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Distortions of long-term memory (LTM) in the converging associates task are thought to

arise from semantic associative processes and monitoring failures due to degraded
verbatim and/or contextual memory. Sensory-based coding is traditionally considered
more prevalent than meaning-based coding in short-term memory (STM), whereas the
converse is true of LTM, leading to the expectation that false memory phenomena should
be less robust in a canonical STM task. These expectations were violated in 2
experiments in which participants were shown lists of 4 semantically related words and
were probed immediately following a filled 3- to 4-s retention interval or approximately
20 min later in a surprise recognition test. Corrected false recognition rates, confidence
ratings, and Remember/Know judgments reveal similar false memory effects across STM
and LTM conditions. These results indicate that compelling false memory illusions can
be rapidly instantiated and that, consistent with unitary models of memory, they originate
from processes that are not specific to LTM tasks.

Flegal, K., Atkins, A., & Reuter-Lorenz, P. (2010). False memories seconds later: The
rapid and compelling onset of illusory recognition. Journal of Experimental Psychology:
Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 36(5), 1331-1338. doi:10.1037/a0019903.

Two experiments compared the effects of depth of processing on working memory (WM)
and long-term memory (LTM) using a levels-of-processing (LOP) span task, a newly
developed WM span procedure that involves processing to-be-remembered words based
on their visual, phonological, or semantic characteristics. Depth of processing had
minimal effect on WM tests, yet subsequent memory for the same items on delayed tests
showed the typical benefits of semantic processing. Although the difference in LOP
effects demonstrates a dissociation between WM and LTM, we also found that the
retrieval practice provided by recalling words on the WM task benefited long-term
retention, especially for words initially recalled from supraspan lists. The latter result is
consistent with the hypothesis that WM span tasks involve retrieval from secondary
memory, but the LOP dissociation suggests the processes engaged by WM and LTM tests
may differ. Therefore, similarities and differences between WM and LTM depend on the
extent to which retrieval from secondary memory is involved and whether there is a
match (or mismatch) between initial processing and subsequent retrieval, consistent with
transfer-appropriate-processing theory.

Rose, N., Myerson, J., Roediger, H., & Hale, S. (2010). Similarities and differences
between working memory and long-term memory: Evidence from the levels-of-
processing span task. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and
Cognition, 36(2), 471-483. doi:10.1037/a0018405.

Expanding retrieval practice (T. K. Landauer & R. A. Bjork, 1978) is regarded as a


superior technique for promoting long-term retention relative to equally spaced retrieval
practice. In Experiments 1 and 2, the authors found that expanding retrieval practice of
vocabulary word pairs produced short-term benefits 10 min after learning, conceptually
replicating Landauer and Bjork's results. However, equally spaced retrieval produced
superior retention 2 days later. This pattern occurred both with and without feedback after
test trials. In Experiment 3, the 1st test occurred immediately or after a brief delay, and
repeated tests were expanding or equally spaced. Delaying the first test improved long-
term retention, regardless of how the repeated tests were spaced. The important factor for
promoting long-term retention is delaying initial retrieval to make it more difficult, as is
done in equally spaced retrieval but not in expanding retrieval. Expanding the interval
between repeated tests had little effect on long-term retention in 3 experiments.

Karpicke, J., & Roediger, H. (2007). Expanding retrieval practice promotes short-term
retention, but equally spaced retrieval enhances long-term retention. Journal of
Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 33(4), 704-719.
doi:10.1037/0278-7393.33.4.704.

Visual short-term memory (VSTM) is limited, especially for complex objects. Its
capacity, however, is greater for faces than for other objects; this advantage may stem
from the holistic nature of face processing. If the holistic processing explains this
advantage, object expertise--which also relies on holistic processing--should endow
experts with a VSTM advantage. The authors compared VSTM for cars among car
experts and car novices. Car experts, but not car novices, demonstrated a VSTM
advantage similar to that for faces; this advantage was orientation specific and was
correlated with an individual's level of car expertise. Control experiments ruled out
accounts based solely on verbal- or long-term memory representations. These findings
suggest that the processing advantages afforded by visual expertise result in domain-
specific increases in VSTM capacity, perhaps by allowing experts to maximize the use of
an inherently limited VSTM system.

Curby, K., Glazek, K., & Gauthier, I. (2009). A visual short-term memory advantage for
objects of expertise. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and
Performance, 35(1), 94-107. doi:10.1037/0096-1523.35.1.94.

To account for the large demands on working memory during text comprehension and
expert performance, the traditional models of working memory involving temporary
storage must be extended to include working memory based on storage in long-term
memory. In the proposed theoretical framework cognitive processes are viewed as a
sequence of stable states representing end products of processing. In skilled activities,
acquired memory skills allow these end products to be stored in long-term memory and
kept directly accessible by means of retrieval cues in short-term memory, as proposed by
skilled memory theory. These theoretical claims are supported by a review of evidence on
memory in text comprehension and expert performance in such domains as mental
calculation, medical diagnosis, and chess.
Ericsson, K., & Kintsch, W. (1995). Long-term working memory. Psychological Review,
102(2), 211-245. doi:10.1037/0033-295X.102.2.211

The separate applications of the Sternberg and fact-retrieval paradigms promote a view
that short- and long-term memory are functionally distinct. However, effects of
information load and relatedness, observed in both paradigms, support a more unified
approach to memory retrieval. The two experiments of this article allow for direct
comparison of these effects as observed in a fact-retrieval task, a Sternberg task, and a
hybrid precuing task. These experiments are motivated by an associative approach in
which performance in all tasks is seen to depend upon a parallel search driven by
spreading activation. Decision-time data are explained in an indirect-pathway model with
two important features: (a) Pretrial activation levels of areas in memory can vary to
reflect differences between short-term and long-term retrieval; and (b) for related
material, decisions can be based upon indirect pathways that connect the elements of a
test probe through preexperimental associations in memory.

Jones, W., & Anderson, J. (1987). Short- and long-term memory retrieval: A comparison
of the effects of information load and relatedness. Journal of Experimental Psychology:
General, 116(2), 137-153. doi:10.1037/0096-3445.116.2.137.
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