the
following
celebrities. (List
as many as you remember)

81
82
SURVEY

H-I Women have more spontaneous buying habits as compared to


men.
Q1 ) Do you plan your shopping: do you make a shopping list?

• Yes

• No

• Sometimes

Q2 ) Do you stick to what you have planned for shopping?

• Yes

• No

• Sometimes

H-II Men and women perceive advertisements differently.


Q3 ) Which advertising medium do you think is most effective? (Rate, 5 being
the highest, 1 the lowest)

• TV ________

• Billboard ________

• News paper ________

• Internet ________

• Radio ________

83
Q4 ) How would you rate the following advertisement theme? (5 being the
highest, 1 the lowest)

• Humorous ________

• Informative ________

• Adventurous ________

• Emotional ________

• Celebrity endorsed ________

Q5 ) Do you think that advertisements give a true picture of


products/services being marketed?

• Yes

• No

• May be

Q6 ) To what extent do you think that advertising attracts your attention?

• Extremely

• A lot

• Somewhat

• No

• Not at all

H-III(a) Brand recall leads to purchase.


Q7 ) Did an advertisement ever create an inert feeling to try out a product?

84
• Yes

• No

• Sometimes

H-III(b) Brand recall


Q8 ) How often is your purchase decision based on an advertisement recall?

• Mostly

• Often

• Rarely

• Never

Q9 ) Which brand comes to your mind from the following colors? (List as
many as you remember)

• Yellow ____________________________________________

• Blue ____________________________________________

• Red ____________________________________________

• Indigo ____________________________________________

• Green ____________________________________________

Q10) Fill in the following blanks:

Brands Tag Lines

• _____________________ Gaarha jo hai

• _____________________ itna khalis jitna pyar

85
• _____________________ Piyo aur jiyo

• _____________________ Connecting people

• __________________ ___ ab sab keh dou

• _____________________ thand hai tou kia hua

• _____________________ Brrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrr

• _____________________ Do the Dew

• _____________________ the smart call

• _____________________ Hits hard

Qno:11) Which advertisement comes to your mind when you think of the
following celebrities. (List as many as you remember)

• Reema ________________________________

• Amna Haq ________________________________

• Ali Zafar ________________________________

• Shaan ________________________________

• Atif Aslam ________________________________

• Iman Ali ________________________________

• Ali Azmat ________________________________

• Reesham ________________________________

• Mahnoor Baloch ________________________________

• Shahid Afridi ________________________________

86
87