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H Biology

Test 3 Biochemistry Name _________________________


10/15/09 a Block ______

Multiple Choice: For each of the questions below, choose the one best answer and write the letter of that
answer in the space provided on the answer sheet. (2 pts.)

1. Water has a/an ____ density as a solid compared to that of water as a liquid.
a. lower b. higher c. equal d. it depends

2. Water’s surface tension is important because it accounts for the way that water
a. flows b. freezes c. climbs tubes d. mixes with oils

3. Which of the following is true of a fatty acid?


a. it has a carboxyl group b. it has a hydrocarbon tail c. it is partly hydrophobic d. all of the above

4. Which of the following is NOT true of a nucleotide?


a. it contains nitrogen b. it contains phosphorus c. it contains sulfur d. it contains carbon

5. What makes water a good insulator?


a. water's adhesion b. water's density c. water's internal bonds d. all of the above

6. The sequence of amino acids is the _____ structure of proteins.


a. primary b. secondary c. tertiary d. quaternary

7. Which of the following is NOT found in every nucleic acid?


a. phosphate group b. monosaccharide c. carboxyl group d. base

8. The tertiary structure of proteins is


a. helical b. globular c. pleated in sheets
d. all of a, b, and c are possible e. a and c are possible, but not b ab. a and b are possible, but not c

9. Nucleotides contain which of the following?


a. a monosaccharide b. a disaccharide c. a polysaccharide d. none of the above

10. During digestion of food in your stomach and intestines, what type of reaction is going on?
a. dehydration sythesis b. condensation reaction c. hydrolysis d. hydrogenation

11. Glucose (C6H12O6) dissolves in water because it


a. is ionic c. is acidic
b. has polar bonds in its structure d. all of the above

12. What elements are always found in organic compounds?


a. C and O b. H and O c. C and H d. N and O

13. Which of the following is NOT a polymer?


a. nucleotide b. enzyme c. cellulose d. both a and b

14. Which compound or particle is hydrophobic?


a. simple sugar b. hydrocarbon c. amino acid d. phosphate

15. When a polar bond forms within a molecule, it is polar because one of the atoms involved in the bond
a. has more electrons c. has more protons
b. has a greater pull on the electrons in the bond d. repels the electrons towards the other atom

16. Cell membranes are made primarily of


a. steroids b. phospholipids c. waxes d. oils

17. What type of bond exists between two adjacent amino acids in a protein?
a. ionic b. diamino c. peptide d. sulfhydroxyl
18. Amino acids are the monomers of
a. nucleic acids b. carbohydrates c. water d. proteins

19. The formation of monomers from large polymers is accomplished by what kind of reaction?
a. dehydration synthesis b. hydrolysis c. oxidation d. reduction

20. Which of the following is one of the monomers of carbohydrates?


a. galactose b. cellulose c. lactose d. sucrose

21. Which of the following molecules cannot be part of the others?


a. fatty acid b. phospholipid c. glycerol d. amino acid

22. Which reaction results in the breakdown of a chemical into simpler substances?
a. synthesis b. polymerization c. hydrolysis d. condensation

23. Which substance is the most common inside cells?


a. water b. nucleic acids c. carbohydrates d. lipids

24. Which of the following is NOT a possible function of lipids?


a. insulation b. chemical interaction c. catalyst d. provide structure

25. An example of a saturated triglyceride is


a. olive oil b. butter c. corn oil d. soybean oil

26. Water is
a. an important organic molecule c. inorganic
b. a good example of a non-polar molecule d. all of the above e. none of the above

27. Water mixes easily with


a. polar molecules c. non-polar molecules
b. hydrophilic molecules d. both a and b e. both b and c

28. DNA is
a. one of the adenosine phosphates c. an information storage molecule
b. one of the nucleotide enzymes d. none of the above

29. Which of the following is common to all of the following: fats, oils, and phospholipids?
a. glycerol b. saturated fatty acids c. unsaturated fatty acids d. none of the above

30. Which of the following is NOT true of enzymes? They are


a. made of proteins c. not very versatile; each can perform only one task
b. simple in structure with only a primary structure d. none of the above

31. What is responsible for the final structure of a protein?


a. amino acid sequence c. information in RNA
b. interactions among variable groups along amino acid sequence d. all of the above

32. Which of the following is true of enzymes? They are


a. very sensitive to the conditions around them c. nucleic acids
b. composed of fatty acids d. found only in animal cells

33. A triglyceride is often composed of


a. three glycerols and a fatty acid c. three gylcerols and three fatty acids
b. three fatty acids and one glycerol d. three glycerins, a fatty acids, and an idealic acid

34. Which element is NOT characteristic of proteins?


a. phosphorus b. sulfur c. carbon d. oxygen

35. What kind of bonding is involved in maintaining the secondary, and to some degree the tertiary, structure of
proteins?
a. ionic b. covalent c. hydrogen d. polar
36. Enzymes are valuable to us because they
a. lower the exothermic energy released in a reaction c. increase the amount of product produced
b. increase the rate of a reaction d. minimize the energy loss in a reaction

37. Which of the following is NOT true of an enzyme?


a. is it reusable c. it is changed by the reaction
b. it binds with its substrate d. it is a polymer

38. Consider enzyme function; the site where the enzyme actually comes into contact with the substrate and that
helps to determine which specific substrate the enzyme will work on is known as the ___
a. substrate binding site b. active site c. reactive site d. specificity site

39. Which of the following is the formula for glycerol?


a. C3H5(OH)3 b. C6H12O6 c. C12H22O22 d. C22H23COOH

40. When food manufacturers use oils and then “partially hydrogenate” them, what have they done to the oil?
a. added water to them c. added hydrogen atoms to them
b. removed water from them d. removed hydrogen atoms to them

41. How many types of amino acids are generally considered to exist?
a. 8 b. 20 c. 64 d. unlimited number

42. Which are the monomers of waxes?


a. fatty acids and glycerol c. phosphates and fatty acids
b. 4-carbon rings d. fatty acids and long chain alcohols

43. Water’s shape most directly results from its


a. polarity b. arrangement of electrons c. cohesion d. all of the above

44. When oils are partially hydrogenated, what happens to their texture?
a. they become looser, more “liquidy” c. they become more slippery
b. they become curlier d. they become stiffer, more solid

45. What does the process of hydrogenation do in terms of how healthy it is for you to eat that lipid?
a. more healthy b. less healthy c. no change in health benefit

46. When you work out and build larger muscles, you need to build new protein molecules using ___ reactions.
a. polymer b. hydrogenation c. dehydration synthesis d. hydrolysis

47. What is most likely to be a formula for a lipid or lipid monomer?


a. C6H12O6 b. C12H22O11 c. C12H26 d. C27H54O2

48. Hydrogen bonding involves a


a. partially positive H attracted to a different partially positive atom
b. partially negative H attracted to another partially negative atom
c. partially positive H attracted to a partially negative hydrogen
d. partially negative H attracted to different partially positive atom
e. partially positive H attracted to a different partially negative atom

49. Which type(s) of molecule depend(s) heavily on hydrogen bonds for its overall structure?
a. phospholipid b. amylose c. DNA d. wax e. both
a and b

50. Isomers are alike in their


a. color b. structure c. reaction d. molecular mass e. all
of above
CHECK YOUR SCAN-TRON CAREFULLY. ANY ERRORS DUE TO POOR ERASURES OR STRAY MARKS
ARE YOUR RESPONSIBILITY AND WILL NOT BE RECONSIDERED.

Completion: For each of the following statements, supply the term or phrase which best completes the
statement. Write your answer in the space provided below. (2 pts.each)

1. In animals, energy is stored for short-term storage in a polymer that is


known as _____.
______________________________
2. Keratin, the protein in hair, is an interesting protein in that it has only
primary and secondary structure. The type of secondary structure which
it has is ______.
______________________________
3. The fact that water can absorb a great deal of energy before its
temperature changes makes it a good _____.
______________________________

4. In a hydrolysis reaction, water is always one of the ______.


______________________________

5. The ability of water to stick to other kinds of molecules is called ______.


______________________________
6. In the analogy of a lock and key for enzyme activity, the key is analogous
to the _____ in an enzymatic reaction.
______________________________

7. Phospholipids are considered critical because they play a key role in the
cell structures known as ______.
______________________________

8. The nucleic acid which most directly controls cell activity is ______.
______________________________
9. A _____ fat has the maximum number of hydrogens possible bound to
the carbons of the structure.
______________________________

10. When a molecule such as the phosphate head of a phospholipid has


charges separated across the molecule, we say that the molecule has _____.
______________________________

11-12. An amino acid always has a variable group, a hydrogen, a __ and a ___
attached to a central carbon.
______________________________

______________________________

13-14. When two amino acids are joined, the portions of the amino acids that are
involved in the reaction are the ____ and the ____.
______________________________

______________________________

15-16. In the formation of a nucleic acid polymer, the two parts of a nucleotide
that get bonded to form the polymer are the ___ and the ___.
______________________________

______________________________
Short Answer: For each of the following questions, provide the answer in the space below. Do not use extra
space.

1. Below is a list of examples of organic compounds. For each example, name the major class of organic
compound and then the type within the class of which each is the example. For example, see the entry in the
first row for glucose. (12)

Example Major Type of Organic Compound Type within the Major Category
Glucose Carbohydrate Monosaccharide

RNA

Cortisone

Amylase

Carboxyanhydrase

Whale blubber

Lactose

2. Consider a phospholipid. Provide a description of phospholipid structure. Then state a major function of a
phospholipid and how the structure of the molecule helps it to fulfill its function. (8 pts.)

3. Consider the functional groups that you have been required to learn for this unit. Name and draw (in the
boxes) two of these functional groups. Then choose one of these functional groups and identify one type of
molecule on which it is commonly found. Explain how the presence of this functional group affects the behavior of
the molecule within a living system. (12 pts.)

Name _________________________ Name _______________________________

Chosen group = __________________________

Molecule on which it is found = ______________________

Explanation:
4. Water that is solid is less dense than water that is liquid. Explain what happens, at the molecular level, when
water cools down and then freezes to make it have a lower density than liquid water. Include what it is about the
structure of each and every water molecule that causes this phenomenon. Sketches may supplement your
explanation, but the verbal explanation is the most important aspect of your answer. (8 pts.)

5. In the two “lab” activities for this chapter, the computer exercise and the catalase lab, there were several points
made about enzymes and their activities. Answer the following questions relating to these lab activities. (a-e=14
pts, f=6 pts)

a. In the catalase lab, what were the enzyme and the substrate?

Enzyme = ____________________________ Substrate = ____________________________

b. In both activities, what was the function of the enzymes?


Your answer must be true for both situations. __________________________________________

c. What will always enhance the ability of an enzyme to


perform its function? ______________________________________

d. Name two conditions (other than extreme pH)


that reduce the ability of an enzyme to perform its function.
_______________________________________

_______________________________________

e. What visual observation were you able to make that


indicated the level of enzyme activity in the catalase lab?__________________________________________

f. Consider the condition of a pH that is much lower than the enzyme is usually exposed to. Explain, based
on our discussions of enzymes and the labs, why this condition causes an enzyme not to perform well. An
answer of “Because this condition damages the enzyme” will not be sufficient. You must explain what is going on
at the molecular level.