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IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON INDUSTRY APPLICATIONS, VOL. 44, NO. 6, NOVEMBER/DECEMBER 2008

1659

The Cycloid Permanent Magnetic Gear

Frank T. Jørgensen, Torben Ole Andersen, and Peter Omand Rasmussen

Abstract —This paper presents a new permanent-magnet gear based on the cycloid gearing principle, which normally is char- acterized by an extreme torque density and a very high gearing ratio. An initial design of the proposed magnetic gear was de- signed, analyzed, and optimized with an analytical model regard- ing torque density. The results were promising as compared to other high-performance magnetic-gear designs. A test model was constructed to verify the analytical model.

analysis

(FEA), magnetic gear, permanent magnets.

Index

Terms —Analytical

modeling,

ﬁnite

element

I. INTRODUCTION

R ECENTLY, magnetic gears have gained some attention due to the following reasons: no mechanical fatigue, no

lubrication, overload protection, reasonably high torque den- sity, and potential for very high efﬁciency. Focus [1], [4], [5] have been addressed to a kind of planetary magnetic gear, probably already invented before the strong NdFeB magnets came into the market in the early 1980s [6]. An active torque density is in the range of 100 N · m/L, which is a very high torque density for a magnetic device [4]. However, there is still a need for increased torque density and a better utilization of the permanent magnets. The torque density of a magnetic coupling is in the range of 400 N · m/L, and this is, in principle, a magnetic gear with a 1 : 1 gearing ratio. In this paper, a magnetic gearing topology with better uti- lization of the permanent magnet is presented. This gearing topology makes it possible to increase the torque density to almost twice the state-of-the-art magnetic gears and, therefore, might be a useful alternative in applications using traditional mechanical gears or, at least, in gearing applications where some of the other advantages, e.g., overload protection, oil-free construction, and separation, are vital. This paper will ﬁrst give a description of the cycloid per-

manent magnetic gear and how the idea is derived from the classical magnetic spur gear. Due to the fact that the cycloid permanent magnetic gear is a 2-DOF topology, description of gearing ratios with different ﬁxed axes (1 DOF) is stated. In

Paper IPCSD-07-129, presented at the 2006 Industry Applications Society Annual Meeting, Tampa, FL, October 8–12, and approved for publica-

tion in the IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON INDUSTRY APPLICATIONS by the

Electric Machines Committee of the IEEE Industry Applications Society. Manuscript submitted for review October 10, 2007 and released for publication February 19, 2008. Current version published November 19, 2008. This work was supported in part by ELFOR, in part by Danfoss Drives A/S, and in part by Sauer Danfoss A/S. The authors are with the Institute of Energy Technology, Aalborg University, DK 9220 Aalborg, Denmark (e-mail: ftj@iet.aau.dk; toa@iet.aau.dk; por@iet. aau.dk). Color versions of one or more of the ﬁgures in this paper are available online at http://ieeexplore.ieee.org. Digital Object Identiﬁer 10.1109/TIA.2008.2006295

Fig. 1.

Permanent-magnet and mechanical spur gear.

Fig. 2. (a) Inner type spur gear. (b) Inner spur gear with high magnetic interaction and low gearing ratio.

order to optimize the layout of the new cycloid magnetic gear, a parametric analytical model to calculate the torque density is developed. The construction of an initial test model is given, and mea- surement is performed in order to validate the analytical model. Next, an optimization is utilized with the analytical model to quantify the cycloid permanent-magnet gear capability, and ﬁnally, a conclusion is given.

_{I}_{I}_{.} _{D}_{E}_{S}_{C}_{R}_{I}_{P}_{T}_{I}_{O}_{N} AND DEVIATION OF THE CYCLOID

PERMANENT MAGNETIC GEAR

A permanent-magnet version to the classical spur gear can be made, where the teeth are substituted by permanent magnets; see Fig. 1. From Fig. 1, it is quite clear that a lot of the magnets are inactive and cannot assist in transferring torque between the two rings. In addition, volume taken up from the gear is quite high because the two rings are separated. In order to reduce the volume and also increase the interaction, it is therefore more suitable to use an inner type spur gear; see Fig. 2(a). From Fig. 2, it is shown that more magnets gets active if the number of poles on the inner ring is getting closer to the number of poles on the outer ring. If the number of poles on

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1660

IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON INDUSTRY APPLICATIONS, VOL. 44, NO. 6, NOVEMBER/DECEMBER 2008

Fig. 3.

Cycloidal movement principle shown with nine illustrations.

Fig. 4.

Different conﬁgurations for the cycloid-gear parts.

the inner ring is equal to the number of poles on the outer ring, the gearing ratio will be unity, and the gear can be considered as a magnetic coupling. With almost equal number of poles on the two rings, the gearing ratio is very low. Fig. 2(b) shows an example where the number of poles on the outer rotor is 44 and on the inner rotor 42. This example gear has very high magnetic interaction but the gearing ratio is only 44/42 ≈ 1.05. In order to improve the low gearing ratio for the gear shown in Fig. 2(b), a cycloidal principle is considered. Cycloidal gear- ing principle has signiﬁcant gear-reduction capability. Move- ment principle for this gear is explained with nine illustrations shown in Fig. 3. The illustrations show an outer rotor with 44 poles and an inner rotor with 42 poles. The outer rotor is stationary while the inner rotor is magnetically connected to outer rotor and placed eccentrically relative to outer rotor. Clockwise angular-position change for the air gap will result in a small change of the inner rotor rotation in anticlockwise direction. The angular position for the air gap has rotated one anticlockwise revolution from illustrations one to nine while the inner rotor has only rotated 1/21 revolution anticlockwise. This gearing principle has signiﬁcant gear-reduction ability. Same example is shown in Fig. 4(c), where the outer rotor part C is ﬁxed. An eccentric B is driving the inner magnetic plate, and this plate will make a combined orbit and rotational motion. The rotational part of this motion is transferred to the output shaft A. The gear ratio is (−21/1) = −21, which is much higher than a simple inner spur-gear conﬁguration.

Fig. 5.

dinate system and magnets.

(a) Spur-gear coordinate system and magnets. (b) Cycloid-gear coor-

III. GEARING RELATIONSHIP FOR THE CYCLOIDAL GEAR

The movement principle of the permanent-magnet cycloid gear is described in the previous section, where the outer rotor is ﬁxed from rotation. However, it is also possible to ﬁx other parts of the gear. In Fig. 4, the other possible combinations of ﬁxed parts are shown together with equations for the gearing ratio. Gear conﬁguration in Fig. 4(c) is the conﬁguration already described in Section II, and the gear conﬁguration in Fig. 4(b) is equivalent to the internal spur gear with the relatively low gearing ratio. The conﬁguration shown on Fig. 4(a) has the largest gearing ratio, and the input and output axes are sepa- rated by an air gap. The conﬁguration in Fig. 4(c) has similar characteristics as the one in Fig. 4(a) and may be preferred in some applications due to its layout for integration. The torque density is almost similar for all conﬁgurations.

IV. ANALYTICAL MODEL

In order to be able to design and optimize the cycloid mag- netic gear, a model is required. An analytical model is preferred when optimization has to be applied because of signiﬁcant reduced computational time as compared to a ﬁnite element analysis (FEA). Due to the fact that the permanent-magnet cycloid gear is a variation of the permanent-magnet spur gear, it is obvious to use the same theory used for this gear type. In [2], the authors have derived an analytical model for permanent magnetic spur gears with parallel magnetized magnets. This model is only brieﬂy introduced as function expressions in this paper and, for further detailed explanation, is the reader referred to [2] and [3].

A. Magnetic-Field Expression

The magnetic-ﬁeld solutions for a parallel magnetized mag-

netic ring are written by (1) and (2). This magnetic ring is the so-called source shown in Fig. 5(a). Equations (1) and (2) have origin in the source co-

and

B

ordinate system and, therefore, named B

ext

r

^{}

(r ^{} ,φ ^{} , v )

ext

φ ^{}

(r ^{} ,φ ^{} , v ), respectively,

B

(2)

r

^{}

(r ^{} ,φ ^{} , v ) = μ _{0}

i

∞

=1 , 3 , 5 ,

1 _{2} iN _{p} r ^{} ^{−} ^{(}

1 _{2} iN _{p} +1 _{)}

(2)

× U

i

(v ) cos _{2} N _{p} iφ ^{}

1

(1)

JØRGENSEN et al. : CYCLOID PERMANENT MAGNETIC GEAR

B

(2)

φ ^{}

(r ^{} ,φ ^{} , v ) = μ _{0}

∞

1

_{2}

i

=1 , 3 , 5 ,

iN _{p} r ^{} ^{−} ^{(}

1 _{2} iN _{p} +1 _{)}

(2)

× U

i

1

(v ) sin _{2} N _{p} iφ ^{} .

(2)

These ﬁeld-solution equations are transformed into the drive-

(r,φ, v ). Fur-

ther explanation of the ﬁeld transformation is explained in [3]. The two ﬁeld expressions depend on coefﬁcient terms, and these terms can be expressed as (3)–(8). The ﬁeld expressions (1) and (2) are indirectly used in parts of the torque calculation expression (9)

magnet coordinate system B

ext

r

(r,φ, v ) and B

ext

φ

(2)

U

i

(v )= − 2μ _{0} ^{H} ^{r}^{i} ^{(}^{v} ^{)}

L

_{i} (v )

_{M} ri _{−} _{2}_{μ} 0 H _{φ}_{i} (v )

L

_{i} (v )

M _{φ}_{i}

H _{r}_{i} (v )=R _{2} _{s} μ _{0} R

( N _{p} i ) s

2

3

^{2}

N _{p} i +2R

( N _{p} i ) s

1

R

N _{p} i s

2

R 2 s μ

(3)

−R

−

( N _{p} i )

1

R

( N _{p} i )

2

s

R 2 s μ 0 N p i

N _{p} i

s

2 R

( N _{p} i )

1

s

μR _{1} _{s} R

s

( N _{p} i )

2

− 2R _{2} _{s} μ R

( N _{p} i ) s

2

3

2

+4 R

( N _{p} i ) s

1

R

( N _{p} i ) s

2

μ 0 R 1 s

+ R

− 2R

( N _{p} i )

1

s

s

( N _{p} i )

1

R

( N _{p} i )

2

s

R

_{2} _{s} μN _{p} i

R ( N _{p} i )

2

s

R 2 s μ 0

− 2R _{2} _{s} μ _{0} R ^{(} ^{N} ^{p} ^{i} ^{)}

2

s

3

2

+

R _{2} _{s} μ R ^{(} ^{N} ^{p} ^{i} ^{)}

2

s

3

^{2}

N _{p} i

(4)

H _{φ}_{i} (v )= −R _{2} _{s} μ _{0} R

( N _{p} i )

2

s

3

2

N _{p} i− 4 R

s

( N _{p} i )

1

μR _{1} _{s} R

( N _{p} i )

2

s

−R _{2} _{s} μ R

( N _{p} i )

2

s

3 ^{2} N _{p} i + 2R

( N _{p} i )

1

s

R

( N _{p} i )

2

s

R 2 s μ

−

+

+

+

2R ( N _{p} i )

1

s

R

( N _{p} i )

2

s

R 2 s μ 0

( N _{p} i )

1

R

( N _{p} i )

2

s

( N _{p} i )

2

R

s

R

s

2 R

R

_{2} _{s} μN _{p} i

( N _{p} i )

1

s

μ _{0} N _{p} iR _{1} _{s} +2R _{2} _{s} μ R

( N _{p} i )

2

s

3

2

2R _{2} _{s} μ _{0} R

N _{p} i s

2

3

^{2} −R

( N _{p} i ) s

1

R

( N _{p} i ) s

2

R 2 s μ 0 N p i

(5)

L _{i} (v )= (−2 + N _{p} i) (2 + N _{p} i)

×

−2μμ _{0} R

( N _{p} i )

2

s

− 2μμ _{0} R

( N _{p} i )

1

s

−μ ^{2} R

R

−μ

2

0

( N _{p} i )

2

( N _{p} i )

2

s

s

+ μ ^{2} R

R

+

2

μ

0

( N _{p} i )

1

( N _{p} i )

1

s

s

(6)

M ri = μ ^{B} _{0} ^{r} π

2N _{p}

1 − ^{} _{2} iN _{p} ^{} ^{2}

1

×

sin _{N} p cos ^{π} i − ^{1} _{2} iN _{p} cos _{N} p sin ^{π} i

π

2

π

2

(7)

M φi = μ ^{B} _{0} ^{r} π

2N _{p}

1 − ^{} _{2} iN _{p} ^{} ^{2}

1

×

cos _{N} p sin ^{π} i − _{2} iN _{p} sin _{N} p cos ^{π} i .

π

2

1

π

2

(8)

B. Torque-Calculation Expression

1661

The instantaneous torque on a parallel magnetized spur gear

is described by

T (R _{2} _{s} ,R _{1} _{s} ,R _{2} _{d} ,R _{1} _{d} ,d ) = T _{r} (v ) + T _{t}_{1} (v ) + T _{t}_{2} (v ). (9)

The three terms are scalars and represent one radial torque integration and two tangential torque integrations in the drive- magnet coordinate system, which is tilted an angle ϕ for calculating the torque at a operational point of maximal torque between source-and-drive-magnet parts. The torque-integration expressions are written in (10)–(12) and subexpressions for the integration are written in (13)–(15)

T _{r} (v ) = ^{2}^{M} ^{s} ^{c}^{o}^{s}

N pole ^{L}^{(}^{R} ^{2} ^{d} ^{−} ^{R} ^{1} ^{d} ^{)}

π

N

r

×

N pole − 1

N

p

p=0

q

=0

(−1) ^{p} S _{r} (q )r (q, v )

T _{t}_{1} (v ) =

× ^{} cos ( φ _{e}_{d}_{g}_{e} (φ,p)) B

ext

x

( r (q ),φ _{e}_{d}_{g}_{e} (φ,p), v )

+ sin (φ _{e}_{d}_{g}_{e} (φ,p)) B

ext

y

( r (q ),φ _{e}_{d}_{g}_{e} (φ,p), v ) ^{}

−M _{s} LR ^{2}

1 d

N pole

2

π

×

N

t

N

N pole − 1

t

(−1) ^{p} S _{r} (q ) sin (θ (q ))

(10)

p=0

q

=0

T _{t}_{2} (v ) =

× cos θ (q ) + p

N pole ^{+} ^{φ} ^{B}

2π

ext

x

× R _{1} _{d} ,θ (q ) + p

N pole ^{+} ^{φ}^{,} ^{v}

2π

+ sin θ (q ) + p

N pole ^{+} ^{φ} ^{B}

2π

ext

y

×

R _{1} _{d} ,θ (q ) + p _{N} 2π pole + φ, v

M _{s} LR

2

2 d

N pole

2

π

N

t

N pole − 1

N t

×

p=0

q

=0

(−1) ^{p} S _{r} (q ) sin (θ (q ))

× cos θ (q ) + p

N pole ^{+} ^{φ} ^{B}

2π

ext

x

× R _{2} _{d} ,θ (q ) + p

N pole ^{+} ^{φ}^{,} ^{v}

2π

+ sin θ (q ) + p

N pole ^{+} ^{φ} ^{B}

2π

ext

y

×

R _{2} _{d} ,θ (q ) + p _{N} 2π pole + φ, v

θ (q ) = N ^{−}^{π} +

pole

q

2π

N t N pole

r (q, v ) = R _{1} _{d} +

^{q}

N r

(R _{2} _{d} − R _{1} _{d} )

π

θ _{e}_{d}_{g}_{e} (p ) = φ + _{N} pole (1 + 2p ).

(11)

(12)

^{(}^{1}^{3}^{)}

(14)

(15)

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IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON INDUSTRY APPLICATIONS, VOL. 44, NO. 6, NOVEMBER/DECEMBER 2008

TABLE

I

DIMENSIONS

C. Modiﬁed Torque Calculation From Spur Gear to Cycloid Type

The torque-calculation model for the spur gear is general, and thereby, it is possible to change the separation distance between the two rings to the eccentricity of the inner ring, see Fig. 5. This dimensional change will only change the equations for ﬂux transformations [3]. Source and drive magnet is inside of each other, and the torque is calculated on the outer drive magnet (9). The system conﬁguration is equivalent to the inner magnetic spur gear shown in Fig. 2(b). Torque equations, for the gear type shown in Fig. 4(b), can be used to calculate the nominal corresponding output torque of a gear type shown in Fig. 4(c). This torque transformation can be written by

T Cyc = T in ·

P A _{P} C .

(16)

Pole-number conﬁguration for the cycloid permanent-magnet initial design comes partly from a previous developed magnetic gear [1]. The gear in [1] has 44 permanent magnets on the outer ring, and this pole number is reused for the cycloid permanent-magnet gear design. The inner ring is designed with 42 magnets. The minimum air gap is ﬁxed at 0.5 mm, and the eccentricity is optimized to be 2.5 mm. The parameters for the initial design are listed in Table I.

Fig. 6.

Analytic and FEA-calculated torque–angle curve.

In Table I, it is seen that the initial cycloid permanent- magnet gear has a calculated torque density of 141.9 N · m/L, i.e., around 40% more than the “planetary” magnetic gears developed in [4]. In order to validate the analytical model for the initial design, a static FEA was made, and the results from the two models are shown in Fig. 6. In Fig. 6, good agreement is seen between the two calculation methods. The reason for the small deviation is mainly caused by the assumption of a unity relative permeability of the per- manent magnets in the derivation of the analytical model. The FEA model uses 1.05 in relative permeability for the NdFeB magnets.

V. CONSTRUCTION OF A TEST MODEL

Starting point for making a test model is the cycloidal mov- ing principle shown in Fig. 3. It was chosen to use sheet steel yokes for both rings, meaning that the height of the permanent magnets can be reduced by a factor of two because the steel will bridge neighboring magnets (magnetic mirrors). The steel yoke has also the advantages of limiting magnetic ﬁeld around the construction. In order to make the test model simple, rectangular magnets were used instead of arc-shaped magnets, and to reduce large unbalanced magnetic forces, two gear sets were used. Fig. 7 shows a rendered view of the constructed model. Outer dimen- sions of the experimental test model are 130 × 130 mm, and the gearbox total length is 86 mm. The input shaft is placed at the center of the gearbox. A bearing is placed on the eccentric and connected to the inner steel yoke. Circular motion of the input shaft will force the inner yoke to move in orbital motion. Inner yoke magnets will perform a cycloidal motion. Strong magnetic-ﬂux paths be- tween the inner and outer ring will ensure torque on the output shaft. The output shaft is connected to the inner yoke with tree columns and eccentrics. These eccentrics can compensate for misalignment between inner yoke and output shaft. The columns will act like mechanical coupling and transfer torque from the inner yoke to the output shaft. The rotor yokes are placed on the eccentric input shaft. The eccentricity is made by a central eccentric bushing. Together with six support eccentrics, 12 extra needle bearings are added.

JØRGENSEN et al. : CYCLOID PERMANENT MAGNETIC GEAR

Fig. 7.

Rendered view of the cycloidal gear design.

Their functionality is to ensure a parallel motion of the inner rotors relative to the output shaft reference. The proposed construction will therefore have 18 bearings in total. The total volume of the magnetic gear could have been reduced by choosing a circular design and also by choosing smaller bearings. The cycloid gear has been tested in two situations. The ﬁrst test was a static test where the output torque was measured to be 33 N · m. This measurement is shown in Fig. 6 with a single measurement at peek output torque for comparison with the 2-D models. The measured torque of the experimental test model is lower than the results from the 2-D models. For this deviation, 3-D end effects are assumed to be the most dominant factor. It has to be noted that the length of the magnets are very small, so large 3-D effects should be expected. The length of the magnet is based on the availability of standard magnets and, thus, not optimized. However, for future optimization, it might be worth to consider the third dimension in the analytical- calculation methods, since it apparently has a large effect for this relatively short layout. Basically, this means that the stack length cannot be considered as a simple scaling parameter as it is for typical electrical machines. The constructed cycloid gear is reasonably comparable with the gear developed in [1]. Both gears use 44 times two of the same type of rectangular magnets in the outer ring, and the air-gap radius is, thus, similar. In [1], 216 standard rectangular magnets were used, while the cycloid gear in this paper only uses 172 of the same type of magnet. In [1], the stall torque was measured to 16 N · m, which means that the cycloid gear has doubled the torque density. The other test was a dynamic test where input and output torques were measured. The test was performed with two servo drives. One of the drives was set up as load drive, and the other was set up as input drive. Three input velocities were tested, and different loads were applied by the load control drive. The

1663

Fig. 8.

Sketch of dynamic test bench.

Fig. 9.

Measured efﬁciency for the cycloid magnetic gear.

torque on both sides of the gear was measured with torque transducers (Fig. 8). Efﬁciencies were calculated from the measured torque val- ues, and the results are shown in Fig. 9. The efﬁciency were measured at 1500, 500, and 50 r/min. The highest efﬁciencies were generally obtained at low speed and high torque. The best gear efﬁciency measured at 50 r/min was 94%. Efﬁciencies of 500 and 1500 r/min were 93% and 92%, respectively.

VI. OPTIMIZATION

The initial design may not give the full picture of the capabil- ity of the cycloid permanent-magnet gear. Optimizations were therefore performed by formulating the analytical equations to a general optimization problem [7] with a cost function (17), equality constrains (18), inequality constrains (19), and a number of constants from Table I. The cost function (17) is the torque density of the magnetic spur gear with the torque cal- culated from the parallel magnetization expressions developed in [2]. The volume is set by the area given by drive-magnet wheel radius and a constant length. It is necessary to have an equality constrain h _{1} for limitation of the used permanent- magnet material, i.e., the area, since the length is ﬁxed. This permanent-magnet area constrain were set up to be the same area as used for the analytical model of the initial magnetic- gear test model (A _{c}_{o}_{n}_{s}_{t} = 35.4 · 10 ^{−} ^{4} m ^{2} ). Another equality constrain h _{2} is set to keep a separation distance of 0.5 mm between the magnetic wheels. Inequality constrains is set for the minimization routine. The outer radius has to be somewhat greater than the inner radius in g _{1} and g _{2} . Largest radius of the drive wheel radius has to be less than a certain value in g _{3} . The smallest radius for the inner gear wheel had to be greater than

1664

IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON INDUSTRY APPLICATIONS, VOL. 44, NO. 6, NOVEMBER/DECEMBER 2008

TABLE

II

OPTIMIZATION RESULTS

a certain value in g _{4} . The distance of the eccentric also has a limitation in g _{5} and g _{6}

f (x)= f (x _{1} ,x _{2} ,

,x

_{n} ) ⇒

f (R _{2} _{s} ,R _{1} _{s} ,R _{2} _{d} ,R _{1} _{d} ,d )= ^{T} ^{(}^{R} ^{2} ^{s} ^{,}^{R} ^{1} ^{s} ^{,}^{R} ^{2} ^{d} ^{,}^{R} ^{1} ^{d} ^{,}^{−}^{d} ^{)}

Lπ (R

2

2 d ^{)}

·

N p

N pole

h _{j} (x)=(x _{1} ,x _{2} ,

,x

_{n} )=0 ⇒

^{(}^{1}^{7}^{)}

h 1 (R 2 s ,R 1 s ,R 2 d ,R 1 d )=

A const

π ^{} R _{s} −R ^{2} _{s} + R _{d} −R ^{2} _{d} ^{} = 0

2

2

1

2

2

1

(18)

−

h _{2} (R _{2} _{s} ,R _{1} _{d} ,d )= R _{1} _{d} −d−g−R _{2} _{s} = 0

_{n} ) ≤ 0 ⇒

g _{1} (R _{2} _{s} ,R _{1} _{s} )= R _{1} _{s} − R _{2} _{s} +4 · 10 ^{−} ^{3} ≤ 0

g _{2} (R _{2} _{d} ,R _{1} _{d} )= R _{1} _{d} − R _{2} _{d} +4 · 10 ^{−} ^{3} ≤ 0

g _{i} (x)= g _{i} (x _{1} ,x _{2} ,

,x

g _{3} (R _{2} _{d} )= − 61.5 · 10 ^{−} ^{3} + R _{2} _{d} ≤ 0

g _{4} (R _{1} _{s} )= 48.5 · 10 ^{−} ^{3} −R _{1} _{s} ≤ 0

g _{5} (d )= − 20 · 10 ^{−} ^{3} + d ≤ 0

g _{6} (d )=1 · 10 ^{−} ^{3} − d ≤ 0.

(19)

A constrained nonlinear-minimization routine was per- formed to ﬁnd the optimal dimensions for the magnetic spur gear. The initial design is very close to the computer-optimized solution. The initial design was 141.9 kN · m/m ^{3} , and the computer optimized solution was 142.5 kN · m/m ^{3} . The reason why the results are so close to each other is mainly caused by tight constrains limitations. The computerized model is locked by an area constrain h _{1} , and radius and inner radii must also be within limited values. The inﬂuence of using different amount of magnetic material was also investigated. The investigation has only been made with the 42- and 44-pole conﬁguration and wider boundary on the radius constrains. The result of this analysis is shown in Table II. The optimal torque density is increased to a certain amount if more magnetic material is put into the magnetic cycloid gear. The last result of the torque-density optimization gave 183 kN · m/m ^{3} or 183 N · m/L, which is nearly twice the capability of state-of-the-art permanent magnetic gears.

VII. MANUFACTURABILITY

The proposed test-model design seems quite complicated at ﬁrst sight, and other designs might be worth considering for simplifying the manufacturing process. Argumentation for the chosen design is shortly described, and possible simpliﬁcations for future designs are mentioned. The proposed test-model conﬁguration is equivalent to the conﬁguration shown in Fig. 4(c). The advantage of choosing this conﬁguration is that the output shaft can be designed with relatively large distance between bearings for better support of loads on the output shaft. Two rotors are used for the test- model design, primarily to compensate for reaction forces in the gearbox housing. The design with two rotors makes the system more complex regarding the number of parts, and this design might not be the best design regarding manufacturability. There are also used double-needle bearings in the eccentrics that support the inner magnetic parts. Such conﬁguration could be

replaced by simple hardened columns.

It is the general opinion that internal tolerances for keeping

gear part ﬁxed must have the same level of precision as other mechanical cycloid gear types. However, tolerances for place- ment of magnets might have minor demands for precision.

VIII. CONCLUSION

A new cycloid magnetic-gear conﬁguration has been presented. This magnetic gear is characterized by having high torque density and a high gearing ratio. The maximum achiev- able torque of the proposed gear was calculated by analytical expressions derived in [2] and the transformation equation (16). An initial design of the cycloid gear was able to reach 141.9 N · m/L, which is around 40% more than the “planetary” magnetic gears developed in [4]. An experimental test model of the initial design was constructed and tested. The experimental test model reached 33 N · m. Optimizations for cycloid gears showed that it was possible to reach torque densities up to 183 N · m/L, which is almost twice the density as compared to the “planetary” magnetic-gear types [4]. A cycloid magnetic gear could therefore be a possible choice for future applications where, for example, a motor or generator is integrated together with the cycloid-gear design. The proposed conﬁgurations might also be used as power-split devices for hybrid cars or wind turbines with a ﬁxed-speed synchronous generator.

ACKNOWLEDGMENT

The authors would like to thank B. Kristensen for construct- ing the prototype.

REFERENCES

[1] P. O. Rasmussen, T. O. Andersen, F. T. Jørgensen, and O. Nielsen, “De- velopment of a high-performance magnetic gear,” IEEE Trans. Ind. Appl., vol. 41, no. 3, pp. 764–770, May/Jun. 2005. [2] F. T. Jørgensen, T. O. Andersen, and P. O. Rasmussen, “Two dimensional model of a permanent magnet spur gear,” in Conf. Rec. 40th IEEE IAS Annu. Meeting , 2005, vol. 1, pp. 261–265. [3] E. P. Furlani, “Analytical analysis of magnetically coupled multipole cylin- ders,” J. Phys. D, Appl. Phys., vol. 33, no. 1, pp. 28–33, Jan. 2000.

JØRGENSEN et al. : CYCLOID PERMANENT MAGNETIC GEAR

[4] K. Atallah and D. Howe, “A novel high-performance magnetic gear,” IEEE Trans. Magn., vol. 37, no. 4, pp. 2844–2846, Jul. 2001. [5] K. Atallah, S. D. Calverley, and D. Howe, “Design, analysis and realisation of a high-performance magnetic gear,” Proc. Inst. Electr. Eng.—Electr. Power Appl., vol. 151, no. 2, pp. 135–143, Mar. 9, 2004. [6] T. B. Martin, Jr., “Magnetic transmission,” U.S. Patent 3 378 710, Apr. 16, 1968. [7] J. S. Arora, Introduction to Optimum Design. New York: McGraw-Hill,

1989.

Frank T. Jørgensen was born in 1973. He received the B.Sc. degree in mechanical engineering jointly from the University College of Aarhus, Aarhus, Denmark, and from the Fachschule Kempten, Kempten, Germany, where he spent a year and a half as an exchange student, and the M.Sc. degree in electromechanical system design from Aalborg University, Aalborg, Denmark, where he is currently working toward the Ph.D. degree with a main focus on magnetic gears. He is currently working in industry. He got work- ing experience from the company Grundfos A/S, where he was educated as a mechanic.

1665

Torben Ole Andersen was born in 1966. He re- ceived the B.Sc.M.E. degree from the University of Southern Denmark, Odense, Denmark, in 1989, and the M.Sc. and Ph.D. degrees in mechanical/ control engineering from the Technical University of Denmark, Lyngby, Denmark, in 1993 and 1996, respectively. From 1996 to 2000, he was with the R&D Depart- ment, Sauer-Danfoss A/S, where he worked in the area of ﬂuid power and control engineering. In 2000, he joined Aalborg University, Aalborg, Denmark, as an Associate Professor. Since 2005, he has been a Full Professor in ﬂuid power and mechatronics. His main research interests include design and control of mechatronic systems.

Peter Omand Rasmussen was born in Aarhus, Denmark, in 1971. He received the M.Sc. degree in electrical engineering and the Ph.D. degree from Aalborg University, Aalborg, Denmark, in 1995 and 2001, respectively. In 1998, he joined Aalborg University as an As- sistant Professor. Since 2002, he has been an Asso- ciate Professor. His research areas are in the design and control of switched reluctance and permanent- magnet machines.

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